Risk Factors Contributing to a Poor Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Validity of UICC/AJCC TNM Classification and Stage Grouping
Yamaguchi University, Yamaguti, Yamaguchi, Japan World Journal of Surgery
(Impact Factor: 2.64).
05/2007; 31(4):838-48. DOI: 10.1007/s00268-006-0455-0
In 2002, the UICC/AJCC TNM classification for papillary thyroid carcinoma was revised. In this study, we examined the validity of this classification system by investigating the predictors of disease-free survival (DFS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) in patients.
We examined various clinicopathological features, including the component of the TNM classification, for 1,740 patients who underwent initial and curative surgery for papillary carcinoma between 1987 and 1995.
Clinical and pathological T4a, clinical N1b in the TNM classification, and patient age were recognized as independent predictors of not only DFS, but also CSS of patients. Tumor size, male gender, and central node metastasis independently affected DFS only. There were 1,005 pathological N1b patients, but pathological N1b did not independently affect either DFS or CSS. Regarding the stage grouping, clinical stage IVA including clinical N1b more clearly affected DFS and CSS than pathological stage IVA including pathological N1b.
Clinical stage grouping was more useful than pathological stage grouping for predicting the prognosis of papillary carcinoma patients possibly because pathological stage overestimates the biological characteristics of many pathological N1b tumors.
Available from: Bart de Keizer
- "Our results are in concordance with the findings of the Japanese studies, which found that the presence of clinically evident positive lymph nodes in the lateral compartment was a predictor of higher recurrence rate and shorter DFS [5, 10, 11]. "
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ABSTRACT: Several Japanese studies have focused on identifying prognostic factors in patients with positive lymph nodes to predict recurrence rate and disease-free survival (DFS). However, different treatment protocol is followed in Japan compared with the European and American approach. This study was designed to investigate whether the number and/or location of lymph nodes predicts prognosis in patients with DTC treated with total thyroidectomy, lymph node dissection, and postoperative radioactive iodine ablation.
All 402 patients who were treated at the Department of Nuclear Medicine between 1998 and 2010 for DTC were reviewed. Patients were treated with (near) total thyroidectomy, lymph node dissection on indication, and postoperative I-131 ablation. Median follow-up was 49 (range, 10-240) months. Outcome measures were recurrence rate, disease-free survival, and mean time to recurrence.
Ninety-seven patients had proven lymph node metastases. Recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients with positive lymph nodes in the lateral compartment vs. patients with lymph node metastasis in the central compartment (60 vs. 30%, p = 0.007). Disease-free survival and mean time to recurrence also were significantly shorter (30 vs. 52 months, p = 0.035 and 7 vs. 44 months, p = 0.004, respectively). The number of lymph nodes and extranodal growth were not significantly associated with the outcome measures used.
The location of positive lymph nodes was significantly correlated with the risk of recurrence and a shorter DFS. Hence, the TNM criteria are useful in subdividing patients based on risk of recurrence and DFS.
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ABSTRACT: Follicular carcinoma is known to show a worse prognosis than papillary carcinoma because of distant metastasis in higher incidence. However, few studies have been published regarding the prognosis of follicular carcinoma patients in Japan, which prompted us to investigate this issue.
We examined the prognosis and whether and how various clinicopathological features have affected disease-free survival (DFS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) of 334 patients who underwent initial surgery for follicular carcinoma.
In 18 patients (5.4%), curative surgery could not be achieved because of distant metastasis at surgery in 17 patients and local extension in 1 patient. For 316 patients who underwent curative surgery, 5-year and 10-year DFS rates were 88.4% and 75.3%, respectively. Poorly differentiated carcinoma and widely invasive carcinoma, together with some conventional prognostic factors, predicted poorer DFS of patients. On multivariate analysis, poorly differentiated carcinoma was an independent prognostic factor for DFS. The 5-year and 10-year CSS rates for these 334 patients were 96.4% and 90.4%, respectively. Curative surgery and poorly differentiated carcinoma were recognized as independent prognostic factors.
We can hypothesize that follicular carcinoma in Japan is generally a nonaggressive disease with a good prognosis. However, because poorly differentiated or widely invasive carcinomas showed a worse prognosis, postoperative pathological examination is important in predicting patient prognosis.
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