Instrumental and Sensory Characterization of Heat-Induced Odorants in Aseptically Packaged Soy Milk
Predominant heat-induced odorants generated in soy milk by ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) processing were evaluated by sensory and instrumental techniques. Soy milks processed by UHT (143 degrees C/14 s, 143 degrees C/59 s, 154 degrees C/29 s) were compared to a control soy milk (90 degrees C/10 min) after 0, 1, and 7 days of storage (4.4 +/- 1 degrees C). Dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in conjunction with GC-olfactometry (GCO)/aroma extract dilution techniques and GC-MS were used to identify and quantify major aroma-active compounds. Sensory results revealed that intensities of overall aroma and sulfur and sweet aromatic flavors were affected by the processing conditions. Odorants mainly responsible for the changes in sulfur perception were methional, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide. Increases in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-acetyl-thiazole, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline intensities were associated with roasted aromas. A marginal increase in intensity of sweet aromatic flavor could be explained by increases in 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, beta-damascenone, and 2- and 3-methylbutanal. Predominant lipid-derived odorants, including (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, were affected by processing conditions. Intensities of overall aroma and sulfur notes in soy milk decreased during storage, whereas other sensory attributes did not change. Color changes, evaluated by using a Chroma-meter, indicated all UHT heating conditions used in this study generated a more yellow and saturated color in soy milk in comparison to the control soy milk.