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An alkaloid constituent 1-[5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2,4-pentadienyl]piperidine, trivial name piperine was isolated from Ludwigia hyssopifolia Linn. (Family-Onagraceae). The ethylacetate extract of the plant and the isolated compound piperine were studied for antitumor and in vitro antibacterial activity. Ethylacetate extract showed 73.05 and 84.14% inhibition of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced crown gall tumor formation in potato disc. Piperine exhibited antitumor activity with IC50 value of 13.50 microg/disc. Both ethylacetate extract and piperine showed mild to moderate antibacterial activity against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
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Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2007, Vol.20(2), 128-131
128
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
ANTITUMOR AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHYLACETATE
EXTRACT OF LUDWIGIA HYSSOPIFOLIA LINN
AND ITS ACTIVE PRINCIPLE PIPERINE
BANIBRATA DAS, JUTHIKA KUNDU*, SITESH CHANDRA BACHAR,
MOHAMMAD AFTAB UDDIN** AND JOYDEB KUMAR KUNDU
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh
*Department of Pharmacy, East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
**Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000
ABSTRACT
An alkaloid constituent 1-[5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2,4-pentadienyl]piperidine, trivial name piperine was
isolated from Ludwigia hyssopifolia Linn. (Family-Onagraceae). The ethylacetate extract of the plant and the
isolated compound piperine were studied for antitumor and in vitro antibacterial activity. Ethylacetate extract
showed 73.05 and 84.14% inhibition of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced crown gall tumor formation in
potato disc. Piperine exhibited antitumor activity with IC
50
value of 13.50 µg/disc. Both ethylacetate extract and
piperine showed mild to moderate antibacterial activity against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative
bacteria.
Keywords: Ludwigia hyssopifolia Linn., antitumor, in vitro antibacterial activity.
INTRODUCTION
Ludwigia hyssopifolia Linn. (synonym Jussiaea linifolia
Vahl. or Jussiaea hyssopifolia Linn., Family-Onagraceae;
Bengali Name- Lalbunlonga) is extensively grown in
Bangladesh, in all parts of India and Ceylon (Hooker,
1973; Huq, 1986). The plant is considered as astringent,
anthelmintic, carminative and diuretic. A decoction is
used in diarrhoea and dysentery, flatulence, leucorrhoea,
and spitting of blood. The leaves are used for poulticing
in orchitis and glands in the neck. A decoction is also
used as a vermifuge and purgative (Ambasta, 1986;
Ghani, 1990). Previous phytochemical investigation of the
plant revealed the presence of chemical constituents
namely vitexin, isovitexin, orientin and isoorientin
(Huang, 1985).
In continuation of our work on chemical and biological
characterization of different medicinal plants of
Bangladesh, attempt was made to investigate the
biological activity of piperine isolated from the plant
Ludwigia hyssopifolia Linn. The results of antitumor and
antibacterial activity of piperine, isolated for the first time
from the plant, have been reported in the present
communication.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material
The whole plant Ludwigia hyssopifolia Linn. was
collected at flowering stage from Dhaka and was
identified (voucher specimen No. DUH-163) by the
Department of Botany, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
After collection, whole plant was sun-dried for one week
and made into a coarse powder by grinding. The dried
coarse powder (800g) of the plant was successively cold-
extracted with n-hexane and ethylacetate.
Isolation of piperine
On the basis of TLC analysis, the crude ethylacetate
extract was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography
(VLC) for fractionation. By subsequent TLC analysis of
all VLC eluates, a fraction designated as EF-3 was
obtained by using the solvent system n-hexane and
ethylacetate in ratio of 40:60. The fraction EF-3 was then
investigated by preparative thin layer chromatography
(P.T.L.C.) using the solvent system tolune:ethylacetate
(90:10). This yielded a clear band at R
f
0.25, which was
isolated as white crystals and termed as LE.
The structure of LE was confirmed as 1-[5-(1,3-
benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2,4-pentadienyl]-piperidine or
piperine by spectral analysis and comparing the values
with the reference data (De Araujo-Junior et al., 1997).
The method of isolation of respective alkaloid piperine is
depicted in scheme 1. The IR spectrum of the isolated
compound was taken on U-270-30 infrared
spectrophotometer.
