Nucleotide sequences of the microsatellite locus Du215 (arm) allelic variants in the parthenospecies Darevskia armeniaca (Lacertidae)
Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskva, Moscow, RussiaGenetika (Impact Factor: 0.37). 03/2007; 43(2):170-5. DOI: 10.1134/S1022795407020032
Using monolocus PCR analysis with the pairs of primers designed for the Du215 locus of Darevskia unisexualis, allelic polymorphism at the orthologous locus in the populations of the related parthenospecies D. armeniaca was investigated. It was demonstrated that Du215 (arm) locus was polymorphic and in the populations of parthenospecies D. armeniaca (n = 127) represented by at least three allelic variants, differing from each other by the size and composition of microsatellite cluster, and by single nucleotide substitutions in flanking DNA. Unlike the Du215 locus, Du215 (arm) was shown contain not only GATA, but also (GACA) repeats, which were absent in D. unisexualis. Thus, in this study, the data on the molecular nature of allelic polymorphism at one of the microsatellite loci of the parthenospecies D. armeniaca were reported.
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ABSTRACT: There are more than 70 known unisexual species of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. They are all-female populations of interspecific hybrid origin that reproduce without sex via altered gametogenetic mechanisms. They are either sperm independent as in parthenogenesis or sperm dependent as in gynogenesis or hybridogenesis, which causes clonal (or hemiclonal) inheritance. The first two modes of reproduction produce species composed of genetically isolated clones. In many previous papers, origin and ancestry, clonal diversity based on allozyme or mitochondrial DNA variation, ecology and evolution of unisexual vertebrates were discussed. This chapter reviews the role of mutations in genome diversity of some unisexual vertebrates revealed by DNA fingerprinting and/or by locus-specific PCR. It also describes recent data on molecular structure of unstable microsatellite loci and their allelic variants in parthenogenetic lizard species. The available data demonstrate that microsatellite mutations as well as point mutations in flanking regions make significant contribution in genome diversity of, at least some, clonaly reproduced vertebrates.
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ABSTRACT: Unisexual all-female lizards of the genus Darevskia that are well adapted to various habitats are known to reproduce normally by true parthenogenesis. Although they consist of unisexual lineages and lack effective genetic recombination, they are characterized by some level of genetic polymorphism. To reveal the mutational contribution to overall genetic variability, the most straightforward and conclusive way is the direct detection of mutation events in pedigree genotyping. Earlier we selected from genomic library of D. unisexualis two polymorphic microsatellite containing loci Du281 and Du215. In this study, these two loci were analyzed to detect possible de novo mutations in 168 parthenogenetic offspring of 49 D. unisexualis mothers and in 147 offspring of 50 D. armeniaca mothers. No mutant alleles were detected in D. armeniaca offspring at both loci, and in D. unisexualis offspring at the Du215 locus. There were a total of seven mutational events in the germ lines of four of the 49 D. unisexualis mothers at the Du281 locus, yielding the mutation rate of 0.1428 events per germ line tissue. Sequencing of the mutant alleles has shown that most mutations occur via deletion or insertion of single microsatellite repeat being identical in all offspring of the family. This indicates that such mutations emerge at the early stages of embryogenesis. In this study we characterized single highly unstable (GATA)(n) containing locus in parthenogenetic lizard species D. unisexualis. Besides, we characterized various types of mutant alleles of this locus found in the D. unisexualis offspring of the first generation. Our data has shown that microsatellite mutations at highly unstable loci can make a significant contribution to population variability of parthenogenetic lizards.