Children's descriptions of the foods consumed during loss of control eating episodes

Unit on Growth and Obesity, Developmental Endocrinology Branch, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Hatfield CRC, 10 Center Dr., Rm 1-3330 MSC-1103, Bethesda, MD 20892-1103, USA.
Eating Behaviors (Impact Factor: 1.58). 04/2007; 8(2):258-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2006.10.001
Source: PubMed


Binge and loss of control (LOC) eating appear to be common among youth; however, little is known about the foods consumed during such eating episodes. Two-hundred forty-nine children, age 6-18 years, were interviewed to determine if they engaged in eating episodes with LOC over the past month. In the absence of reported LOC eating, overeating episodes or normal meals without LOC were recorded. Participants were asked to describe the type and quantity of foods eaten during an episode. Eighty-one children reported LOC eating episodes and 168 reported no such episodes (No LOC). Although total energy intake did not differ between LOC and No LOC episodes, LOC episodes consisted of a lower percentage of calories from protein (14.2+/-0.7 v. 18.0+/-0.7%, p<.001) and a higher percentage from carbohydrates (49.8+/-1.6 v. 45.2+/-1.1%, p<.05). Specifically, LOC episodes consisted of a higher percentage of calories from snacks (13.2+/-2.7 v. 7.4+/-1.2%, p<.05) and desserts (18.1+/-3.1 v. 12.8+/-1.5%, p<.05). The quality of LOC episodes may help explain why LOC eating promotes excessive weight gain among children who report such episodes.

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    • "Indeed, overweight youth with LOC eating may represent a group particularly vulnerable to sustained attentional bias toward highly palatable foods. As a bias in sustained attention toward highly palatable foods represents cognitive difficulty in disengaging attention from these foods, this may explain laboratory and self-report data showing that youth with LOC tend to consume highly palatable foods (Tanofsky-Kraff et al., 2009; Theim et al., 2007). This possibility is supported by studies that have found that experimentally manipulated attention bias to specific types of food cues can produce changes in food consumption patterns (Kakoschke, Kemps, & Tiggemann, 2014; Kemps, Tiggemann, Orr, & Grear, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Emerging data indicate that adults with binge eating may exhibit an attentional bias toward highly palatable foods, which may promote obesogenic eating patterns and excess weight gain. However, it is unknown to what extent youth with loss of control (LOC) eating display a similar bias. We therefore studied 76 youth (14.5±2.3y; 86.8% female; BMI-z 1.7± .73) with (n=47) and without (n=29) reported LOC eating. Following a breakfast to reduce hunger, youth participated in a computerized visual probe task of sustained attention that assessed reaction time to pairs of pictures consisting of high palatable foods, low palatable foods, and neutral household objects. Although sustained attentional bias did not differ by LOC eating presence and was unrelated to body weight, a two-way interaction between BMI-z and LOC eating was observed (p = .01), such that only among youth with LOC eating, attentional bias toward high palatable foods versus neutral objects was positively associated with BMI-z. These findings suggest that LOC eating and body weight interact in their association with attentional bias to highly palatable foods cues, and may partially explain the mixed literature linking attentional bias to food cues with excess body weight. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Appetite
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    • "For each ChEDE episode and test meal, energy content (in kilocalories), weight (in grams), and macronutrient content (kilocalories from carbohydrate, fat, and protein) of foods consumed were determined using Nutritionist Pro Diet Analysis software (Axxya Systems, 2007). Additionally, energy consumed specifically from desserts and snacks was calculated, based on prior literature suggesting that this category of food is the type most likely to differ between eating episodes with and without LOC (Tanofsky-Kraff, McDuffie, et al., 2009; Theim et al., 2007). Beverages typically are not included when considering the size of an eating episode during administration of the ChEDE. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating heightens risk for excessive weight gain and further disordered eating. Assessment of LOC typically involves self-report interview or laboratory test meal, although no study has concurrently examined data from both methods. We gathered eating episode data via interview (Child Eating Disorder Examination; ChEDE) and a laboratory test meal, among 22 overweight girls (aged 7-12 years) reporting LOC eating. Children consumed more energy during ChEDE episodes, although ChEDE and test meal episodes did not differ in macronutrient content. Episodes' correlation for amount consumed (grams) did not reach significance, p = .076. In exploratory analyses among the seven children reporting LOC during the test meal, episodes were significantly correlated for grams consumed. Findings provide preliminary data to suggest that semi-structured interviews accurately capture children's LOC episode quantity. Episodes did not qualitatively differ, although children reported consuming more energy during self-reported episodes. Replication is warranted in larger studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · European Eating Disorders Review
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    • "Youth with LOC-eating self-report and exhibit specific eating patterns that may illuminate the impact of LOC on weight. Compared to those without LOC, youth endorsing LOC consume more total energy (Hilbert, Tuschen-Caffier, & Czaja, 2010; Mirch, et al., 2006), fat (Hilbert, et al., 2010), carbohydrates, and palatable foods, while consuming less protein (Tanofsky-Kraff, McDuffie, et al., 2009; Theim, et al., 2007). There has been no investigation into how LOC differentially relates to food consumption in African-Americans and Caucasians. "
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of control (LOC) eating, a disinhibited eating behavior shown to predict excessive weight gain in youth, has been reported by African-American children and adolescents. Yet, little is known about how LOC-eating manifests in this population. To investigate potential racial differences in LOC-eating, the Eating Disorder Examination was administered to 185 non-Hispanic African-American and Caucasian youth ages 8-17 y. Objective eating was assessed at two test meals during which youth ate ad libitum from a multi-item lunchtime food array. African-American and Caucasian youth reported a similar prevalence of LOC episodes (24.2% vs. 28.9%, p=.75). Yet, accounting for sex, age, fat-free mass, percent fat mass, height, and socioeconomic status, African-Americans consumed more total energy at both laboratory meals (1608±57 kcal vs. 1362±44 kcal; p<.001). Furthermore, African-American youth reporting LOC consumed the most total energy across both meals (1855±104 kcal) compared to African-Americans without LOC (1524±60 kcal), Caucasians with LOC (1278±68 kcal), and Caucasians without LOC (1399±46 kcal; p<.001). Future research is required to examine whether LOC-eating contributes to the high rates of obesity in African-American youth.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Eating behaviors
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