1
H-NMR spectrum was measured on
Varian VXR-500 spectrometer and JEOL FX (500 MHz)
spectrophotometer in CDCl
3
.
13
C-NMR spectrum was
Corresponding author: E-mail address: kundujk@yahoo.com - Tel.: +880-2-9665144
Banibrata Das et al.
Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2007, Vol.20(2), 128-131
129
recorded on JEOL FX (125 MHz) spectrophotometer
using CDCl
3
. Chemical shifts were reported in δ (ppm)
units downfield from tetramethylsilane, and the
abbreviations of signal patterns are as follows: s, singlet;
d, doublet; t, triplet; m, multiplet; br, broad. The FAB-MS
was taken on a Hitachi M80B mass spectrophotometer.
Column chromatography was performed on silica gel
(Merck).
Antitumor activity
The antitumor activity of piperine was evaluated by
potato disc bioassay method as described by McLaughlin
(1991). Broth culture of Cambia SR009 EHA105 strain of
Agrobacterium tumefaciens was collected from
Department of Biochemistry, University of Dhaka,
Bangladesh. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) discs (1.5 cm x
1.5 cm), previously surface sterilized by 50% sodium
hypochloride (colorax), were made aseptically. The discs
were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens by
immersing the discs in 48 h old broth culture of the
bacterium in a growth medium contained 0.5 g sucrose,
0.8 g nutrient broth (DIFCO, USA) and 0.1 g yeast extract
(DIFCO, USA) in water q.s. to 100 ml. A. tumefaciens-
containing potato discs were placed into a petridish
containing 1.5% agar. Freeze-dried ethylacetate extract
(2 mg) and piperine (1 mg) were dissolved separately in
0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and final volume was
adjusted to 0.5 ml with distilled water. Ethylacetate
extract (500 and 1000 µg) and piperine (5, 10, 15 and 20
µg) were added to each potato disc. Vincristine (6.25
µg/disc) was used as the standard drug. After application
of test compounds, the petridishes were sealed with
paraffin film and kept at room temperature for 15 days at
room temperature for the growth of A. tumefaciens and
the development of crown-gall tumors on potato discs.
Each set of experiment was carried out in triplicate. The
crown-gall tumors developed on potato discs were stained
with Lugol’s solution (5% iodine plus 10% potassium
iodide in water). The tumor cells lack starch, so these
cells had no stains against the stained background of
normal potato cells rich in starch. The crown-gall tumors
on the potato discs were observed with the aid of
Olympus SZPT Microscope with Olympus PM20 camera
and the average number of tumors for the sample and
negative control were counted on the individual discs.
Antitumor activity was quantified as percentage inhibition
(Ti) from the expression: Ti = 100 x (1-n
e
/n
c
), where n
e
is
the number of tumors for an experimental compounds,
and n
c
is the number of tumors on the appropriate
DMSO/water control discs. A Ti value of more than 20%
in two or more independent assays considered as
beneficial for further investigation (Ferrigni et al., 1982).
Antibacterial activity
The antibacterial activity of ethylacetate extract of L.
hyssopifolia Linn. and piperine was studied against Gram-
positive (Staphyllococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis,
Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megatorium) and Gram-negative
(Shigella flexneri, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella boydii,
Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli)
pathogenic bacteria by disc diffusion technique (Bauer et
al., 1966). Streptomycin (100 µg/disc) was used as the
reference standard. Nutrient agar media (DIFCO) was
used for preparing fresh cultures and sensitivity tests. The
test organisms (stored at -20° C in presence of 3-4 drops
of glycerol) were collected from the Department of
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of
Dhaka, Bangladesh and subculturing in nutrient broth
medium was performed in our laboratory. One loop of
broth culture was added per nutrient agar plate and
sensitivity assay with test materials was performed by
disc diffusion method.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
According to a report by World Health Organization
(WHO), the use of herbal medicines is in increasing trend
in both developing and industrialized countries.
Considering the fact that over one-third of the population
in developing countries lack access to essential medicines
and the provision of safe and effective traditional
therapies could become a critical tool to increase access to
health care, WHO launched its first ever comprehensive
traditional medicine strategy in 2002
(http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs134/en/
).
