Branzei, D. & Foiani, M. Interplay of replication checkpoints and repair proteins at stalled replication forks. DNA Repair (Amst.) 6, 994-1003

FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology Foundation, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy.
DNA Repair (Impact Factor: 3.11). 08/2007; 6(7):994-1003. DOI: 10.1016/j.dnarep.2007.02.018
Source: PubMed


DNA replication is an essential process that occurs in all growing cells and needs to be tightly regulated in order to preserve genetic integrity. Eukaryotic cells have developed multiple mechanisms to ensure the fidelity of replication and to coordinate the progression of replication forks. Replication is often impeded by DNA damage or replication blocks, and the resulting stalled replication forks are sensed and protected by specialized surveillance mechanisms called checkpoints. The replication checkpoint plays an essential role in preventing the breakdown of stalled replication forks and the accumulation of DNA structures that enhance recombination and chromosomal rearrangements that ultimately lead to genomic instability and cancer development. In addition, the replication checkpoint is thought to assist and coordinate replication fork restart processes by controlling DNA repair pathways, regulating chromatin structure, promoting the recruitment of proteins to sites of damage, and controlling cell cycle progression. In this review we focus mainly on the results obtained in budding yeast to discuss on the multiple roles of checkpoints in maintaining fork integrity and on the enzymatic activities that cooperate with the checkpoint pathway to promote fork resumption and repair of DNA lesions thereby contributing to genome integrity.

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Available from: Dana Branzei, Sep 22, 2014
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    • "Genome instability is a common feature of cancer cells, and defects in DNA replication or in the replication checkpoint greatly increase this chromosome instability [1]. Common fragile sites (CFS) are regions of the human genome especially prone to breakage under condition of mild replication stress and are often found rearranged in cancer cells [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Common fragile sites (CFS) are heritable nonrandomly distributed loci on human chromosomes that exhibit an increased frequency of chromosomal breakage under conditions of replication stress. They are considered the preferential targets for high genomic instability from the earliest stages of human cancer development, and increased chromosome instability at these loci has been observed following replication stress in a subset of human genetic diseases. Despite their biological and medical relevance, the molecular basis of CFS fragility in vivo has not been fully elucidated. At present, different models have been proposed to explain how instability at CFS arises and multiple factors seem to contribute to their instability. However, all these models involve DNA replication and suggest that replication fork stalling along CFS during DNA synthesis is a very frequent event. Consistent with this, the maintenance of CFS stability relies on the ATR-dependent checkpoint, together with a number of proteins promoting the recovery of stalled replication forks. In this review, we discuss mainly the possible causes that threaten the integrity of CFS in the light of new findings, paying particular attention to the role of the S-phase checkpoint.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013
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    • "Replication fork arrest in response to DNA lesions, such as UV-induced thymine dimers that physically block DNA synthesis and lead to exposure of unreplicated, single-stranded (ss) DNA has been studied extensively in multiple different model organisms [1]. However, how cells monitor the integrity of replication intermediates that undergo Okazaki fragment processing is less well understood. "
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    ABSTRACT: Deficiency in DNA ligase I, encoded by CDC9 in budding yeast, leads to the accumulation of unligated Okazaki fragments and triggers PCNA ubiquitination at a non-canonical lysine residue. This signal is crucial to activate the S phase checkpoint, which promotes cell cycle delay. We report here that a pol30-K107 mutation alleviated cell cycle delay in cdc9 mutants, consistent with the idea that the modification of PCNA at K107 affects the rate of DNA synthesis at replication forks. To determine whether PCNA ubiquitination occurred in response to nicks or was triggered by the lack of PCNA-DNA ligase interaction, we complemented cdc9 cells with either wild-type DNA ligase I or a mutant form, which fails to interact with PCNA. Both enzymes reversed PCNA ubiquitination, arguing that the modification is likely an integral part of a novel nick-sensory mechanism and not due to non-specific secondary mutations that could have occurred spontaneously in cdc9 mutants. To further understand how cells cope with the accumulation of nicks during DNA replication, we utilized cdc9-1 in a genome-wide synthetic lethality screen, which identified RAD59 as a strong negative interactor. In comparison to cdc9 single mutants, cdc9 rad59Δ double mutants did not alter PCNA ubiquitination but enhanced phosphorylation of the mediator of the replication checkpoint, Mrc1. Since Mrc1 resides at the replication fork and is phosphorylated in response to fork stalling, these results indicate that Rad59 alleviates nick-induced replication fork slowdown. Thus, we propose that Rad59 promotes fork progression when Okazaki fragment processing is compromised and counteracts PCNA-K107 mediated cell cycle arrest.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The intra-S-phase checkpoint is activated by DNA DSBs and requires ATM [60]. This checkpoint inhibits progression through S-phase, initiation of late origins of replication [61, 62], and stabilizes stalled replication forks [63]. GANT61-treated cells undergo intra-S-phase checkpoint activation at 24 hr, characterized by phosphorylation of Cdc25A on Ser123 (which targets this phosphatase for proteasomal degradation), activation of Cdk2 is inhibited (decreased Tyr15p-Cdk2), and cyclin E accumulates [32, 33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Transcriptional regulation of the Hedgehog (HH) signaling response is mediated by GLI genes (GLI1, GLI2) downstream of SMO, that are also activated by oncogenic signaling pathways. We have demonstrated the importance of targeting GLI downstream of SMO in the induction of cell death in human colon carcinoma cells. In HT29 cells inhibition of GLI1/GLI2 by the small molecule inhibitor GANT61 induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and activation of ATM, MDC1 and NBS1; γH2AX and MDC1, NBS1 and MDC1 co-localized in nuclear foci. Early activation of ATM was decreased by 24 hr, when p-NBS1Ser343, activated by ATM, was significantly reduced in cell extracts. Bound γH2AX was detected in isolated chromatin fractions or nuclei during DNA damage but not during DNA repair. MDC1 was tightly bound to chromatin at 32 hr as cells accumulated in early S-phase prior to becoming subG1, and during DNA repair. Limited binding of NBS1 was detected at all times during DNA damage but was strongly bound during DNA repair. Transient overexpression of NBS1 protected HT29 cells from GANT61-induced cell death, while knockdown of H2AX by H2AXshRNA delayed DNA damage signaling. Data demonstrate following GLI1/GLI2 inhibition: 1) induction of DNA damage in cells that are also resistant to SMO inhibitors, 2) dynamic interactions between γH2AX, MDC1 and NBS1 in single cell nuclei and in isolated chromatin fractions, 3) expression and chromatin binding properties of key mediator proteins that mark DNA damage or DNA repair, and 4) the importance of NBS1 in the DNA damage response mechanism.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Oncotarget
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