Race/Ethnicity, Obesity, Health Related Behaviors and the Risk of Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States
The Journal of Urology (Impact Factor: 4.47). 05/2007; 177(4):1395-400; quiz 1591. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2006.11.065
Source: PubMed


We examined risk factors for incident symptomatic benign prostate hyperplasia in 5,667 Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial placebo arm participants who were free of benign prostatic hyperplasia at baseline.
During 7 years benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms were assessed annually using the International Prostate Symptom Score and benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment was assessed quarterly by structured interview. Total benign prostatic hyperplasia was defined as receipt of treatment or report of 2 International Prostate Symptom Score values greater than 14. Severe benign prostatic hyperplasia was defined as treatment or 2 International Prostate Symptom Score values of 20 or greater. Weight and body circumferences were measured by trained staff and demographic health related characteristics were collected by questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the covariate adjusted relative hazards of benign prostatic hyperplasia developing.
The incidence of total benign prostatic hyperplasia was 34.4 per 1,000 person-years. The risk of total benign prostatic hyperplasia increased 4% (p <0.001) with each additional year of age. Risks for total benign prostatic hyperplasia were 41% higher for black (p <0.03) and Hispanic men (p <0.06) compared to white men, and for severe benign prostatic hyperplasia these increases were 68% (p <0.01) and 59% (p <0.03), respectively. Each 0.05 increase in waist-to-hip ratio (a measure of abdominal obesity) was associated with a 10% increased risk of total (p <0.003) and severe (p <0.02) benign prostatic hyperplasia. Neither smoking nor physical activity was associated with risk.
Black race, Hispanic ethnicity and obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, are associated with increased benign prostatic hyperplasia risk. Weight loss may be helpful for the treatment or prevention of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

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    • "In men greater than seventy years old, the prevalence of LUTS may be as high as 30% [3]. Older age [4], non-Caucasian race [5], comorbidities [6], and obesity [5] may increase the risk of LUTS. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Obstructive voiding symptoms (OVS) are common following prostate cancer treatment with radiation therapy. The risk of urinary retention (UR) following hypofractionated radiotherapy has yet to be fully elucidated. This study sought to evaluate OVS and UR requiring catheterization following SBRT for prostate cancer. Methods Patients treated with SBRT for localized prostate cancer from February 2008 to July 2011 at Georgetown University were included in this study. Treatment was delivered using the CyberKnife® with doses of 35 Gy-36.25 Gy in 5 fractions. UR was prospectively scored using the CTCAE v.3. Patient-reported OVS were assessed using the IPSS-obstructive subdomain at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Associated bother was evaluated via the EPIC-26. Results 269 patients at a median age of 69 years received SBRT with a median follow-up of 3 years. The mean prostate volume was 39 cc. Prior to treatment, 50.6% of patients reported moderate to severe lower urinary track symptoms per the IPSS and 6.7% felt that weak urine stream and/or incomplete emptying were a moderate to big problem. The 2-year actuarial incidence rates of acute and late UR ≥ grade 2 were 39.5% and 41.4%. Alpha-antagonist utilization rose at one month (58%) and 18 months (48%) post-treatment. However, Grade 3 UR was low with only 4 men (1.5%) requiring catheterization and/or TURP. A mean baseline IPSS-obstructive score of 3.6 significantly increased to 5.0 at 1 month (p < 0.0001); however, it returned to baseline in 92.6% within a median time of 3 months. Late increases in OVS were common, but transient. Only 7.1% of patients felt that weak urine stream and/or incomplete emptying was a moderate to big problem at two years post-SBRT (p = 0.6854). Conclusions SBRT treatment caused an acute increase in OVS which peaked within the first month post-treatment, though acute UR requiring catheterization was rare. OVS returned to baseline in > 90% of patients within a median time of three months. Transient Late increases in OVS were common. However, less than 10% of patients felt that OVS were a moderate to big problem at two years post-SBRT.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Radiation Oncology
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    • "The prostate cancer prevention trial reported that the highest prevalence of BPH was among Hispanic men, followed by black men, Caucasian (white) men, and Asian American men [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This review assesses lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with or without erectile dysfunction (ED) and related therapies focusing on tadalafil. A literature search was obtained and reviewed for the epidemiology, treatment therapies, pathophysiology, and efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) tadalafil in patients with LUTS/BPH. Approximately 42% of men aged 51 to 60 years have BPH. Approximately 90% of men aged 45 to 80 years have LUTS. Occurrence of LUTS increases with age for almost all racial/ethnic groups (range, 32% to 56%) with prevalence of LUTS highest among Hispanic men, then Blacks, Caucasians, and Asians. There is an independent relationship with LUTS/BPH and ED, with approximately 70% of men with LUTS/BPH having ED with severity of one disease often correlating with the other. The European Urological Association guidelines include the use of the PDE5i tadalafil. Tadalafil is the only therapy recommended for treatment of co-existing BPH and ED, while other therapies have unwanted ED side effects. The mode of action of tadalafil may involve different areas of the lower urinary tract such as smooth muscle cell relaxation in the bladder neck, prostate, and urethra, but there may also be resulting modulation of the afferent nerve activity. Tadalafil (5 mg) in Asian men with LUTS/BPH, similar to global studies, is efficacious and safe. Tadalafil (5 mg) improves co-existing LUTS/BPH and ED, independently. Men with LUTS/BPH likely also have ED. Asian men with LUTS/BPH have similar incidence rates, co-existing ED, comorbid diseases, and risks as non-Asian men. Tadalafil can improve co-existing LUTS/BPH and ED.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
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    • "However, surgery for BPH as an endpoint represents a pathway that includes severity of LUTS, the presence of comorbidities that represent surgical contraindications, healthcare access and other concerns. More recent studies have used a mixed definition of BPH that included BPH surgery, symptoms or results of a digital rectal exam [16-19]. These studies have all found associations that consistently point to diabetes affecting voiding function. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Studies of the impact of type 2 diabetes on the prevalence and incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among men have provided divergent results. We sought to examine this issue using two large and diverse cohorts. Methods: This study used questionnaire and clinical data from two large multiethnic cohorts, the California Men's Health Study (CMHS) and Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH). Diabetes characteristics data were derived from questionnaire and Diabetes Registry data. LUTS were measured using a standardized scale. Socioeconomic and comorbidity data were obtained by self-report. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between baseline DM status and prevalence and incidence of LUTS, with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Results: We found type 2 diabetes to be associated with prevalent LUTS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26, 1.38). The association was stronger among men with type 2 diabetes who were on active pharmaceutical treatment and had it for a longer duration. No association was observed between type 2 diabetes and new onset LUTS. Conclusions: Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of LUTS.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · BMC Urology
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