Article

Chimaerins: GAPs that bridge diacylglycerol signalling and the small G-protein Rac

Department of Pharmacology and Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6160, USA.
Biochemical Journal (Impact Factor: 4.4). 05/2007; 403(1):1-12. DOI: 10.1042/BJ20061750
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Chimaerins are the only known RhoGAPs (Rho GTPase-activating proteins) that bind phorbol ester tumour promoters and the lipid second messenger DAG (diacylglycerol), and show specific GAP activity towards the small GTPase Rac. This review summarizes our knowledge of the structure, biochemical and biological properties of chimaerins. Recent findings have established that chimaerins are regulated by tyrosine kinase and GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) via PLC (phospholipase C) activation and DAG generation to promote Rac inactivation. The finding that chimaerins, along with some other proteins, are receptors for DAG changed the prevalent view that PKC (protein kinase C) isoenzymes are the only cellular molecules regulated by DAG. In addition, vigorous recent studies have begun to decipher the critical roles of chimaerins in the central nervous system, development and tumour progression.

Full-text preview

Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  • Source
    • "It is plausible that RhoGAP5A inhibits Rac1 at the ZA to decrease the accumulation of actin filaments at AJs in order to decrease the stability and increase the endocytic internalization of AJs at presumptive joints. Consistent with such a role, Chimaerins, the vertebrate homologs of RhoGAP5A, are recruited to the plasma membrane by the signal transducers phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase C-γ (Plc-γ), which are enriched in the ZA in epithelial cells (Yang and Kazanietz, 2007). RhoGAP5A promotes apical constriction and tube elongation of the salivary gland (Kolesnikov and Beckendorf, 2007), and the remodeling of cell-cell contacts in the fly eye (Bruinsma et al., 2007), suggesting a general role for RhoGAP5A in junctional remodeling in epithelial cells. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Drosophila leg imaginal disc consists of a peripheral region that contributes to adult body wall, and a central region that forms the leg proper. While the patterning signals and transcription factors that determine the identity of adult structures have been identified, the mechanisms that determine the shape of these structures remain largely unknown. The family of Rho GTPases, which consists of seven members in flies, modulates cell adhesion, actomyosin contractility, protrusive membrane activity, and cell-matrix adhesion to generate mechanical forces that shape adult structures. The Rho GTPases are ubiquitously expressed and it remains unclear how they orchestrate morphogenetic events. The Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs) and Rho GTPase activating proteins (RhoGAPs), which respectively activate and deactivate corresponding Rho GTPases, have been proposed to regulate the activity of Rho signaling cascades in specific spatiotemporal patterns to orchestrate morphogenetic events. Here we identify restricted expression of 12 of the 20 RhoGEFs and 10 of the 22 Rho RhoGAPs encoded in Drosophila during metamorphosis. Expression of a subset of each family of RhoGTPase regulators was restricted to motile cell populations including tendon, muscle, trachea, and peripodial stalk cells. A second subset was restricted either to all presumptive joints or only to presumptive tarsal joints. Depletion of individual RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs in the epithelium of the disc proper identified several joint-specific genes, which act downstream of segmental patterning signals to control epithelial morphogenesis. Our studies provide a framework with which to understand how Rho signaling cascades orchestrate complex morphogenetic events in multi-cellular organisms, and evidence that patterning signals regulate these cascades to control apical constriction and epithelial invagination at presumptive joints.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Mechanisms of development
  • Source
    • "A study of the crystal structure of b2-chimaerin has shown that in the inactive state, the N-terminal region of b2-chimaerin protrudes the C-terminal RacGAP domain and blocks Rac binding [15]. Previous studies have established that binding of DAG to the C1 domain is important for b2-chimaerin activation and translocation to the plasma membrane in response to tyrosine kinase receptor or G proteincoupled receptor activation [5]. Indeed, EphA4 recruits and activates phospholipase Cc, an enzyme that generates DAG [16]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ephrins and Eph receptors have key roles in regulation of cell migration during development. We found that the RacGAP beta2-chimaerin (chimerin) bound to EphA2 and EphA4 and inactivated Rac1 in response to ephrinA1 stimulation. EphA4 bound to beta2-chimaerin through its kinase domain and promoted binding of Rac1 to beta2-chimaerin. In addition, knockdown of endogenous beta2-chimaerin blocked ephrinA1-induced suppression of cell migration. These results suggest that beta2-chimaerin is activated by EphA receptors and mediates the EphA receptor-dependent regulation of cell migration.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2009 · FEBS letters