Table 1: Antitumor activity of ethylacetate extract of L. hyssopifolia and piperine
b
Test material
Dose
(µg/disc)
Average number of tumor
per disc
% Inhibition of tumor
growth
IC
50
(µg/disc)
Ethylacetate extract
Piperine
Vincristine
Control
500
1000
20
15
10
05
6.25
Saline
05.66± 0.30
03.33 ± 0.36
07.33 ± 1.01
09.00 ± 0.33
13.66 ± 0.54
16.66 ± 0.89
00.00 ± 0.00
21.00 ± 1.53
71.05
84.14
66.68
59.09
37.90
24.27
100
------
----
13.50
-----
b
Values are average of three replicates and vincristine (6.25 µg/disc) was used as standard drug which showed 100%
inhibition of tumor growth.
Antitumor and antibacterial activity of ethylacetate extract of Ludwigia hyssopifolia Linn
Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2007, Vol.20(2), 128-131
130
The plant Ludwigia hyssopifolia Linn. is one of the
traditionally used medicinal plants of Bangladesh. In a
previous study, we have reported the antidiarrheal activity
of the methanol extract of this plant in experimental
animals (Shaphiullah et al., 2003). In an effort to make
biological and chemical characterization of indigenous
medicinal plants of Bangladesh, we have isolated an
alkaloidal constituent, piperine, from the ethylacetate
extract of L. hyssopifolia Linn. In the present study, the
antitumor and antibacterial activity of the crude
ethylacetate extract and that of piperine was studied. The
ethylacetate extract (yield, 0.25%) was obtained by
successive cold extraction of whole plant of Ludwigia
hyssopifolia Linn. with n-hexane and ethylacetate.
Piperine was isolated (yield, 0.001%) from ethylacetate
extract as described in materials and methods. The
structure of piperine was confirmed by various spectral
analyses as mentioned in experimental section. The IR
spectrum of the compound gave characteristic absorption
band at v
max
1630 cm
-1
, which indicated the presence of an
amide carbonyl group. The positive ion FAB MS
spectroscopy revealed the presence of protonated
molecular ion [M+1]
+
peak at 286.2. The FAB
+
MS,
1
H
spectral analysis of the compound led to establish the
molecular formula of the isolated compound as 1-[5-(1,3-
benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2,4-pentadienyl]piperidine
(C
17
H
19
NO
3
), which was further confirmed by comparing
with published spectral data of the alkaloid pipreine.
Piperine (1).
1
H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl
3
): δ 3.55 (2H,br
s, H-2), 1.57 (2H, m, H-3), 1.63 (2H, m, H-4), 1.57 (2H,
m, H-5), 3.55 (2H, br s, H-6), 6.60 (1H, d, J 14.5 Hz, H-
2’), 7.31 (1H, dd, J 14.6,11.4 Hz, H-3’), 6.89 (1H, dd, J
14.6, 11.4 Hz, H-4’), 6.81 (1H, d, J 11.0 Hz, H-5’), 5.95
(2H, s, H-2”), 6.78 (1H, d, J 1.6 Hz, H-4”), 6.94 (1H, dd,
J 1.6,8.0 Hz, H-5”), 7.08 (1H, d, J 8.0 Hz, H-7”);
13
C-
NMR (125 MHz, CDCl
3
): 44.58 (C-2), 26.87 (C-3), 25.53
(C-4), 27.86 (C-5), 48.16 (C-6), 167.76 (C-1’), 120.58 (C-
2’), 144.62 (C-3’), 126.41 (C-4’), 140.21 (C-5’), 102.71
Table 2: In vitro antibacterial activity of ethylacetate extract of L. hyssopifolia Linn. and piperine
c
Test Organism A B C
Vibrio cholerae
Shigella flexneri
Shigella boydii
Shigella dysenteriae
Salmonella typhi
Escherichia coli
Staphylococcus aureus
Bacillus subtilis
Bacillus cereus
Bacillus megaterium
12.33 ± 0.58
13.00 ± 1.00
13.67 ± 0.58
20.00 ± 2.00
13.67 ± 1.53
12.67 ± 1.53
18.33 ± 0.58
18.33 ± 1.53
15.33 ± 0.58
13.67 ± 0.58
11.67 ± 0.58
14.33 ± 1.00
10.67 ± 0.58
15.00 ± 1.00
N
N
14.00 ± 0.58
12.67 ± 1.53
11.33 ± 0.58
10.00 ± 0.58
18.00 ± 1.00
19.33 ± 1.53
18.67 ± 1.15
19.67 ± 1.15
18.67 ± 1.15
20.33 ± 1.52
24.33 ± 0.58
20.33 ± 0.58
19.33 ± 1.53
19.33 ± 0.58
c
Values are zone of inhibition (mm) presented as Mean ± SD from triplicate set of experiments. A = Ethylacetate
extract (400 µg/disc), B = piperine (200 µg/disc) and C = streptomycin (100 µg/disc), N = not performed.
