Article

Racial Differences in Caregiving Patterns, Caregiver Emotional Function, and Sources of Emotional Support Following Traumatic Brain Injury

Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute and Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA 19141, and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation (Impact Factor: 2.92). 03/2007; 22(2):122-31. DOI: 10.1097/01.HTR.0000265100.37059.44
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Compare white and African American caregivers of people with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) regarding caregiving patterns, emotional function and life satisfaction, and preferred supports.
Prospective, observational study; 1, 2, or 5 years post-TBI.
Six TBI model systems. Participants: Two hundred fifty-six caregivers (195 white and 61 African American).
Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Satisfaction With Life Scale.
Races differed as to kinship patterns, with more white caregivers including spouses and more African Americans including "other relatives." African Americans spent significantly more time in direct caregiving, and reported more depression. African American TBI survivors were significantly more disabled than whites, which appeared to account for emotional function differences. Whites were more likely to use professional services for emotional support.
Across races, TBI caregiver emotional health is affected by the functional level of the survivor. African American caregivers may be at risk for worse emotional consequences due to worse survivor outcomes, yet may underutilize professional services.

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    • "Respecting & Conflicts with the professional should be avoided because they induced stress Arango - Lasprilla et al . , 2010 ; Chan , 2007 ; Charles et al . , 2007 ; Hart et al . , 2007 ; Lefebvre et al . , 2007 ; Leith et al . , 2004 ; Winstanley et al . , 2006 & If professionals force family members to accept the unacceptable , they describe this as insensitive and pessimistic & To be shown that family members ' opinions were taken into account & Family members were concerned about professional pessimism concerning t"

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    • "Given the impact of TBI on caregiver emotional function (Hart et al., 2007), the suggestion that African American and Hispanic caregivers of persons with TBI are more traditional in their approach to caregiving and the importance of developing effective interventions for all families affected by TBI, we deemed it important to explore the role of employers in implementing support modalities for culturally diverse caregivers. Until recently, caregiver intervention research focused almost exclusively on nonminority caregivers (Adams, Aranda, Kemp, & Takagi, 2002; Aranda, 2001; Aranda & Knight 1997; Connell & Gibson, 1997), despite the fact that researchers in other health-related areas have shown relevance of ethnicity to primary care medicine, health promotion programs, and cancer outcomes (Kelty, Hoffman, Ory, & Harden, 2000; Meyerowitz, Richardson, Hudson, & Leedham, 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: Job demands and workplace culture variables associated with work-family conflict stress, in addition to workplace racial bias, were examined for a national sample of 607 African American women in 16 Fortune 1000 companies. Similar to other studies, women in this sample who had dependents were younger, had supervisory responsibilities, and experienced a less positive workplace culture, and those in professional job positions with high job demand were most likely to experience work-family stress. Married women who experienced a more subtle form of workplace racial bias reported more work-family conflict stress. Implications for social work policy, practice, and research are considered.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Social Work in Public Health
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    • "Given the impact of TBI on caregiver emotional function (Hart et al., 2007), the suggestion that African American and Hispanic caregivers of persons with TBI are more traditional in their approach to caregiving and the importance of developing effective interventions for all families affected by TBI, we deemed it important to explore the role of employers in implementing support modalities for culturally diverse caregivers. Until recently, caregiver intervention research focused almost exclusively on nonminority caregivers (Adams, Aranda, Kemp, & Takagi, 2002; Aranda, 2001; Aranda & Knight 1997; Connell & Gibson, 1997), despite the fact that researchers in other health-related areas have shown relevance of ethnicity to primary care medicine, health promotion programs, and cancer outcomes (Kelty, Hoffman, Ory, & Harden, 2000; Meyerowitz, Richardson, Hudson, & Leedham, 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: With the increasing incidence of traumatic brain injury among culturally diverse families, there has also been increased attention to the dual demands of employment and caregiving. In this article, we contend that culturally diverse caregivers are an understudied group of workers. We examine literature to assist in conceptualizing the relationship between cultural orientation and caregiving, work-life stress, and organizational responses. Implications for strengthening the cultural responsiveness of work-life initiatives are discussed.
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