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endothelzellen kleiden als einschichtiger Zellverband das Innere der Blutgefäße aus und wirken als Barriere zwischen Blut und Interstitium. Entzündungen und Erkrankungen wie Lungenödem oder Arteriosklerose sind gekennzeichnet durch einen Zusammenbruch der Endothelbarriere. Erste Untersuchungen deuten auf eine bedeutende Rolle der GTPasen der Rho-Familie mit den Hauptvertretern Rho A, Rac 1 und Cdc42 als Regulatoren der Endothelbarriere hin. Bezüglich der Regulation der Endothelbarriereintegrität werden den GTPasen Rho A und Rac 1 meist antagonistische Funktionen zugeschrieben. In einem ersten Teil dieser Dissertation wurde daher die Funktion der Rho-GTPasen Rho A, Rac 1 und Cdc42 für die Endothelbarriere in verschiedenen Endothelien untersucht. Hierzu wurden drei mikrovaskuläre Endothelzelltypen verschiedenen Ursprungs sowie makrovaskuläre Endothelzellen der Pulmonalarterie mit GTPase-aktivierenden oder inaktivierenden bakteriellen Toxinen behandelt. Die Aktivierung von Rho A resultierte in allen Endothelzelltypen mit Ausnahme der mikrovaskulären myokardialen Endothelzellen in einem Zusammenbruch der Endothelbarriere. Die Aktivierung von Rac 1 und Cdc42 führte in allen Endothelzellarten zu einer Barrierestabilisierung. Darüber hinaus konnte in fast allen Endothelzelltypen durch pharmakologische Inhibition der Rho-Kinase eine Stabilisierung der Endothelbarriere induziert werden. Die Inaktivierung aller GTPasen sowie die alleinige Inaktivierung von Rac 1 führte zu einem kompletten Zusammenbruch der Endothelbarriere in vitro. Zudem ergaben in vivo-Experimente an perfundierten Rattenmesenterien eine gesteigerte Permeabilität nach Inaktivierung von Rho A, Rac 1 und Cdc42. Im zweiten Teil dieser Arbeit wurde die cAMP-vermittelte Stabilisierung der Endothelbarriere genauer charakterisiert und dabei der Einfluss gesteigerter cAMP-Spiegel auf die Aktivität von Rho-GTPasen in humanen dermalen mikrovaskulären Endothelzellen untersucht. Hierbei wurde die cAMP-Konzentration zum einen durch den Einsatz einer Kombination aus dem Adenylatzyklase-Aktivator Forskolin und dem Phosphodiesterase 4-Inhibitor Rolipram und zum anderen durch das cAMP-Analogon 8-pCPT-2’-O-Me-cAMP (O-Me-cAMP) gesteigert. O-Me-cAMP stellt hierbei einen selektiven Aktivator des cAMP nachgeschalteten Epac/Rap 1-Signalweges dar, wohingegen Forskolin/Rolipram durch die generelle cAMP-Steigerung zusätzlich die durch Proteinkinase A (PKA) vermittelten Signalwege stimuliert. Messungen des transendothelialen elektrischen Widerstandes zeigten nach cAMP-Anstieg in beiden Fällen eine Barrierestabilisierung, die mit den Effekten einer Aktivierung von Rac 1 vergleichbar waren. Dies ging mit Veränderungen der Organisation und der Morphologie von Zell-Zell-Kontakten einher. Zusätzlich kam es nach cAMP-Steigerung zu einer gesteigerten Rac 1-Aktivierung ohne Beeinflussung der Rho A-Aktivität. Darüber hinaus zeigten Endothelzellen nach cAMP-Anstieg die Bildung eines corticalen Aktinrings und verminderte Stressfaserbildung, was typische Indizien einer Aktivierung von Rac 1 sind. Um die Rolle von Rac 1 näher zu untersuchen, wurden Rac 1-Inhibitionsstudien durchgeführt. Die pharmakologische Inhibition der Rac 1-Aktivität resultierte in einer verminderten Endothelbarriereintegrität. Für beide cAMP-steigernden Mediatoren kann nach Kombinationsstudien angenommen werden, dass die durch cAMP-Steigerung vermittelten barrierestabilisierenden Effekte durch Rac 1 vermittelt zu sein scheinen. Somit kann aus den Untersuchungen des zweiten Teils dieser Arbeit geschlussfolgert werden, dass cAMP eine gesteigerte Endothelbarrierefunktion sowohl über PKA- als auch über Epac/Rap 1-abhängige Rac 1-Aktivierung vermittelt. Um die Rolle der Rho-GTPasen und von cAMP während einer Barrieredestabilisierung zu untersuchen, wurde im dritten Teil Thrombin als barrieredestabilisierender physiologischer Mediator in humanen dermalen mikrovaskulären Endothelzellen genutzt. Thrombin-Gabe führte zu einem reversiblen Zusammenbruch der Endothelbarriere. Zu diesen Zeitpunkten kam es zu einer signifikanten Inhibition von Rac 1 und einer deutlichen Aktivierung von Rho A. Erst nach 15 min fielen die gesamtzellulären cAMP-Spiegel ab. Innerhalb von 60 min erholte sich die Endothelbarriere und Rac 1- bzw. Rho A-Aktivitäten sowie der cAMP-Spiegel erreichten wieder ihr Ausgangsniveau. Vorinkubation der Endothelzellen mit beiden cAMP-steigernden Mediatoren inhibierte den Thrombin-induzierten Barriere-zusammenbruch ebenso wie die Thrombin-vermittelten