Funk D, Marinelli PW, Le AD. Biological processes underlying co-use of alcohol and nicotine: neuronal mechanisms, cross-tolerance, and genetic factors. Alcohol Res Health 29: 186-192

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.
Alcohol research & health: the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Impact Factor: 0.58). 02/2006; 29(3):186-92.
Source: PubMed


Alcohol and nicotine are two of the oldest and most commonly used recreational drugs, and many people use both of them together. Although their ready availability likely contributes to the strong correlation between alcohol and nicotine use, several lines of evidence suggest that biological factors play a role as well. For example, both alcohol and nicotine act on a brain system called the mesolimbic dopamine system, which mediates the rewarding and reinforcing properties of both drugs. Modification of the activities of the mesolimbic dopamine system can interfere with the effects of both alcohol and nicotine. Another mechanism that may contribute to alcohol-nicotine interactions is cross-tolerance to the effects of both drugs. Finally, genetic studies in humans and of selectively bred mouse and rat strains suggest that shared genetic factors help determine a person's liability to use or abuse both alcohol and nicotine.

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    • "Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests that the exposure of the developing brain to nicotine may potentially lead to long-term adverse consequences for brain function and cognition (Naude et al., 2014; van Ewijk et al., 2014). Finally, some evidence suggests that nicotine can facilitate heavier alcohol use due to its ability to counter alcohol's sedative effects when the substances are used together (Funk et al., 2006) and can serve as a " gateway " drug by paving the way to the use of harder drugs (Kandel and Kandel, 2015). A better knowledge of factors increasing risk for tobacco use is essential for the development of more efficient prevention and intervention methods. "
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    • "It is thus possible that the minor allele of the rs2948694 alters the sensitivity of the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link, which in turn may lead to a predisposition to smoking and increased alcohol consumption, reflected by the higher AUDIT scores in the present study. Previous studies show that alcohol and nicotine dependence share a genetic background (True et al. 1999; Funk, Marinelli & Le 2006; von der Pahlen et al. 2008). This is further supported by the welldocumented co-use of alcohol and nicotine—also observed in the present study—and the neurobiological interaction between alcohol and nicotine within the mesolimbic dopamine system (for review, see Larsson & Engel 2004; Soderpalm, Lof & Ericson 2009). "
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