Dried coarse powder of
Ludwigia hyssopifolia L (800 g)
Extraction with n-hexane
Residue
Extraction with ethylacetate
Ethylacetate extract, 2 g
Vacuum Liquid Chromatography
O
O
N
O
EF-3, 153 mg
PTLC (Tol : EA = 90:10)
Piperine, 8 mg
R
f
= 0.25 (Tol : EA = 90:10)
Scheme 1
Banibrata Das et al.
Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2007, Vol.20(2), 128-131
131
(C-2”), 149.81 (C-3a”), 106.71 (C-4”), 132.42 (C-5”),
123.87 (C-6”), 109.36 (C-7”), 149.76 (C-7a”); FABMS
m/z: 286.2 [M+H]
+
. C
17
H
19
NO
3
(285.34).
In vitro antitumor activity of ethylacetate extract and of
isolated compound, piperine was performed by potato
disc bioassay method (McLaughlin, 1991). Ethylacetate
extract exhibited 73.05 and 84.14% inhibition of
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-induced crown gall tumor
formation on potato discs at concentrations of 500 and
1000 µg/disc, respectively. In the same study, piperine
inhibited the formation of crown-gall tumor by 66.68%,
59.09%, 37.90% and 24.27% at concentrations of 20, 15,
10 and 5 µg/disc, respectively. The concentration at
which 50% inhibition (IC
50
) of crown-gall formation
observed with piperine was found to be 13.50 µg/disc
(table 1). Vincristine, used as the standard drug, showed
100% inhibition at a dose of 6.25 µg/disc. In a recent
study, piperine was also found to inhibit growth of
Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA)-induced solid tumors
in Swiss-albino mice (Sunila and Kuttan, 2004).
Moreover, cytotoxic activity of piperine was reported in
several recent studies (Padmaja et al., 2002; Sunila and
Kuttan, 2004).
Crown-gall is a neoplastic disease of plants, in which
autonomous plant tumor cells are produced from normal,
wounded plant cells by the action of bacteria-borne
tumor-inducing plasmids. The method is independent of
antibiosis (Fadli et al., 1991). It is caused by a specific
strain of Gram-negative bacterium Agrobacterium
tumefaciens ((Pelczar and Reid, 1965). As certain
mechanisms of tumorigenesis, such as the intracellular
incorporation of extraneous nucleic acids, are common in
both plants and animals (McLaughlin, 1991), the
fundamental concept of developing this method was that
the antitumor drugs might inhibit the initiation and growth
of tumors in both animal and plant systems. Thus the
inhibitory effect of the ethylacetate extract of L.
hyssopifolia Linn. and its active constituent piperine on
crown-gall tumor formation indicated the rationale of
exploiting this plant species for the prevention and/or
treatment of cancer.
In vitro antibacterial activity of ethylacetate extract and
piperine was studied by disc diffusion method (Bauer et
al., 1966) at a concentration of 400 and 200 µg/disc,
respectively, taking streptomycin (100 µg/disc) as the
reference standard. Among the bacterial strains tested,
Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus
subtilis exhibited good sensitivity (17-20mm) to
ethylacetate extract, while piperine showed only weak
antibacterial activity (13-15 mm) against Shigella flexneri,
Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus
subtilis (table 2).
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to thank Dr. M. A. Rashid, Senior
Scientist, Laboratory of Drug Discovery Research and
Development, National Cancer Institute, Frederick Cancer
Research (currently, the Dean, Faculty of Pharmacy,
Dhaka University, Bangladesh) for spectral analysis.
