Article

Sustained release cyclosporine therapy for bilateral keratoconjunctivitis sicca in a red wolf (Canis rufus)

Environmental Medicine Consortium, Department of Clinical Sciences, 4700 Hillsborough Street, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, 27606, USA.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (Impact Factor: 0.42). 01/2007; 37(4):562-4. DOI: 10.1638/06-021.1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

A 12-yr-old intact male red wolf (Canis rufus) diagnosed with bilateral idiopathic dry eye was treated with subconjunctival drug delivery implants designed to release therapeutic levels of cyclosporine from 12-24 mo. Normal tear production and corneal health has been maintained, alleviating the need for daily handling of the animal for topical medication.

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    ABSTRACT: To describe the use of episcleral silicone matrix cyclosporine (ESMC) drug delivery devices in horses with immune-mediated keratitis (IMMK) with evaluation of tolerability and efficacy in long-term control of inflammation. Retrospective study. ESMC implants (1.2 cm length, 30% wt/wt cyclosporine (CsA) in silicone; with approximately 2 μg/day steady-state release for at least 400 days) were used. Nineteen horses (20 eyes) received two or more ESMC implants for superficial stromal (n = 9), midstromal (n = 3), or endothelial (n = 5) IMMK. Three additional horses received two or more ESMC implants for pigmentary keratouveitis (PK). Nine eyes of eight horses with superficial and five eyes of five horses with endothelial IMMK were well controlled after placement of ESMC implants (mean follow-up 176.8 and 207.2 days, respectively). Horses with midstromal IMMK and PK were not controlled with ESMC implants alone, but instead required frequent use of other medications or surgery to control the disease. The mean duration of disease prior to ESMC implantation of horses with midstromal IMMK was 495 ± 203.9 days, compared with 121.6 ± 92.7 days with superficial IMMK. ESMC implants were well tolerated by all horses without documented loss of the device. Results from this preliminary retrospective study suggest that the ESMC implants were well tolerated and associated with treatment success with superficial and endothelial IMMK, especially if placed early in the disease process. Further study is needed to determine the duration of efficacy, number of implants required, and better therapies for chronic midstromal IMMK and pigmentary keratouveitis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Veterinary Ophthalmology
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo describe the use, tolerability, and efficacy of episcleral silicone matrix cyclosporine (ESMC) implants in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS).Methods Retrospective study. ESMC implants (1.9 cm length, 30% wt/wt CsA in silicone; with approximately 12 mg of CsA loaded into them) were used in dogs with KCS responsive to topical CsA (good candidate, GC) or not responsive (poor candidate, PC). Ocular surface inflammation scores, Schirmer tear test (STT) values, and ocular discharge quantity were evaluated and compared.ResultsTwenty-seven eyes (15 dogs) received an ESMC implant for KCS; 15 eyes were considered GC, and 12 were considered PC. Both GC eyes and PC eyes showed a significant increase in STT values (increase of 7.7 and 8.5 mm/min; P = 0.023 and P = 0.003, respectively) after placement of ESMC implants (mean follow-up 18 ± 2 and 10.4 ± 15 months, respectively). Clinical signs improved significantly in both groups during the same follow-up, with reduction in conjunctival hyperemia (P < 0.001), corneal neovascularization (P = 0.004), corneal opacity (P = 0.003), and ocular discharge (P = 0.002). ESMC implants were well tolerated by all dogs, but two eyes lost the device at 12-months and 1-week follow-up, respectively.Conclusions Results from this study suggest that the EMSC implants were well tolerated and efficacious in dogs with KCS responsive to topical CsA as well as dogs with poor response to topical therapy. Further study is needed to determine the duration of efficacy and optimal dose of CsA.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · Veterinary Ophthalmology
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