Current treatment options in prolymphocytic leukemia
Prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by marked leukocytosis and splenomegaly. PLL accounts for approximately 2% of chronic lymphoid leukemias. The clinical course is progressive in the majority of cases due to the resistance of the disease to conventional chemotherapy. The disease is divided according to the cell of origin into the B- (B-PLL) and T-cell (T-PLL) types. T-PLL and B-PLL are morphologically identical, but lymphadenopathy and skin involvement are more common in T-PLL than in B-PLL. Approximately 80% of cases are of B-cell phenotype. T-PLL has a more aggressive course, poorer response to chemotherapy, and shorter median survival than B-PLL. PLL has poorer prognosis than chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and the patients with static disease for a longer period of time are rare. In general, B-PLL patients have better prognosis than T-PLL patients. PLL is still considered an incurable disease. Similarly to CLL, treatment is not indicated in asymptomatic patients. In previous decades, splenectomy, splenic irradiation, leucapheresis, and alkylating agents used alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents have been used for the treatment of PLL. Subsequently, purine nucleoside analogs (fludarabine, cladribine, and pentostatin) have been introduced for the therapy of these disorders. More recently, monoclonal antibodies, especially alemtuzumab, have been found more effective, especially in T-PLL. Finally, high-dose chemotherapy followed by allogenic or autologous stem cell transplantation seems to be an effective, probably curative, strategy for the treatment of selected patients with PLL. In this review, current therapeutic strategies in PLL are presented.
Available from: Monica Else
- "Stem cell transplantation after alemtuzumab in T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia results in longer survival than after alemtuzumab alone: a multicentre retrospective study T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) is a rare malignancy with an aggressive course and limited treatment options (Robak & Robak, 2007; Dungarwalla et al, 2008). The median survival in historical series is <1 year (Matutes et al, 1991). "
Available from: Manish Singhal
- "Alemtuzumab which is a humanized IgG1 antibody that targets CD52, expressed at high density on the malignant T-cells, has been shown to be particularly effective with overall and complete response rates of 76% and 60% respectively . However, responses are transient and further disease progression inevitable and the only possibility of cure lies in an allogeneic stem cell transplant . Our patient was initially asymptomatic from the recurrence of her primary disease and was hence, prescribed hormonal therapy (letrozole) alone for breast carcinoma, along with fludarabine based chemotherapy for T-PLL. "
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ABSTRACT: Therapy related second malignancy of the hematological system is small but real risk after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. It includes acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); however T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) has not been described earlier in relation to breast cancer and its therapy. T-PLL is a rare chronic T-cell lymphoproliferative disease with a mature post-thymic T-cell immunophenotype and aggressive clinical course.
A 45 year old Indian female of Nordic origin presented 5 years back with a lump in the right breast and the axilla. She underwent modified radical mastectomy. Histophotomicrograph of the excised breast lesion showed a 2.1 cm duct carcinoma, positive for ER and PR with 1 out of 25 lymph nodes positive for metastasis. She received 6 cycles of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and 5-fluorouracil. This was followed by tamoxifen 20 mg per day for five years. She was doing well on follow up until the completion of fifth year of her disease, when she presented with complaints of mild fever and weakness. Examination revealed generalized lymph node enlargement along with hepatomegaly. Hemogram showed mild anemia, normal platelet count and a leukocyte count of 1.2 x 10(11)/L. Peripheral blood examination revealed medium sized lymphoid cells, constituting almost 75% of total nucleated cell population. Immunophenotying, established a diagnosis of post thymic T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest and abdomen was done which revealed an anterior mediastinal mass with destruction of sternum along with multiple small nodular shadows in bilateral lung fields suggestive of lung metastasis. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the mass showed atypical ductal cells with nuclear pleomorphism, which were positive for ER, PR and Her2neu protein. This confirmed a co-existent metastatic breast carcinoma. She was started on chemotherapy for T-PLL along with hormonal therapy with aromatase inhibitor. Unfortunately, both her malignancies progressed after an initial stable disease of two months.
Our case describes the potential of breast chemotherapy to cause grave second hematological malignancies of the T-cell lymphoid lineage, not described earlier. Such events highlight the importance to identify those patients of breast cancer in whom chemotherapy can safely be avoided.
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ABSTRACT: B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) comprises 1% of chronic lymphocytic leukemias. CD5 positivity is seen in 1/3rd of cases which generally arise from pre existing CLL. They have longer median survival compared with de novo B-PLL which are commonly CD5 negative and are more aggressive with an older age of presentation. Herewith, we describe a 48-year-old male of de-novo CD5+ B-PLL presenting with minimal lymphadenopathy and massive splenomegaly with 90% atypical lymphoid cells in the peripheral smear and bone marrow. Immunophenotyping was strongly positive for CD5, CD45, CD19, CD22, FMC-7, S-Ig and CD38, moderately positive for CD 11c, weakly positive for CD23 and negative for CD-103 and ZAP 70. The patient responded well to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide and had an uneventful hospital course. Our case illustrates a de-novo B-PLL with aberrant CD5 positivity who had a short duration of illness, younger age at presentation and favourable treatment outcome.
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