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Received: 23-01-2006 – Accepted: 24-03-2007
... It has the effects of clearing heat and detoxifying, removing saprophytic muscles, and it is used to treat diseases such as colds, sore throats and scab (Editorial Board of Chinese Flora of Chinese Academy of Sciences 2000). Previous phytochemical studies have indicated that L. hyssopifolia contains different types of chemical components, including phenolic acids (Zhang et al. 2019), macrolides (Zhang et al. 2019), triterpenoids (Lu et al. 2009;Rao et al. 2013), flavonoids , alkaloids (Das et al. 2007), steroids (Lu et al. 2009;) and coumarins (Rao et al. 2013). Pharmacological studies have indicated that L. hyssopifolia exhibited a variety of biological activities including antitumor (Das et al. 2007), antibacterial ) and antidiarrheal (Shaphiullah et al. 2003) activities. ...
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Purification of the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions from Ludwigia hyssopifolia yielded 9 natural products, ethyl gallate (1), vanillin (2), trans- p-hydroxycinnamic acid (3), trans- p-hydroxy-ethyl cinnamate (4), ozoroalide (5), scopoletin (6), de- O-methyllasiodiplodin (7), syringaldehyde (8), and 3,3′-dimethoxy-4,4′-dihydroxy-stilbene (9). The structures of 1 to 9 were determined by spectroscopic analyses including 1D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) ( ¹ H NMR and ¹³ C NMR) and Mass Spectrum (MS) data. Four compounds displayed cytotoxic effects on the human laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cell line. Compounds 5 and 7 were also effective against TU212 cell line and significantly inhibited cancer cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner on Hep-2 cell line.
... Moreover, Ludwigia octovalvis leaves methanol extract showed a potent inhibitory activity against E. coli, whereas the roots methanolic extract inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) at MIC(minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC(minimum bactericidal concentration) values of 62.5 μg/ml and 125 μg/ml, respectively (Yakob et al., 2012a). In addition to, piperine and ethylacetate extracts of Ludwigia hyssopifolia have moderate inhibitory effect against Gram+ and Gram-pathogenic bacteria (Das et al., 2007). The aqueous methanolic, ethanol, ethylacetate and butanol extracts of the aerial, roots or the both parts of Circaea lutetiana L., Epilobium hirsutum L., Ludwigia leptocarpa (Nutt.) ...
Article
Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance The Onagraceae is a widely distributed family of flowering plants comprises about 17 genera and more than 650 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees. Onagraceae also common as willowherb family or evening primrose family is divided into two subfamilies; Ludwigioideae (mainly genus; Ludwigia) and Onagroideae. Family Onagraceae is characterized by its numerous traditional uses as treatment of hormonal imbalances, urinary system ailments, prostate health maintenance, and antimicrobial effects. Aim of the study This review aims to introduce a holistic overview on the phytochemical composition, economical importance and ethnopharmacological value of different species of family Onagraceae. Materials and methods Literature review was performed using different data bases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Reaxys searching for articles focused on phytochemical composition, bioactivity and ethnopharmacological history of Onagraceae species. Results Different species of Onagraceae were reported to have a great variety of phytochemicals including flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids, triterpenoids, saponins, and volatile/fixed oils. Onagraceae exhibited several health benefits and pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic and analgesic, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial. Conclusions Family Onagraceae is an extremely important family with diverse phytochemical composition which enriches their pharmacological importance and hence it's commercial and economical value.
... This same alkaloid has been found in L. hyssopifolia (G. Don) Exell [59]. The presence of both flavonoids and alkaloids can explain some of the results concerning fertility, the number of hatched eggs and the amount of eggs that survived from the L. tomentosa and L. sericea extracts. ...