Veränderungen der Rac 1- und Rho A-Aktivitäten. Auch in diesem Zusammenhang durchgeführte Rac 1-Inhibitionsstudien deuten darauf hin, dass die Hemmung der Thrombineffekte durch cAMP-Steigerung u.a. durch Aktivierung von Rac 1 vermittelt wird. Endothelial cells build a monolayer coating the inner surface of blood vessels and thereby form a dynamic barrier between plasma and interstitial space. Impaired endothelial barrier function can result in vascular diseases such as edema, atherosclerosis and inflammation. Small GTPases of the Rho family such as Rho A, Rac 1 and Cdc42 are well known regulators of endothelial barrier integrity. It is generally believed that Rho A and Rac 1 regulate endothelial barrier functions in antagonistic manner. According to this concept, Rho A destabilizes barrier integrity whereas Rac 1 enhances endothelial barrier properties. In a first step we investigated the role of Rho A, Rac 1 and Cdc42 in endothelial barrier regulation in four different types of endothelial cells. Microvascular endothelial cells of different origin (myocardium, mesentery and dermis) and macrovascular endothelial cells from pulmonary artery were treated with bacterial toxins to specifically activate or inactivate Rho GTPases. Effects on endothelial barrier functions were revealed by immunfluorescence microscopy, measurement of transendothelial electrical resistance and FITC-dextran flux as well as by quantification of VE-cadherin-mediated adhesion using laser tweezers. Activation of Rho A resulted in break-down of endothelial barrier functions in all endothelial cell types except microvascular myocardial endothelial cells. Activation of Rac 1 and Cdc42 as well as pharmacological inhibition of Rho kinase stabilized endothelial barrier function in all endothelial cell types. Moreover, inactivation of all three GTPases as well as inactivation of Rac 1 alone resulted in endothelial barrier-breakdown in all endothelial cell types. From these data we conclude that Rac 1 is a highly important regulator required for maintenance of endothelial barrier function. In the second part of the study, we characterized the role of Rho GTPases in cAMP-mediated barrier stabilizing effects in microvascular endothelium. Therefore, we analyzed cAMP-induced effects on transendothelial electrical resistance, Rho GTPase activity and cell junction morphology in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. To increase intracellular cAMP levels we used the cAMP-analogue 8-pCPT-2’-O-Me-cAMP (O-Me-cAMP) or combined treatment with adenylat cyclase-stimulating agent forskolin together with phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor rolipram. In this approach O-Me-cAMP is used to selectively activate the Epac/Rap 1 pathway whereas forskolin/rolipram-induced increase of cAMP triggers both protein kinase A (PKA)- and Epac/Rap 1-dependent mechanisms. Measurement of transendothelial electrical resistance revealed barrier stabilizing effects of both Epac/Rap 1 and PKA signaling pathways. Barrier stabilization was accompanied by changes in cell junction morphology and both O-Me-cAMP and forskolin/rolipram treatment strongly activated Rac 1 without affecting Rho A activity. Moreover, endothelial cells displayed changes in actin distribution and cortactin localization typical for activation of Rac 1. To investigate the role of Rac 1 activation in cAMP-mediated barrier stabilization we performed Rac 1 inhibition studies. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac 1 activity decreased transendothelial electrical resistance which was accompanied by formation of intercellular gaps. Under these conditions the efficacy of increased cAMP to stabilize endothelial barrier functions was reduced and O-Me-cAMP had no effect. This indicates that barrier-stabilizing effects of cAMP are at least in part mediated by Rac 1-dependent mechanisms which are induced via PKA and Epac/Rap 1 signaling. Next, to address the importance of cAMP and of Rac 1 under conditions of impaired endothelial barrier integrity we used the physiological permeability-increasing mediator thrombin. Thrombin induced a transient breakdown of endothelial barrier function accompanied by increased stress fiber and gap formation in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Rac 1 was significantly inactivated whereas Rho A was strongly activated 5 and 15 min after thrombin treatment. Additionally, cAMP levels were decreased. After 60 min Rac 1 and Rho A activity as well as cAMP levels reached baseline values and endothelial barrier function was restored. Increase of cAMP completely blocked endothelial barrier breakdown and largely prevented thrombin-mediated effects on Rac 1 and Rho A activity indicating that reduction of cAMP was the primary mechanism causing the thrombin response. When Rac 1 was inactivated in parallel, both O-Me-cAMP and forskolin/Rolipram were not effective to prevent thrombin-induced endothelial barrier breakdown.
    Preview · Article ·
Show more