Coffee and cardiovascular disease: In vitro, cellular, animal, and human studies

Department of Chemistry, Loyola Hall, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510, USA.
Pharmacological Research (Impact Factor: 4.41). 04/2007; 55(3):187-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2007.01.006
Source: PubMed


Coffee is a commonly consumed beverage with potential health benefits. This review will focus on cardiovascular disease. There are three preparations of coffee that are commonly consumed and thus worthy of examination; boiled unfiltered coffee, filtered coffee, and decaffeinated coffee. Coffee has over a thousand chemicals, many formed during the roasting process. From a physiological point of view, the potential bioactives are caffeine, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol found in the oil, and the polyphenols, most notably chlorogenic acid. We will examine coffee and its bioactives and their connection with and effect on the risk factors which are associated with heart disease such as lipids, blood pressure, inflammation, endothelial function, metabolic syndrome and potentially protective in vivo antioxidant activity. These will be critically examined by means of in vitro studies, cell experiments, animal supplementation, epidemiology, and the most definitive evidence, human trials.

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Available from: Joe Vinson, Apr 03, 2015
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    • "Caffeine and chlorogenic acids have been extensively studied because they may reduce the risk of insulin resistance (Ranheim and Halvorsen 2005; and Van Dieren et al., 2009), and development and progression of atherosclerosis (Butt and Sultan, 2011) and they might decrease blood pressure (BP) (Yamaguchi et al., 2008; and Medina-Rem et al., 2010). We concluded from several studies that the diterpenoid alcohols cafestol and kahweol might cause deleterious effects of coffee (de Rooset al., 2001; Tofovic et al., 2002; Ranheim and Halvorsen, 2005; and Bonita et al., 2007), with the coffee polyphenols producing benefits (Bonita et al., 2007) and caffeine showing contrasting results, including increases in cholesterol (Tofovic et al., 2002). Finally, the results obtained by Sunil et al. (2012) suggest that all these components were active and the effects observed were cumulative. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coffee beverage is a globally consumed and is prepared in a wide variety of formats. This study aimed at clarifies the effect of different preparations of coffee on body weight, serum uric acid and liver enzymes in experimental rats. Forty male albino rats (130±2.3 g) were divided into five equal groups (n=8), control, Turkish coffee medium roasting (TMC), Turkish coffee dark roasting (TDC), Nescafe (NesC), and Arabic coffee. Each group received 2 ml oral solution containing the dose of coffee (0, 4.3, 4.3, 14.3, 8.6 mg/100 g BW respectively). The experiment continued for thirty days, and at the end rats were anesthetized and killed for collection of blood samples that used for determination of uric acid, urea, ALT, and AST. Samples of liver were collected for histopathology. Results showed that rats fed different preparations of coffee had significantly smaller weight gain. Meanwhile, group fed Nescafe lost considerable amount of body weight. Different preparations of coffee especially Turkish coffee dark roasting, Nescafe and Arabic coffee reduced serum uric acid. TMC group had significantly (P<0.05) the lowest values of AST and ALT, then NesC group. In conclusion, moderate amounts of Nescafe have the most favorable effects on body weight, serum uric acid, and liver enzymes.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
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    • "Both the dual and the single Folin methods are good for the detection of a wide range of antioxidant compounds in a large variety of plants and plant-derived foods and beverages. The single reagent has been used for phenolic antioxidants from fruits [4] [6] [7], vegetables[8] [9], cereals [7], fruit juices [10] [11] [12], caffeinated beverages [13] [14], alcoholic beverages [15] [16] chocolate [17], herbs and spices [18] [19] and plant extracts [20] by our group and other investigators. The major classification of antioxidant compounds: flavonols, flavones , flavanones, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, anthocyanins , phenolic acids are detected by the Folin methods. "
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    ABSTRACT: The chemistry of the Folin-Ciocalteu is described and two Folin assays (single and dual reagent) are described for the assay of phenols and polyphenols with respect to experimental detail and critically evaluated for pure compounds and for mixtures (plant extracts). The single reagent method was found to be more precise and sensitive. The problem of interferences in the Folin assay was evaluated for both methods. Interferences for the dual reagent methodology can be eliminated by a solid phase removal of phenols using a commercial resin (Oasys HLB) or polyvinylpyrrolidone resin (Polyclar AT). A new basic/acid hydrolysis combed with the Polyclar AT was used to measure the total phenols in a sample as previous methods measured only the phenolic groups not bound as ether or ester groups. A semi-automated method, microplate reader, is described as to the experimental procedure and applicability. Miscellaneous uses of the Folin assay including flow injection, urine analysis and a mixed standard are briefly described.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
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    • "According to current literature data the most condensed source of polyphenols among all beverages consumed in the world is coffee [40]. It is also confirmed by research of Svilaas et al. [41], which indicate a high coffee position among food products providing antioxidants. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia). Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BioMed Research International
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