Bartuma H, Hallor KH, Panagopoulos I, et al. Assessment of the clinical and molecular impact of different cytogenetic subgroups in a series of 272 lipomas with abnormal karyotype

Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.04). 06/2007; 46(6):594-606. DOI: 10.1002/gcc.20445
Source: PubMed


Conventional lipomas harbor karyotypic changes that could be subdivided into four, usually mutually exclusive, categories: rearrangement, in particular through translocations, of chromosome bands 12q13-15, resulting in deregulation of the HMGA2 gene, loss of material from or rearrangement of chromosome 13, supernumerary ring or giant marker chromosomes, and aberrations of chromosome band 6p21. In the present study, 272 conventional lipomas, two-thirds of them deep-seated, with acquired clonal chromosome changes were assessed with regard to karyotypic and clinical features. A nonrandom distribution of breakpoints and imbalances could be confirmed, with 83% of the cases harboring one or more of the previously known cytogenetic hallmarks. Correlation with clinical features revealed that lipomas with rings/giant markers were larger, occurred in older patients, were more often deep-seated, and seemed to have an increased tendency to recur locally, compared with tumors with other chromosome aberrations. The possible involvement of the HMGA2 gene in cases that did not show any of the characteristic cytogenetic changes was further evaluated by locus-specific metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and RT-PCR, revealing infrequent cryptic disruption of the gene but abundant expression of full length or truncated transcripts. By FISH, we could also show that breakpoints in bands 10q22-23 do not affect the MYST4 gene, whereas breakpoints in 6p21 or 8q11-12 occasionally target the HMGA1 or PLAG1 genes, respectively, also in conventional lipomas.

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Available from: Ioannis Panagopoulos, Feb 28, 2014
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    • "It is interesting that tumors diagnosed as ordinary lipomas occasionally display rings and/giant chromosomes, which were found in 3% [3], 6% [5], and 2% [6] of ordinary lipoma samples in three different studies. The patients with ring chromosomes often have deep-seated lipomas that are, on average, larger and older than the other lipomas [1,5]. Furthermore, Bartuma et al. reported that it is interesting that in the 5 local recurrences among the 272 cases, 2 of the 5 cases that contained ring chromosomes were recurrent compared to 3/257 lipomas without ring chromosomes [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Diagnosing adipocytic tumors can be challenging because it is often difficult to morphologically distinguish between benign, intermediate and malignant adipocytic tumors, and other sarcomas that are histologically similar. Recently, a number of tumor-specific chromosome translocations and associated fusion genes have been identified in adipocytic tumors and atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas (ALT/WDL), which have a supernumerary ring and/or giant chromosome marker with amplified sequences of the MDM2 and CDK4 genes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could be used to amplify MDM2 and CDK4 from total RNA samples obtained from core-needle biopsy sections for the diagnosis of ALT/WDL. Methods A series of lipoma (n = 124) and ALT/WDL (n = 44) cases were analyzed for cytogenetic analysis and lipoma fusion genes, as well as for MDM2 and CDK4 expression by real-time PCR. Moreover, the expression of MDM2 and CDK4 in whole tissue sections was compared with that in core-needle biopsy sections of the same tumor in order to determine whether real-time PCR could be used to distinguish ALT/WDL from lipoma at the preoperative stage. Results In whole tissue sections, the medians for MDM2 and CDK4 expression in ALT/WDL were higher than those in the lipomas (P < 0.05). Moreover, karyotype subdivisions with rings and/or giant chromosomes had higher MDM2 and CDK4 expression levels compared to karyotypes with 12q13-15 rearrangements, other abnormal karyotypes, and normal karyotypes (P < 0.05). On the other hand, MDM2 and CDK4 expression levels in core-needle biopsy sections were similar to those in whole-tissue sections (MDM2: P = 0.6, CDK4: P = 0.8, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Conclusion Quantitative real-time PCR of total RNA can be used to evaluate the MDM2 and CDK4 expression levels in core-needle biopsies and may be useful for distinguishing ALT/WDL from adipocytic tumors. Thus, total RNA from core-needle biopsy sections may have potential as a routine diagnostic tool for other tumors where gene overexpression is a feature of the tumor.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Cancer
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    • "HMGA2 has also been reported to form fusion genes with CXCR7 (at 2q37), EBF1 (at 5q33), NFIB (at 9p22), and LHFP (at 13q12) [16–20]. Rearrangements of HMGA2 can be identified by FISH analysis [14, 17, 21, 22], but these probes are not widely available. About 15%–20% of ordinary lipomas show rearrangements or deletions of the long arm of chromosome 13, in particular 13q12–22 [14, 23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last 20 years, a number of tumor-specific chromosomal translocations and associated fusion genes have been identified for mesenchymal neoplasms including adipocytic tumors. The addition of molecular cytogenetic techniques, especially fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), has further enhanced the sensitivity and accuracy of detecting nonrandom chromosomal translocations and/or other rearrangements in adipocytic tumors. Indeed, most resent molecular cytogenetic analysis has demonstrated a translocation t(11;16)(q13;p13) that produces a C11orf95-MKL2 fusion gene in chondroid lipoma. Additionally, it is well recognized that supernumerary ring and/or giant rod chromosomes are characteristic for atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma, and amplification of 12q13-15 involving the MDM2, CDK4, and CPM genes is shown by FISH in these tumors. Moreover, myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is characterized by a translocation t(12;16)(q13;p11) that fuses the DDIT3 and FUS genes. This paper provides an overview of the role of conventional cytogenetics and molecular cytogenetics in the diagnosis of adipocytic tumors.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · BioMed Research International
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    • "These cases included all nine tumors with full-length HMGA2 expression and from which further material was available, as well as controls showing differential or weak expression of HMGA2. The PCR reaction was performed as described [19]. The PCR products were analyzed on 2–2.5% agarose gels. "
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    ABSTRACT: The HMGA2 gene encodes a protein that alters chromatin structure. Deregulation, typically through chromosomal rearrangements, of HMGA2 has an important role in the development of several mesenchymal neoplasms. These rearrangements result in the expression of a truncated protein lacking the acidic C-terminus, a fusion protein consisting of the AT-hook domains encoded by exons 1-3 and parts from another gene, or a full-length protein; loss of binding sites for regulatory microRNA molecules from the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of HMGA2 has been suggested to be a common denominator. Seventy adipocytic tumors, representing different morphologic and cytogenetic subgroups, were analyzed by qRT-PCR to study the expression status of HMGA2; 18 of these tumors were further examined by PCR to search for mutations or deletions in the 3'UTR. Type (full-length or truncated) and level of expression varied with morphology and karyotype, with the highest levels in atypical lipomatous tumors and lipomas with rearrangements of 12q13-15 and the lowest in lipomas with 6p- or 13q-rearrangements, hibernomas, spindle cell lipomas and myxoid liposarcomas. All 18 examined tumors showed reduced or absent expression of the entire, or parts of, the 3'UTR, which was not due to mutations at the DNA level. In adipocytic tumors with deregulated HMGA2 expression, the 3'UTR is consistently lost, either due to physical disruption of HMGA2 or a shift to production of shorter 3'UTR.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Molecular Cancer
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