Liver Resection for Metastases from Renal Cell Carcinoma

Departmant of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
World Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.64). 05/2007; 31(4):802-7. DOI: 10.1007/s00268-007-0685-9
Source: PubMed


This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of liver resection in patients with hepatic metastases from renal cell carcinoma and to identify selection criteria for patients suitable for resection.
Between January 1988 and March 2006, 31 patients underwent liver resection for metastases from renal cell carcinoma. Patients were identified from a prospective database and retrospectively reviewed. Patient, tumor, and operative parameters were analyzed for their influence on long-term survival.
The overall 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 82.2%, 54.3%, and 38.9%, respectively. One patient was deceased and 4 developed complications during the postoperative course. In the univariate analysis, site of the primary tumor (P = 0.013), disease-free interval (P = 0.012), and resection margins (P = 0.008) showed significant influence on long-term survival. In the multivariate analysis, only the resection margins were identified as an independent prognostic factor after liver resection.
Liver resection is effective and safe in the treatment of patients with hepatic metastases from renal cell carcinoma and offers the chance of long-term survival and cure. Achieving a margin-negative resection is the most important criterion in the selection of suitable patients for liver resection. However, the number of patients in the present study was small, and investigations of larger series may provide further prognostic parameters in these patients.

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    • "Two died at 13, 14 months Two Alive at 21 and 32 months Harrison et al. 1997 5 Three alive at 5 years Stief et al. 1997 13 Mean survival 16 months Fujisaki et al. 1997 3 Two died at 10, 18 months One alive at 12 months Kawata et al. 2000 4 Two alive at 24 months Karavias et al. 2002 6 One died at 12 months, 5 alive at 5 years Alves et al. 2003 14 Median survival 26 months Weitz et al. 2005 11 Two alive at 24 months Aloia et al. 2005 19 Median survival 36 months Thelen et al. 2007 31 1 yr, 3yr, 5yr survival: 82%, 54%, 39% Yezhelyev et al. 2009 6 No survival data Staehler et al. 2010 68 Median survival 142 months 5 yr survival: 62% Ruys et al. 2011 33 1 yr, 3yr, 5yr survival: 79%, 47%, 43% "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to the liver portrays a poor prognosis and liver directed therapy remains controversial. We aimed to determine potential selection criteria for patients who might benefit from this strategy. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 247 consecutive patients with RCC metastatic to the liver from a prospectively maintained database. Results: Eighteen patients received liver directed therapy (18/247, 7%). Ten patients underwent liver resection (10/247, 4%) and eight patients underwent radiofrequency ablation (RFA, 8/247, 3%). All were rendered free of disease in the liver. Five had synchronous liver disease and underwent synchronous resections with their primary. Mortality was 0%. Fourteen had single (surgery 7, RFA 7) and four (surgery 3, RFA 1) had multiple liver lesions, respectively. Median size of lesions was 5cm (0.5 - 10cm) and 2.5cm (1 - 6cm) in the surgery and RFA groups, respectively. Median DFI was 10 months, and no difference was observed in those with a longer vs. shorter than median DFI (p = 0.95); liver specific progression free survival for the surgery and RFA groups were 4 and 6 months, respectively (p= 0.93). 1, 3 and 5-year actuarial survivals for the whole group were 89%, 40%, 27%. Median survival for the surgery group was 24 (3 to 254+) months, and for the RFA group 15.6 (7-56+) months (p = 0.56). Metachronous liver disease was associated with prolonged survival (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Liver directed therapy for RCC is safe. For highly selected patients with metachronous liver RCC metastases, liver directed therapy should be considered in a multidisciplinary manner.
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    • "Wroński et al. analysed 50 operatively treated patients, with a median survival of 12.1 months from the diagnosis of the brain metastases [19]. The biggest series on metastasectomy for liver metastases from RCC included 31 patients and showed 5-year survival rates of 38.9% [20]. Molecular targeted therapies may provide a useful tool in combination with surgical removal of metastases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are known for their unpredictable metastatic pattern. We present the case of a 63-year-old woman who initially presented in 1992 with a metastasis in the left calcaneus that led to the discovery of RCC. In 1998, a new metastasis was found in the ovary. In 2008, the diagnosis of a gallbladder metastasis was made. All metastases were surgically removed; no additional systemic therapies were used. Aggressive surgical treatment can prolong the survival of patients with resectable metastases. Patterns of metastasis are discussed, and a brief review of the literature is given regarding each localization.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Case Reports in Medicine
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    • "Properly selected patients with metastatic RCC undergoing lung resection have a chance for long term survivorship [32], as do patients with liver metastases from RCC, where a 5 year OS of approximately 40% has been reported for a group of well selected patients [30]. Patients with liver metastases from RCC tend to fare better than patients with liver metastases from melanoma [33], once again suggesting basic differences in the typical degree of aggressiveness between these cancer types. "
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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are traditionally considered less radioresponsive than other histologies. Whereas stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) involves radiation dose intensification via escalation, we hypothesize SBRT might result in similar high local control rates as previously published on metastases of varying histologies. The records of patients with metastatic melanoma (n = 17 patients, 28 lesions) or RCC (n = 13 patients, 25 lesions) treated with SBRT were reviewed. Local control (LC) was defined pathologically by negative biopsy or radiographically by lack of tumor enlargement on CT or stable/declining standardized uptake value (SUV) on PET scan. The SBRT dose regimen was converted to the single fraction equivalent dose (SFED) to characterize the dose-control relationship using a logistic tumor control probability (TCP) model. Additionally, the kinetics of decline in maximum SUV (SUVmax) were analyzed. The SBRT regimen was 40-50 Gy/5 fractions (n = 23) or 42-60 Gy/3 fractions (n = 30) delivered to lung (n = 39), liver (n = 11) and bone (n = 3) metastases. Median follow-up for patients alive at the time of analysis was 28.0 months (range, 4-68). The actuarial LC was 88% at 18 months. On univariate analysis, higher dose per fraction (p < 0.01) and higher SFED (p = 0.06) were correlated with better LC, as was the biologic effective dose (BED, p < 0.05). The actuarial rate of LC at 24 months was 100% for SFED ≥45 Gy v 54% for SFED <45 Gy. TCP modeling indicated that to achieve ≥90% 2 yr LC in a 3 fraction regimen, a prescription dose of at least 48 Gy is required. In 9 patients followed with PET scans, the mean pre-SBRT SUVmax was 7.9 and declined with an estimated half-life of 3.8 months to a post-treatment plateau of approximately 3. An aggressive SBRT regimen with SFED ≥ 45 Gy is effective for controlling metastatic melanoma and RCC. The SFED metric appeared to be as robust as the BED in characterizing dose-response, though additional studies are needed. The LC rates achieved are comparable to those obtained with SBRT for other histologies, suggesting a dominant mechanism of in vivo tumor ablation that overrides intrinsic differences in cellular radiosensitivity between histologic subtypes.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Radiation Oncology
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