Instrumental and Sensory Characterization of Heat-Induced Odorants in Aseptically Packaged Soy Milk

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, 1302 West Pennsylvania Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 05/2007; 55(8):3018-26. DOI: 10.1021/jf0631225
Source: PubMed


Predominant heat-induced odorants generated in soy milk by ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) processing were evaluated by sensory and instrumental techniques. Soy milks processed by UHT (143 degrees C/14 s, 143 degrees C/59 s, 154 degrees C/29 s) were compared to a control soy milk (90 degrees C/10 min) after 0, 1, and 7 days of storage (4.4 +/- 1 degrees C). Dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) in conjunction with GC-olfactometry (GCO)/aroma extract dilution techniques and GC-MS were used to identify and quantify major aroma-active compounds. Sensory results revealed that intensities of overall aroma and sulfur and sweet aromatic flavors were affected by the processing conditions. Odorants mainly responsible for the changes in sulfur perception were methional, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide. Increases in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-acetyl-thiazole, and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline intensities were associated with roasted aromas. A marginal increase in intensity of sweet aromatic flavor could be explained by increases in 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, beta-damascenone, and 2- and 3-methylbutanal. Predominant lipid-derived odorants, including (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-octenal, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, were affected by processing conditions. Intensities of overall aroma and sulfur notes in soy milk decreased during storage, whereas other sensory attributes did not change. Color changes, evaluated by using a Chroma-meter, indicated all UHT heating conditions used in this study generated a more yellow and saturated color in soy milk in comparison to the control soy milk.

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    • "Dairy products have a mild flavor, which is easily affected by stronger flavors of other compounds. Additionally, sterilization of soymilk produces compounds with sulfur flavor such as methional, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide, and compounds with roasted aroma such as 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl- thiazole (Lozano et al., 2007). Furthermore, addition of soymilk to milk decreases concentration of lactose (Fiocchi et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of addition of soymilk on physicochemical, microbial, and sensory characteristics of milk fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus. Soybeans were blended 1:5 w/v with distilled water. The prepared soymilk was added to milk in combinations of 20%, 40%, and 60%. Milk was used as the control. All the samples were sterilized and fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 as probiotics. Then, they were kept at 5ºC for 14 days. Microbial count, titratable acidity, pH, syneresis, color parameters and sensory evaluation were performed during the storage time. Results showed that all the samples possessed minimum effective dose of LA-5 on day 14, although a significant decrease in LA-5 was observed in the sample with 60% soymilk. In each experimental day, there was a noticeable decrease in the pH of the samples. Addition of soymilk to milk also significantly increased syneresis, particularly in samples with 60% soymilk. Sensory evaluations showed that scores of texture, mouth sense, aroma, and flavor of the samples with 40% and 60% soymilk were significantly lower than other samples. With respect to color, “L” value decreased significantly in the fermented product with 60% soymilk and the decrease was more pronounced with longer storage times. In conclusion, addition of 20% soymilk did not substantially alter physicochemical and sensory characteristics of milk while providing an appropriate growth culture for LA-5. The mixture of milk-20% soymilk can be introduced as a good probiotic product with lower lactose content and additional nutritional benefits.
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    • "In general, its levels increased in all treatments compared to soymilk base product, with a more important increase in 300 MPa, 80 °C (p < 0.05). Lozano et al. (2007) found butanoic acid and hexanoic acid in soymilk heat treated. These compounds were related to cheese aroma and sweaty odour, respectively. "
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    • "octanoic acid 0.357 MS,RI,S 2139/2177 1297/1297[32] nonanoic acid 0.118 MS,RI 2232 3-nonenoic acid 0.040 MS 2240 n-decanoic acid 0.081 MS 2401 undecylenic acid 0.138 MS 2450 1580/1580[27] dodecanoic acid 0.385 MS,RI 2498 cis-5-dodecenoic acid 0.277 MS 2556 1674/1678[27] tridecanoic acid 0.278 MS,RI 2672 1778/1777[36] tetradecanoic acid 9.144 MS,RI 2795 1900 pentadecanoic acid 36.20 MS 2838 14-pentadecenoic acid 4.803 MS 2909 2054 n-hexadecanoic acid 42.10 MS,S 3000 oleic acid 0.864 MS,S 2228/2236[37] (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid 132.3 MS,RI Hydrocarbons Subtotal 2.197 1091/1122 860 ethylbenzene 0.150 MS,RI 1105 871 p-xylene 0.161 MS 2685 1821 phenanthrene 1.021 MS 894.6[38] "
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