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We tested the bioactivity of aqueous extracts of Ludwigia spp. (Myrtales: Onagraceae) on the biological cycle of Plutella xylostella. We assessed the duration of and viability during the larval, pupal and adult phases, as well as the influence of the extracts on the fecundity and hatching of P. xylostella eggs. Subsequently, we phytochemically screened the extracts. The extracts of L. tomentosa and L. longifolia reduced the pupal weight instead of prolonging the larval stage of P. xylostella. The L. tomentosa effect caused higher larval mortality and reduced the fecundity and hatching of P. xylostella eggs, and L. sericea reduced the egg survival. The phenolic compounds-flavonoids, condensed tannins and alkaloids-were more abundant in L. nervosa, L. tomentosa, L. sericea and L. longifolia. The L. tomentosa, L. longifolia and L. sericea extracts were bioactive, and these species showed the best results regarding their ability to control P. xylostella populations, because these plants produce substances able to inhibit food consumption and interfere with the morphological and physiological transformations of the offspring and the oviposition of adults.
... A large percentage of people residing in developing countries lack opportunities to use essential medicines and the availability of safe and cost-effective plant based medicines could provide more ways to improve health care in underdeveloped nations. WHO launched its first traditional medicine strategy in 2002 (1). Plants have been the source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years and many potential modern drugs have been isolated from this natural source, which is based on their traditional medicinal values (2). ...
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The resistance of bacteria against the traditional antibiotics needs urgent attention and thus necessitates for the development of the new drug molecule against bacterial infections. The whole study focused on investigating the therapeutic and medicinal properties of the fruits of Piper longum. The antioxidant properties of the plant extracts was determined using FRAP method. The anticancer activity of the different extracts of fruits of Piper longum on human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line (HCC-827) has been assessed in vitro using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay). The potency of plant extracts to inhibit the cancerous growth was recorded in terms of decrease in viable cell count as compared to the control value. The inhibition of the growth of human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line (HCC-827) has been found to be dose dependent. Phalloidin staining of the control and treated cells were performed to check the changes in the structure of cytoskeleton which appeared to be distorted and disorganized in control as compared to treated cancerous cells. In our study we have focused on working on the causes and search for herbal medicine which has less or no side-effects, is cost effective and reliable source of treatment.
... Like in case of any other disease conditions, medicinal plants are being used in management of various eye ailments from ancient times. Medicinal plants are used in case of cataract, eye infections, conjunctivitis, eye dryness, and other eye disorders in many countries including India (Sandhu et al., 2011;Das et al., 2013;Rothe and Maheshwari, 2016), Bangladesh (Yusuf et al., 2006;Das et al., 2007Das et al., , 2013, Nepal (Manandhar, 2002;Acharya and Pokhrel, 2006;Gewali, 2011; Kadota et al., 1994 Morinda citrifolia L. (Fruits) Sequential water, ethanol, and chloroform extracts AR inhibition and free radical scavenging activity. ...
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Cataract is the leading reason of blindness worldwide and is defined by the presence of any lens opacities or loss of transparency. The most common symptoms of cataract are impaired vision, decreased contrast sensitivity, color disturbance, and glare. Oxidative stress is among the main mechanisms involved in the development of age-related cataract. Surgery through phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation is the most effective method for cataract treatment, however, there are chances of serious complications and irreversible loss of vision associated with the surgery. Natural compounds consisting of antioxidant or anti-inflammatory secondary metabolites can serve as potential leads for anticataract agents. In this review, we tried to document medicinal plants and plant-based natural products used for cataract treatment worldwide, which are gathered from available ethnopharmacological/ethnobotanical data. We have extensively explored a number of recognized databases like Scifinder, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Scopus by using keywords and phrases such as “cataract”, “blindness”, “traditional medicine”, “ethnopharmacology”, “ethnobotany”, “herbs”, “medicinal plants”, or other relevant terms, and summarized the plants/phytoconstituents that are evaluated in different models of cataract and also tabulated 44 plants that are traditionally used in cataract in various folklore medical practices. Moreover, we also categorized the plants according to scientific studies carried out in different cataract models with their mechanisms of action.
Article
This datasheet on Ludwigia hyssopifolia covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Hosts/Species Affected, Diagnosis, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Uses, Prevention/Control, Further Information.
