Telomere Length, Cigarette Smoking, and Bladder Cancer Risk in Men and Women

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 04/2007; 16(4):815-9. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0961
Source: PubMed


Truncated telomeres are among the defining characteristics of most carcinomas. Given the role of telomeres in tumorigenesis, we reasoned that constitutionally short telomeres might be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured relative telomere length in bladder cancer cases and healthy controls and evaluated the association between telomere length, cigarette smoking, and bladder cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study. Telomeres were significantly shorter in bladder cancer cases (n = 184) than in controls (n = 192). The mean relative telomere length in cases was 0.23 (SD, 0.16) versus 0.27 (SD, 0.15) in controls (P = 0.001). The adjusted odds ratio for bladder cancer was 1.88 (95% confidence interval, 1.05, 3.36) for individuals in the quartile with the shortest telomeres as compared with individuals in the quartile with the longest telomeres (P(trend) = 0.006). We observed a statistically significant difference in telomere length among men and women (P < 0.001); however, the interaction between gender, telomere length, and bladder cancer risk was not significant. We also observed a significant difference in telomere length across categories of pack-years of smoking (P = 0.01). These findings suggest that truncated telomeres are associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer.

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Available from: Jason Wong, Jan 08, 2016
    • "Telomeres are shortened at each cell division, and some factors are known to accelerate telomere erosion, including oxidative stress [von Zglinicki, 2002; Coluzzi et al., 2014] . Short telomeres in blood have been associated with increased risk of bladder cancer [Broberg et al., 2005; McGrath et al., 2007; Ma et al., 2011]. Aberrant methylation of specific genes has been recognized as an early biomarker for carcinogenesis in both tumour tissue and peripheral blood leucocytes [Ting et al., 2006; Esteller, 2008]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Working as hairdressers has been associated with increased risk for cancer, particularly bladder cancer. To evaluate if current hairdressers have elevated risks of adverse health effects, we measured several biomarkers related to cancer-related DNA alterations. We enrolled 295 hairdressers and 92 non-hairdressers (all female non-smokers) from Stockholm and southern Sweden. Questionnaire data were collected for each participant, including work tasks for the hairdressers. We measured telomere length in peripheral blood leucocytes using quantitative PCR and DNA methylation status of genes relevant for bladder cancer using methylation sensitive high resolution melting analysis. The hairdressers had shorter telomeres (β = -0.069, P = 0.019) compared with non-hairdressers. Shorter telomeres were found in hairdressers up to 32 years old performing hair waving more than once per week as compared with hairdressers in the same age group performing hair waving less often (β = -0.12, P = 0.037). Hair waving was associated with less frequent CDKN2A methylation (odds ratio, OR = 0.19, P = 0.033). Shorter telomeres in hairdressers may indicate a genotoxic effect. Performing hair waving was associated with short telomere length, although the effect was only observed in young hairdressers. No clear patterns were discerned with regard to DNA methylation of bladder cancer-related genes. The observed changes of methylation were not all in the expected direction and warrant further investigation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
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    • "Several cross-sectional studies demonstrated an inverse relationship between smoking and age-adjusted leukocyte TL (LTL) (Huzen et al., 2014; Weischer et al., 2014; Bendix et al., 2014; Valdes et al., 2005; Morla et al., 2006; McGrath et al., 2007; Song et al., 2010). Moreover, some studies documented a dose–response relationship (Huzen et al., 2014; Valdes et al., 2005; Morla et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age and short LTL has been associated with increased mortality and increased risk for some age-related outcomes. This study aims to analyse the associations of smoking habits with LTL and rate of LTL change per year in older adults. LTL was measured by quantitative PCR at baseline in 3600 older adults, who were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Germany. For longitudinal analyses, measurements were repeated in blood samples obtained at 8-year follow-up from 1000 participants. Terminal Restriction Fragment analysis was additionally performed in a sub-sample to obtain absolute LTL in base pairs. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate associations of smoking habits with baseline LTL and changes in LTL over time. LTL was inversely associated with age (r=-0.090, p<0.0001). Women had longer LTL than men (p<0.0001). Smoking was inversely associated with LTL. On average, current smokers had 73 base pairs (BP) shorter LTL compared to never smokers. Smoking intensity and pack-years of smoking were also inversely associated with LTL, and a positive association was observed with years since smoking cessation. Slower LTL attrition rates were observed in ever smokers over 8years of follow-up. Our cross-sectional analysis supports suggestions that smoking might contribute to shortening of LTL but this relationship could not be shown longitudinally. The overall rather small effect sizes observed for smoking-related variables suggest that LTL reflects smoking-related health hazards only to a very limited extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Experimental gerontology
    • "The coefficients of variation (CV) of the telomere and reference gene assay (36B4) were 1.93 and 1.27 %, respectively. These values were comparable to the values from two other studies using comparable methods: 0.9 and 2.4 % (Wang et al. 2008) and 2.46 and 2.26 % (McGrath et al. 2007). Within-batch and between-batch analytical imprecision were determined using two control samples with known telomere length by TRFLP (long QC [quality control], telomere length= 11.3 kbp; short QC, telomere length=8.2 "
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    ABSTRACT: Telomere length (TL) attrition is associated with chronic diseases characterized by chronic inflammatory states. Inflammatory cytokines may play a role in sarcopenia. This study examines the association between TL and the diagnosis of sarcopenia based on appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI), grip strength, walking speed, and chair stand in a prospective study over 5 years of 976 men and 1,030 women aged 65 years and over living in the community. TL in leukocytes was measured using the quantitative PCR method. TL was divided into quartiles, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was adopted to examine its association with components of sarcopenia, adjusting for age, education, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, and probable dementia. In both men and women, the percentage decline in grip strength over the 5-year period of follow-up was slower in those in the highest quartile of TL than those in the lower quartiles (multivariate-adjusted p < 0.05). No association between TL and the diagnosis of sarcopenia, ASMI, walking speed, or chair stand was observed. In conclusion, longer TL was associated with slower decline in grip strength in Chinese older persons.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of the American Aging Association
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