Perfluorinated compounds in the Pearl River and Yangtze River of China

University of Gdansk, Danzig, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.34). 09/2007; 68(11):2085-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.02.008
Source: PubMed


A total of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were quantified in river water samples collected from tributaries of the Pearl River (Guangzhou Province, south China) and the Yangtze River (central China). Among the PFCs analyzed, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the two compounds with the highest concentrations. PFOS concentrations ranged from 0.90 to 99 ng/l and <0.01-14 ng/l in samples from the Pearl River and Yangtze River, respectively; whereas those for PFOA ranged from 0.85 to 13 ng/l and 2.0-260 ng/l. Lower concentrations were measured for perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfoamide (PFOSA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorononaoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). Concentrations of several perfluorocarboxylic acids, including perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA) and perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFOcDA) were lower than the limits of quantification in all the samples analyzed. The highest concentrations of most PFCs were observed in water samples from the Yangtze River near Shanghai, the major industrial and financial centre in China. In addition, sampling locations in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River with a reduced flow rate might serve as a final sink for contaminants from the upstream river runoffs. Generally, PFOS was the dominant PFC found in samples from the Pearl River, while PFOA was the predominant PFC in water from the Yangtze River. Specifically, a considerable amount of PFBS (22.9-26.1% of total PFC analyzed) was measured in water collected near Nanjing, which indicates the presence of potential sources of PFBS in this part of China. Completely different PFC composition profiles were observed for samples from the Pearl River and the Yangtze River. This indicates the presence of dissimilar sources in these two regions.

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Available from: John P Giesy, Feb 25, 2014
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    • "The risks of PFOS on ecosystem and human health have been widely reported in recent years because of its wide-spread application in industrial processes and consumer products. Much of the current research on PFOS risk analysis has focused on aquatic ecosystems, as they are the main receptor and transmission pathway for PFOS (Naile et al., 2010; So et al., 2007; Steenland et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2012a; Wang et al., 2012b; Wang et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2012). In this study, the environmental risks of PFOS in this region were assessed by comparing the modeled concentrations with environmental quality criteria or standard values. "
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and related substances have been widely applied in both industrial processes and domestic products in China. Exploring the environmental fate and transport of PFOS using modeling methods provides an important link between emission and multimedia diffusion which forms a vital part in the human health risk assessment and chemical management for these substances. In this study, the gridded fugacity based BETR model was modified to make it more suitable to model transfer processes of PFOS in a coastal region, including changes to PFOS partition coefficients to reflect the influence of water salinity on its sorption behavior. The fate and transport of PFOS in the Bohai coastal region of China were simulated under steady state with the modified version of the model. Spatially distributed emissions of PFOS and related substances in 2010 were estimated and used in these simulations. Four different emission scenarios were investigated, in which a range of half-lives for PFOS related substances were considered. Concentrations of PFOS in air, vegetation, soil, fresh water, fresh water sediment and coastal water were derived from the model under the steady-state assumption. The median modeled PFOS concentrations in fresh water, fresh water sediment and soil were 7.20ng/L, 0.39ng/g and 0.21ng/g, respectively, under Emission Scenario 2 (which assumed all PFOS related substances immediately degrade to PFOS) for the whole region, while the maximum concentrations were 47.10ng/L, 4.98ng/g and 2.49ng/g, respectively. Measured concentration data for PFOS in the Bohai coastal region around the year of 2010 were collected from the literature. The reliability of the model results was evaluated by comparing the range of modeled concentrations with the measured data, which generally matched well for the main compartments. Fate and transfer fluxes were derived from the model based on the calculated inventory within the compartments, transfer fluxes between compartments and advection fluxes between sub-regions. It showed that soil and costal water were likely to be the most important sinks of PFOS in the Bohai costal region, in which more than 90% of PFOS was stored. Flows of fresh water were the driving force for spatial transport of PFOS in this region. Influences of the seasonal change of fresh water fluxes on the model results were also analyzed. When only seasonal changes of the fresh water flow rates were considered, concentrations of PFOS in winter and spring were predicted to be higher than that under annual average conditions, while the concentrations in summer and autumn were lower. For PFOS fluxes entering the sea, opposite conclusions were drawn compared to the concentrations. Environmental risks from the presence of PFOS in fresh water were assessed for this region through comparison with available water quality criteria values. The predicted concentrations of PFOS in the Bohai coastal region provided by the model were lower than the water quality criteria published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Chinese researchers, while the concentrations in more than 80% of the sampling locations exceeded the European Union Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards values. Seasonal variations of flow rate might cause a significant increase in environmental risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Environment international
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    • "ng/L), Pearl River (PFBS \0.03–3.4 ng/L) and Yangtze River (PFBS\0.005–2.1 ng/L) (So et al. 2007; Pan et al. 2011; Yang et al. 2011 "
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    ABSTRACT: The pollution level and source of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in mainstream and tributary of Daling River in northeast China were investigated in present study. Concentrations of PFASs in surface water and sediment ranged from 4.6 to 3,410 ng/L and from 0.08 to 2.6 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The lowest levels of PFASs were found in vicinity of a drinking water source located in upstream of Daling River. Xihe tributary, which is adjacent to two local fluorine industrial parks, contained the highest level of PFASs. Short-chain PFASs, including perfluorobutanoic acid and perfluorobutane sulfonate, were of higher levels due to their emerging as alternative products for perfluorooctane sulfonate. High level of perfluorooctanoic acid was also found in Daling River. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the relatively severe pollutions of Xihe tributary were caused by long-term development of the two local fluorine industry parks.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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    • "Pollutants from industrial and domestic wastewater have been discharged into these rivers and cause severe contamination. The mean concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in the Hanjiang River were 81 and 51.8 ng L À1 , while in the Huangpu River they were 105 and 5.4 ng L À1 , respectively (So et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2013a). Relatively higher mean concentration of PFOA (169.04 ng L "
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been recognized as emerging pollutants because of their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment, biota and humans. In order to investigate their sources, fate and environmental effects, a great number of surveys have been carried out over the past several years. In the present review, we summarized the status of sources and emission, concentration, distribution and risks of PFAAs in China. Concentrations of PFAAs, especially perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in various environmental media including water, sediment, soil, rain, snow and organisms, as well as human tissues are summarized based on the available data. Concentrations of PFAAs in aquatic systems are higher in relatively more industrialized and urbanized areas than those from the less populated and remote regions in China, indicating that their emission and distribution are closely related to regional urbanization and industrialization. PFAAs and related products have been widely used over the past several decades, which have brought about high concentrations detected in environmental matrixes, biota and even local residents. Ecological risk assessment of PFAAs is still less developed in China. Most existing studies compared concentrations of PFAAs to guideline values derived for single species to evaluate the risk. In order to reveal the transport, partitioning and degradation of PFAAs in the environment, further studies on their behavior, fate, bioaccumulation and adverse effects in different trophic levels should be conducted.
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