The BceRS two-component regulatory system induces expression of the bacitracin transporter, BceAB, in

Department of Molecular Biology, School of Health Sciences, Kyorin University, 476 Miyashita, Hachiouji, Tokyo 192-0005, Japan.
Molecular Microbiology (Impact Factor: 4.42). 09/2003; 49(4):1135-44. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03653.x
Source: PubMed


BceA and bceB encode a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and membrane-spanning domain (MSD) subunit, respectively, of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in Bacillus subtilis. Disruption of these genes resulted in hypersensitivity to bacitracin, a peptide antibiotic that is non-ribosomally synthesized in some strains of Bacillus. Northern hybridization analyses showed that expression of the bceAB operon is induced by bacitracin present in the growth medium. The bceRS genes encoding a two-component regulatory system are located immediately upstream of bceAB. Deletion analyses of the bceAB promoter together with DNase I footprinting experiments revealed that a sensor kinase, BceS, responds to extracellular bacitracin either directly or indirectly and transmits a signal to a cognate response regulator, BceR. The regulator binds directly to the upstream region of the bceAB promoter and upregulates the expression of bceAB genes. The bcrC gene product is additionally involved in bacitracin resistance. The expression of bcrC is dependent on the ECF sigma factors, sigmaM and sigmaX, but not on the BceRS two-component system. In view of these results, possible roles of BceA, BceB and BcrC in bacitracin resistance of B. subtilis 168 are discussed.

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    • "For example, the BceAB system of Bacillus subtilis confers resistance to bacitracin. A 143-fold increased sensitivity in B. subtilis 168 BceAB-defective mutants has been reported (Ohki et al., 2003). Inactivation of the homologous system ABC 09 of L. casei BL23 resulted in an increased sensitivity to bacitracin (2-fold), nisin (1.7-fold), plectasin (2-fold) and subtilin (2.5-fold) relative to the wild-type strain Fig. 1. A. Structural and compositional diversity of antimicrobial peptides. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Firmicutes constitute a phylum of bacteria that can be found in a wide variety of habitats, from soil to the gastrointestinal tract of animals, where they have to thrive in complex communities. Competition in these communities usually involves the production of compounds such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to eliminate competitor organisms. Animals and plants also produce AMPs to control their associated microbiota. In turn, defence mechanisms have evolved to prevent the action of these compounds. The close association of some Firmicutes with humans as prominent pathogens or commensal organisms has driven a considerable research effort on defence mechanisms used by these bacteria against antimicrobial compounds. This review focuses on the most recent advances on two well-characterized defence mechanisms against AMPs: the modification of the cell wall by D-alanylation and the role of peptide antibiotic-specific adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Environmental Microbiology
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    • "The ATPase protein encoded by ARUE_c26560 shows 38% sequence identity to BceA, a component of the bacitracin transporter BceAB of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The bceAB genes of B. subtilis are located adjacent to bcrRS which code for an associated two-component regulatory system [74]. The bceA homologue ARUE_c26560, and ARUE_c26570 encoding a putative permease component, also co-localize with genes coding for a predicted sensor histidine kinase and response regulator. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are ubiquitous in soil environments and can be considered as true survivalists. Arthrobacter sp. strain Rue61a is an isolate from sewage sludge able to utilize quinaldine (2-methylquinoline) as sole carbon and energy source. The genome provides insight into the molecular basis of the versatility and robustness of this environmental Arthrobacter strain. Results The genome of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a consists of a single circular chromosome of 4,736,495 bp with an average G + C content of 62.32%, the circular 231,551-bp plasmid pARUE232, and the linear 112,992-bp plasmid pARUE113 that was already published. Plasmid pARUE232 is proposed to contribute to the resistance of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a to arsenate and Pb2+, whereas the linear plasmid confers the ability to convert quinaldine to anthranilate. Remarkably, degradation of anthranilate exclusively proceeds via a CoA-thioester pathway. Apart from quinaldine utilization, strain Rue61a has a limited set of aromatic degradation pathways, enabling the utilization of 4-hydroxy-substituted aromatic carboxylic acids, which are characteristic products of lignin depolymerization, via ortho cleavage of protocatechuate. However, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation likely proceeds via meta cleavage of homoprotocatechuate. The genome of strain Rue61a contains numerous genes associated with osmoprotection, and a high number of genes coding for transporters. It encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes for the uptake and utilization of various sugars and organic nitrogen compounds. A. aurescens TC-1 is the closest sequenced relative of strain Rue61a. Conclusions The genome of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a reflects the saprophytic lifestyle and nutritional versatility of the organism and a strong adaptive potential to environmental stress. The circular plasmid pARUE232 and the linear plasmid pARUE113 contribute to heavy metal resistance and to the ability to degrade quinaldine, respectively.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · BMC Genomics
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    • "FEMS Microbiol Lett 320 (2011) 33–39 c 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved located (Ohki et al., 2003; Rietkötter et al., 2008 "
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial two-component systems (TCSs) have been demonstrated to be associated with not only the expression of virulence factors, but also the susceptibility to antibacterial agents. In Staphylococcus aureus, 16 types of TCSs have been identified. We previously found that the inactivation of one uncharacterized TCS (designated as BceRS, MW gene ID: MW2545-2544) resulted in an increase in susceptibility to bacitracin. In this study, we focused on this TCS and tried to identify the TCS-controlled factors affecting the susceptibility to bacitracin. We found that two ABC transporters were associated with the susceptibility to bacitracin. One transporter designated as BceAB (MW2543-2542) is downstream of this TCS, while another (formerly designated as VraDE: MW2620-2621) is separate from this TCS. Both transporters showed homology with several bacitracin-resistance factors in Gram-positive bacteria. Inactivation of each of these two transporters increased the susceptibility to bacitracin. Expressions of these transporters were significantly increased by the addition of bacitracin, while this induction was not observed in the TCS-inactivated mutant. These results indicate that this TCS senses bacitracin, and also positively regulates the expression of two ABC transporters.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · FEMS Microbiology Letters
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