Human breast microvascular endothelial cells retain phenotypic traits in long-term finite life span culture

Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal (Impact Factor: 1.15). 11/2006; 42(10):332-40. DOI: 10.1290/0602017.1
Source: PubMed


Attempts to study endothelial-epithelial interactions in the human breast have been hampered by lack of protocols for long-term cultivation of breast endothelial cells (BRENCs). The aim of this study was to establish long-term cultures of BRENCs and to compare their phenotypic traits with the tissue of origin. Microvasculature was localized in situ by immunohistochemistry in breast samples. From this tissue, collagen-rich stroma and adipose tissue were dissected mechanically and further disaggregated to release microvessel organoids. BRENCs were cultured from these organoids in endothelial specific medium and characterized by staining for endothelial markers. Microvessels were a prominent feature of intralobular tissue as evidenced by immunostaining against endothelial specific markers such as CD31, VE-cadherin, and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Double staining against VE-cadherin and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) showed that blood and lymphatic vessels could be distinguished. An antibody against CD31 was used to refine protocols for isolation of microvasculature from reduction mammoplasties. BRENCs retained critical traits even at high passage, including uptake of low-density lipoprotein, and had E-selectin induced upon treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The first signs of senescence in passage 14 were accompanied by gain of trisomy 11. At passage 18 cells showed chromosomal aberrations and growth arrest as revealed by beta-galactosidase staining. We demonstrate here that breast microvasculature may serve as a large-scale source for expansion of BRENCs with molecular and functional traits preserved. These cells will form the basis for studies on the role of endothelial cells in breast morphogenesis.

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Available from: Thorarinn Gudjonsson, May 15, 2014
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    • "Primary luminal epithelial cells (EpCAM þ ) and myoepithelial cells (EpCAM À ) were isolated by magnetic cell sorting (MACS) and maintained in CDM3 and CDM4 as described previously (Pechoux et al., 1999). Primary human breast endothelial cells (BRENCs) were isolated from breast reduction mammoplasties and cultured on endothelial growth medium (EGM-2) (Lonza) þ 5% FBS (Invitrogen) (Sigurdsson et al., 2006). Growth factor reduced reconstituted basement membrane (rBM, purchased as Matrigel, BD Biosciences) was used for 3D culture. "
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    ABSTRACT: The epithelial compartment of the breast contains two lineages, the luminal- and the myoepithelial cells. D492 is a breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties that forms branching epithelial structures in 3D culture with both luminal- and myoepithelial differentiation. We have recently shown that D492 undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) when co-cultured with endothelial cells. This 3D co-culture model allows critical analysis of breast epithelial lineage development and EMT. In this study, we compared the microRNA (miR) expression profiles for D492 and its mesenchymal-derivative D492M. Suppression of the miR-200 family in D492M was among the most profound changes observed. Exogenous expression of miR-200c-141 in D492M reversed the EMT phenotype resulting in gain of luminal- but not myoepithelial differentiation. In contrast, forced expression of ∆Np63 in D492M restored the myoepithelial phenotype only. Co-expression of miR-200c-141 and ∆Np63 in D492M restored the branching morphogenesis in 3D culture underlining the requirement for both luminal and myoepithelial elements for obtaining full branching morphogenesis in breast epithelium. Introduction of a miR-200c-141 construct in both D492 and D492M resulted in resistance to endothelial induced EMT. In conclusion, our data suggests that expression of miR-200c-141 and ∆Np63 in D492M can reverse EMT resulting in luminal- and myoepithelial differentiation, respectively, demonstrating the importance of these molecules in epithelial integrity in the human breast. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Developmental Biology
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    • "Primary LEPs and MEPs were maintained on CDM3 and CDM4 as previously described [35], [39]. Primary human BRENCs were isolated from breast reduction mammoplasties as previously described [40] and cultured on endothelial growth medium (EGM-2) (Lonza) +5% FBS (Invitrogen). "
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    ABSTRACT: Branching morphogenesis is a mechanism used by many species for organogenesis and tissue maintenance. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the sprouty protein family are believed to be critical regulators of branching morphogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of Sprouty-2 (SPRY2) in the mammary gland and study its role in branching morphogenesis. Human breast epithelial cells, breast tissue and mouse mammary glands were used for expression studies using immunoblotting, real rime PCR and immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of SPRY2 in the breast epithelial stem cell line D492 was done by lentiviral transduction of shRNA constructs targeting SPRY2. Three dimensional culture of D492 with or without endothelial cells was done in reconstituted basement membrane matrix. We show that in the human breast, SPRY2 is predominantly expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of both ducts and lobuli. In the mouse mammary gland, SPRY2 expression is low or absent in the virgin state, while in the pregnant mammary gland SPRY2 is expressed at branching epithelial buds with increased expression during lactation. This expression pattern is closely associated with the activation of the EGFR pathway. Using D492 which generates branching structures in three-dimensional (3D) culture, we show that SPRY2 expression is low during initiation of branching with subsequent increase throughout the branching process. Immunostaining locates expression of phosphorylated SPRY2 and EGFR at the tip of lobular-like, branching ends. SPRY2 knockdown (KD) resulted in increased migration, increased pERK and larger and more complex branching structures indicating a loss of negative feedback control during branching morphogenesis. In D492 co-cultures with endothelial cells, D492 SPRY2 KD generates spindle-like colonies that bear hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These data indicate that SPRY2 is an important regulator of branching morphogenesis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the mammary gland.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The MCF-7, MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cell lines where purchased from ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) and are routinely authenticated with genotype profiling according to ATCC guidelines. Primary human BRENCs were isolated from breast reduction mammoplasties as previously described by Sigurdsson et al. [25] and cultured on endothelial growth medium (EGM) (Lonza) containing 50 IU/ml penicillin, 50 µg/ml streptomycin, hydrocortisone, FGF, EGF, VEGF, R3-IGF-1, Ascorbic acid, Heparin, GA-1000 and supplemented with 5% FBS (EGM5). Growth factor reduced reconstituted basement membrane (rBM, purchased as Matrigel, BD Biosciences) was used in direct 3D coculture. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M) derived from D492, show reduced expression of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad) to N-Cadherin (N-Cad) and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high)/CD24(low) ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal-like breast cancer contains cells with an EMT phenotype, most prominently close to vascular rich areas of these tumors. We conclude that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT and may play a role in progression of basal-like breast cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · PLoS ONE
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