Reduction in Urinary Arsenic with Bottled-water Intervention

The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States
Journal of Health Population and Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.04). 10/2006; 24(3):298-304.
Source: PubMed


The study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of providing bottled water in reducing arsenic exposure. Urine, tap-water and toenail samples were collected from non-smoking adults residing in Ajo (n=40) and Tucson (n=33), Arizona, USA. The Ajo subjects were provided bottled water for 12 months prior to re-sampling. The mean total arsenic (microg/L) in tap-water was 20.3+/-3.7 in Ajo and 4.0+/-2.3 in Tucson. Baseline urinary total inorganic arsenic (microg/L) was significantly higher among the Ajo subjects (n=40, 29.1+/-20.4) than among the Tucson subjects (n=32, 11.0+/-12.0, p<0.001), as was creatinine-adjusted urinary total inorganic arsenic (microg/g) (35.5+/-25.2 vs 13.2+/-9.3, p<0.001). Baseline concentrations of arsenic (microg/g) in toenails were also higher among the Ajo subjects (0.51+/-0.72) than among the Tucson subjects (0.17+/-0.21) (p<0.001). After the intervention, the mean urinary total inorganic arsenic in Ajo (n=36) dropped by 21%, from 29.4+/-21.1 to 23.2+/-23.2 (p=0.026). The creatinine-adjusted urinary total inorganic arsenic and toenail arsenic levels did not differ significantly with the intervention. Provision of arsenic-free bottled water resulted in a modest reduction in urinary total inorganic arsenic.

Download full-text


Available from: Stefan Stürup
  • Source
    • "Levels of urinary total and speciated arsenic Caldwell et al. levels of total urinary arsenic than in NHANES 2003–2004 have been reported for people in western areas of North America (Calderon et al., 1999; Meza et al., 2004; Valenzuela et al., 2005; Josyula et al., 2006; Rubin et al., 2007), as well as for other areas of the world (Ahsan et al., 2000; Aposhian et al., 2000; Caceres et al., 2005; Sun et al., 2007), that were known to have higher levels of arsenic in their drinking water. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To provide levels of total and speciated urinary arsenic in a representative sample of the US population. For the first time, total arsenic and seven inorganic and organic arsenic species were measured in the urine of participants (n=2557) for the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Data were compiled as geometric means and selected percentiles of urinary arsenic concentrations (microg/l) and creatinine-corrected urinary arsenic (microg/g creatinine) for total arsenic, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, and a sum of the inorganic related species. Arsenic acid, arsenous acid, arsenocholine, and trimethylarsine oxide were detected in 7.6%, 4.6%, 1.8%, and 0.3% of the participants, respectively (the limits of detection of 0.6-1.2 microg/l). Monomethylarsonic acid was detected in 35% of the overall population. For all participants aged > or =6 years, dimethylarsinic acid (geometric mean of 3.71 microg/l) and arsenobetaine (geometric mean of 1.55 microg/l) had the greatest contribution to the total urinary arsenic levels. A relatively greater percentage contribution from arsenobetaine is seen at higher total urinary arsenic levels and from dimethylarsinic acid at lower total urinary arsenic levels. For all participants aged > or =6 years, the 95th percentiles for total urinary arsenic and the sum of inorganic-related arsenic (arsenic acid, arsenous acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and monomethylarsonic acid) were 65.4 and 18.9 microg/l, respectively. For total arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid, covariate-adjusted geometric means demonstrated several slight differences due to age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The data reflect relative background contributions of inorganic and seafood-related arsenic exposures in the US population. Arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid are the major arsenic species present with arsenobetaine, accounting for a greater proportion of total arsenic as total arsenic levels increase.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in food and water is a significant public health problem. Person-specific aggregate exposure is difficult to collect and modeling based on limited food As residue databases is of uncertain reliability. Two cross-sectional population exposure studies, the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey-Arizona and Arizona Border Survey, had a combined total of 252 subjects with diet, water, and urinary As data. Total As was measured in 24-h duplicate diet samples and modeled using 24-h diet diaries in conjunction with several published food surveys of As. Two-stage regression was used to assess the effects of dietary As on urinary total As (uAs): (1) generalized linear mixed models of uAs above versus below the limit of detection (LOD); and (2) restricted models limited to those subjects with uAs>LOD, using bootstrap sampling and mixed models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, current smoking, and As intake from drinking and cooking water. In restricted models, measured and modeled estimates were significant predictors of uAs. Modeled dietary As based on Total Diet Study mean residues greatly underestimated the dietary intake. In households with tap water As ≤10 p.p.b., over 93% of total arsenic exposure was attributable to diet.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 16 January 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2012.120.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased respiratory disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protects the lung against tissue destruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic exposure is associated with changes in airway AAT concentration and whether this relationship is modified by selenium. A total of 55 subjects were evaluated in Ajo and Tucson, Arizona. Tap water and first morning void urine were analyzed for arsenic species, induced sputum for AAT and toenails for selenium and arsenic. Household tap-water arsenic, toenail arsenic and urinary inorganic arsenic and metabolites were significantly higher in Ajo (20.6±3.5 μg/l, 0.54±0.77 μg/g and 27.7±21.2 μg/l, respectively) than in Tucson (3.9±2.5 μg/l, 0.16±0.20 μg/g and 13.0±13.8 μg/l, respectively). In multivariable models, urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) was negatively, and toenail selenium positively associated with sputum AAT (P=0.004 and P=0.002, respectively). In analyses stratified by town, these relationships remained significant only in Ajo, with the higher arsenic exposure. Reduction in AAT may be a means by which arsenic induces respiratory disease, and selenium may protect against this adverse effect.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 10 July 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.35.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Show more