Therapeutic management of bone demineralization in the HIV-infected population

Autonomous University of Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
AIDS (Impact Factor: 5.55). 04/2007; 21(6):657-63. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3280142191
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    • "High comorbidity rates may affect survival, and polypharmacy could increase the risk of drug-drug interactions and adverse events. Also, HIV-1 infection itself and antiretroviral therapy may worsen metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular risk and bone mineral density [6]. Elders show similar rates of supression of HIV-1 replication under antiretroviral therapy, although conflicting data exists regarding immune reconstitution after initiation of HAART [7] [8] [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We designed a multicenter cross-sectional study to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the HIV-1-infected population aged 70 years or more in our setting. 179 individuals from eight university hospitals in Barcelona, Spain, were included, representing 1.5% of HIV-1 infected subjects followed during 2008. Most subjects were male (76%) and had acquired HIV infection through sexual intercourse (87%); 69% had been diagnosed with HIV-1 after their sixties. The CD4 cell counts at HIV-1 diagnosis were < 200 cells/mm(3) in 52% of individuals, whereas this was only seen in 34% of subjects from a published cohort including younger HIV- infected adults from the same setting [1]. Most of our patients were on HAART, had undetectable HIV-1 viremia and the most recent median CD4 cell counts were >or= 350 cells/mm(3). 154 subjects had at least one comorbid condition, including dyslipidemia (54%), hypertension (36%), hyperglycemia or diabetes (30%), cardiovascular disease (23%), chronic renal failure (18%), history of neoplasia (17%) and cognitive impairment (11%). Lipodystrophy was reported in 58% of individuals. Rates of hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and cancer were higher than those reported in unselected local population (28%, 17% and 7%, respectively). The study participants were taking an average of 2.97 drugs (range 1-10) other than antiretrovirals. In conclusion, the elder population infected with HIV-1 is likely being diagnosed late and at lower CD4+ counts and is frequently affected by comorbidities and co-medication. Based on our findings, we suggest some recommendations regarding the management of this growing population.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Current HIV research

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of our investigation was to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in men with HIV/AIDS and evaluate the role of antiretroviral treatment (ART), HIV and other risk factors in reducing bone mineral density (BMD). All known Slovenian HIV-infected ART-naïve and treated males (infected or treated > 12 months) were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Data were collected on age, BMI, waist-hip ratio, family history of hip fracture, duration of infection, duration of ART, smoking, alcohol, exercise, viral load and CD4+ cells. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 96 patients (out of 133 who fulfilled the inclusion criteria) were assessed and allocated into three groups: group A (n = 24), ART-naïve; group B1 (n = 37), treated with non-protease-inhibitor (PI) containing ART; and group B2 (n = 35), treated with PI-containing ART. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis was 57/96 (59%): osteopenia 45/96 (47%) and osteoporosis 12/96 (12%). Significantly lower BMD was detected in group A (P = 0.020). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed ART to be an independent negative predictor for reduced BMD (P = 0.037; OR = 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.93). Vitamin D(3) deficiency was detected in 79 (82%) of the patients. The study group represented 72% of the national HIV-infected male population; this proportion being higher than in any other study reported to date. The prevalence of reduced BMD was notably higher than the national prevalence among men of comparable age. There was no association between reduced BMD and any specific ART. According to our results, absence of ART was confirmed as an independent predictor of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Targeted screening and early treatment present a reasonable strategy for preventing reduced BMD in HIV-infected patients, but correcting vitamin D(3) levels could also be an important component.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
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