Mukuddem-Petersen J, Stonehouse OW, Jerling JC, Hanekom SM, White Z. Effects of a high walnut and high cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome: a controlled feeding trial. Br J Nutr 97, 1144-1153

School of Computer, Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus), Potchefstroom, South Africa.
British Journal Of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 07/2007; 97(6):1144-53. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114507682944
Source: PubMed


We investigated the effects of a high walnut diet and a high unsalted cashew nut diet on selected markers of the metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, parallel, controlled study design, sixty-four subjects having the metabolic syndrome (twenty-nine men, thirty-five women) with a mean age of 45 (sd 10) years and who met the selection criteria were all fed a 3-week run-in control diet. Hereafter, participants were grouped according to gender and age and then randomized into three groups receiving a controlled feeding diet including walnuts, or unsalted cashew nuts or no nuts for 8 weeks. Subjects were required to have lunch at the metabolic ward of the Nutrition Department of the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus). Both the walnut and the unsalted cashew nut intervention diets had no significant effect on the HDL-cholesterol, TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, serum fructosamine, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentrations when compared to the control diet. Low baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the cashew nut group may have masked a possible nut-related benefit. Plasma glucose concentrations increased significantly (P = 0.04) in the cashew nut group compared to the control group. By contrast, serum fructosamine was unchanged in the cashew nut group while the control group had significantly increased (P = 0.04) concentrations of this short-term marker of glycaemic control. Subjects displayed no improvement in the markers of the metabolic syndrome after following a walnut diet or a cashew nut diet compared to a control diet while maintaining body weight.

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    • "Kernel, which is the edible part of the nut, contains 47.8 g of crude fat, 29.9 g of carbohydrate, 16.8 g of protein and 574 kcal of energy per 100 g of intake (Brufau et al., 2006). Epidemiological studies showed that, frequent consumption of cashew kernels reduced incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cholesterol-level, hypertension and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women (Mukuddem-Petersen et al., 2007). Post-harvest handling and storage of cashew nuts starts immediately after harvesting. "
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    • "In addition, some studies have found a significant reduction in fasting insulin (Casas-Agustench et al., 2011; Tapsell et al. 2009) or a significant improvement in insulin resistance (Casas-Agustench et al., 2011). However, none have reported a significant reduction in glycated proteins as a marker of long-term glycemic control (Lovejoy et al., 2002; Scott et al., 2003; Tapsell et al., 2004; Estruch et al., 2006; Mukuddem-Petersen et al., 2007; Casas-Agustench et al., 2011; Tapsell et al., 2009; Ma et al., 2010). In light of recent evidence showing that the combination of the 2 h post-meal glucose levels and fasting blood glucose allow for better estimation of risk both for diabetes and CVD than the fasting blood glucose alone (Sorkin et al., 2005; International Diabetes Federation, 2007); further studies that examine the effect of nuts on post-meal glycemia are warranted. "
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