Book
This book covers key areas of biotechnology and bioresource technology. The contributions by the authors include biodiesel, palm kernel oil, viscosity, saponification value, glycerol, copper nanoparticles, Inter-simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker, pasture grass, Bali cattle, proteomic, triacylglycerol lipase, oleosomes, polyclonal antibodies, enzyme activity, microbial activity, azoreductase, active sites, Response Surface Methodology (RSM), callogenesis, leukemic cell line K562, TPC, DPPH, hydrodesulfurization, biodesulfurization, biocatalysts, biorefining, erythrocyte, deformability, urethane, Methylene Green (MG), Diethylthiourea (DETU), proton dependence, redoxreaction etc. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of biotechnology and bioresource technology.
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Dried whole plant parts of Ludwigia hyssopifolia were subjected to successive cold extraction with n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. The methanol extract (LHM), obtained as 1% yield, showed significant antidiarrheal property by reducing diarrheal episodes in castor oil and serotonin induced diarrhea in laboratory mice at a dose of higher than 100 mg/kg body weight as compared to standard drug loperamide given at a dose of 66.67 microg/kg body weight. The percent reduction in diarrheal episode by 56.32 and 89.66 after castor oil challenge and 59.09 and 86.36 in serotonin induced diarrhea was observed at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. The extract LHM was also found to reduce the gastrointestinal motility by 53.8% at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight as compared to control, while no remarkable inhibition of gastrointestinal motility was seen at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract.
Article
A new piperidine alkaloid 1-[7-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2, 4-heptadienyl]piperidine, piperdardine, was isolated from hexane and chloroform extracts of Piper tuberculatum var. tuberculatum. A combination of 1D and 2D NMR, together with other spectroscopic methods, led to the unambiguous assignments of all protons and carbons of the molecule.
Article
Using a slight modification of the crown-gall potato disc bioassay, we were able to apply this test for two previously described antineoplastic lipophilic metabolites, didemnin B and mediterraneol A [1], and to use it as a guide for chromatographic separations of meroterpenoids from Cystoseira mediterranea. An active compound, mediterraneone [3], was isolated, and its structure was found to be a novel norsesquiterpenoid by chemical and spectral methods.
Article
Galsky et al. (10, 11) have reported that the inhibition and growth of crown gall tumors, initiated on potato discs by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, apparently has good agreement with 3PS in vivo antileukemic activity in mice. We have now modified and evaluated this assay for its potential use as a prescreen and fractionation monitor of plant extracts for 3PS activity. The modified assay was performed on a series of natural compounds and plant extracts (known to have 3PS activity) and on extracts of seeds of 41 Euphorbiaceae species. The results suggest that the potato disc assay is a safe, simple, rapid, in-house, low cost, prescreen for 3PS antitumor activity; it detects some false positives, but few false negatives; it is statistically much more predictive (p = 0.002) of 3PS activity than either the 9KB (p = 0.140) or the 9PS (p = 0.114) cytotoxicity assays. Its extended use could easily obviate the expense and extensive need for animals in the initial stages of antitumor screening and plant fractionation.
Article
Ethanolic extracts of six Indian medicinal plants, piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z were tested for cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test. Piper longum showed most potent cytotoxic activity. Piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z showed potent activity with LC(50) 2.4, 8.9 and 4.9, respectively.
Article
Alcoholic extract of the fruits of the plant Piper longum and its component piperine was studied for their immunomodulatory and antitumor activity. Alcoholic extract of the fruits was 100% toxic at a concentration of 500 microg/ml to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells and 250 microg/ml to Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. Piperine was found to be cytotoxic towards DLA and EAC cells at a concentration of 250 microg/ml. Alcoholic extract and piperine was also found to produce cytotoxicity towards L929 cells in culture at a concentration of 100 and 50 microg/ml, respectively. Administration of alcoholic extract of Piper longum (10 mg/dose/animal) as well as piperine (1.14 mg/dose/animal) could inhibit the solid tumor development in mice induced with DLA cells and increase the life span of mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor to 37.3 and 58.8%, respectively. Administration of Piper longum extract and piperine increased the total WBC count to 142.8 and 138.9%, respectively, in Balb/c mice. The number of plaque forming cells also enhanced significantly by the administration of the extract (100.3%) and piperine (71.4%) on 5th day after immunization. Bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase positive cells were also increased by the administration of Piper longum extract and piperine.
Name changes in Bangladesh angiosperms
Huq MM (1986). Name changes in Bangladesh angiosperms. Dhaka: Bangladesh National Herbarium, BARC.