Article

Effects of Soft Drink Consumption on Nutrition and Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Conn 06520-8205, USA.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 05/2007; 97(4):667-75. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.083782
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associated with lower intakes of milk, calcium, and other nutrients and with an increased risk of several medical problems (e.g., diabetes). Study design significantly influenced results: larger effect sizes were observed in studies with stronger methods (longitudinal and experimental vs cross-sectional studies). Several other factors also moderated effect sizes (e.g., gender, age, beverage type). Finally, studies funded by the food industry reported significantly smaller effects than did non-industry-funded studies. Recommendations to reduce population soft drink consumption are strongly supported by the available science.

Full-text preview

Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  • Source
    • "SSBs have been associated with body weight gain and obesity-related diseases[32], which are predominantly mediated by their energy content[33]. However, it has also been shown that persons may not fully compensate their energy intake for the added calories consumed from SSB[8]. Moreover, within NHANES, added sugars intake has already decreased between 1999–2000 and 2007–2008 from 100 g/day (18 %TE) to 77 g/day (15 %TE)[34], which was primarily due to a reduction in sugar sweetened beverage consumption. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7-69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7-18 years), 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Nutrients
  • Source
    • "Coca-cola is a soft drink which is a sweetened water-based non-alcoholic beverage with balanced acidity (Vartanionet al., 2007). The coca-cola company manufactures several variations of coca-cola beverages usually shortened to " coke " by the general public. "

    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
  • Source
    • "Coca-cola is a soft drink which is a sweetened water-based non-alcoholic beverage with balanced acidity (Vartanionet al., 2007). The coca-cola company manufactures several variations of coca-cola beverages usually shortened to " coke " by the general public. "

    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Show more