Article

Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus ticks and human granulocytic anaplasmosis seroprevalence among forestry rangers in Białystok region.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Medical University of Białystok, Poland.
Advances in Medical Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.11). 02/2006; 51:283-6.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, former ehrlichiosis, is a tick-borne zoonosis of increasing recognition. The aim of the study was: 1) to assess the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in recreational forests in Bialystok vicinity, the capital of podlaskie voivodship; 2) to evaluate the prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies to A. phagocytophilum among forestry rangers from the same region.
Of the 372 ticks examined, 54 (14.5%) yield the positive PCR reaction. The highest prevalence was detected in females, up to 27.8% (37/133), almost one third lower in males--9.2% (13/142), followed by nymphs--4.1% (4/97). Human seropositivity study revealed IgG antibodies against A. phagocytophilum in 9 out of 231 individuals (3.9%). No IgM antibodies were found. Sixty-seven individuals 67/231 (29%) reported erythema migrans. IgM anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies were detected in 32 out of 121 (26.4%) persons tested, IgG--in 43 out of 231 (18.6%).
The data obtained show relatively low A. phagocytophilum seroreactivity among professionally exposed to tick group of forestry workers despite high A. phagocytophilum infection level in the competent vector--I. ricinus ticks.

Full-text preview

Available from: advms.pl
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii are emerging tick-borne pathogens and are the causative agents of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and E. ewingii ehrlichiosis, respectively. Collectively, these are referred to as human ehrlichioses. These obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the family Anaplasmataceae are transmitted by Ixodes spp. or Amblyomma americanum ticks and infect peripherally circulating leukocytes to cause infections that range in clinical spectra from asymptomatic seroconversion to mild, severe or, in rare instances, fatal disease. This review describes: the ecology of each pathogen; the epidemiology, clinical signs and symptoms of the human diseases that each causes; the choice methods for diagnosing and treating human ehrlichioses; recommendations for patient management; and is concluded with suggestions for potential future research.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are tick-borne and emerging infectious diseases caused by the Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi species. In Europe, including Slovakia, the principal vector of both pathogens is the common tick - Ixodes ricinus, in which double infections with these pathogens have been reported. The aim of our study was evidence of IgG antibodies against A. phagocytophilum in blood sera of humans with suspects LB from several Clinics of University Hospitals, and the evaluation of the possibility of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum co-infection in examined patients. The serological method ELISA was used to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi. Anti-A. phagocytophilum IgG antibodies were analyzed by the A. phagocytophilum Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody (IFA) IgG test. A total of 214 human samples (91 men, 123 women) were obtained from patients living in Kosice town and in villages around Kosice (Eastern Slovakia). IgG antibodies against A. phagocytophilum were detected in 15 cases (6 men, 9 women), which represented 7.0 % positivity. Two cases of the co-infection B. burgdorferi with A. phagocytophilum, which equals 0.93 % of the total number, were found.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine: AAEM
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are zoonoses caused by bacteria from the family Anaplasmataceae, including human and animal pathogens. The human pathogens are Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the pathogen causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), E. ewingii and Neorickettsia sennetsu, granulocytotropic and monocytotropic Ehrlichia species, respectively. Ehrlichia spp. are small, gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria. They replicate in the cytoplasmic vacuoles of host cells, especially granulocytes and monocytes, to form microcolonies called morulae. These agents are transmitted through the bite of infected tick. In the United States, the vectors are Amblyomma americanum, Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus ticks. The primary vector in Europe is Ixodes ricinus. Rodents, deer, roe deer, foxes, cattle, sheep, goats, horses and dogs are reservoirs of these bacteria in Europe. Peromyscus leucopus, the white-footed mouse, and Odocoileus virginianus, the white-tailed deer, are the most important reservoirs in the United States. Infection in humans is manifested as a nonspecific flu-like illness. The laboratory diagnosis is most frequently serological--evidence of antibody by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and detection of DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or microscopy evidence--Giemsa stain of blood smears (morulae in granulocytes or monocytes). Doxycycline is the drug of choice in therapy. Avoiding exposure to ticks is the best method of prevention of infection.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Klinicka mikrobiologie a infekcni lekarstvi
Show more