Paulus WJ, Tschope C, Sanderson JE, Rusconi C, Flachskampf FA, Rademakers FE, et al. How to diagnose diastolic heart failure: a consensus statement on the diagnosis of heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction by the Heart Failure and Echocardiography Associations of the European Society of Cardiology

University of Oslo, Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
European Heart Journal (Impact Factor: 15.2). 10/2007; 28(20):2539-50. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehm037
Source: PubMed


Diastolic heart failure (DHF) currently accounts for more than 50% of all heart failure patients. DHF is also referred to as heart failure with normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (HFNEF) to indicate that HFNEF could be a precursor of heart failure with reduced LVEF. Because of improved cardiac imaging and because of widespread clinical use of plasma levels of natriuretic peptides, diagnostic criteria for HFNEF needed to be updated. The diagnosis of HFNEF requires the following conditions to be satisfied: (i) signs or symptoms of heart failure; (ii) normal or mildly abnormal systolic LV function; (iii) evidence of diastolic LV dysfunction. Normal or mildly abnormal systolic LV function implies both an LVEF > 50% and an LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) <97 mL/m(2). Diagnostic evidence of diastolic LV dysfunction can be obtained invasively (LV end-diastolic pressure >16 mmHg or mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure >12 mmHg) or non-invasively by tissue Doppler (TD) (E/E' > 15). If TD yields an E/E' ratio suggestive of diastolic LV dysfunction (15 > E/E' > 8), additional non-invasive investigations are required for diagnostic evidence of diastolic LV dysfunction. These can consist of blood flow Doppler of mitral valve or pulmonary veins, echo measures of LV mass index or left atrial volume index, electrocardiographic evidence of atrial fibrillation, or plasma levels of natriuretic peptides. If plasma levels of natriuretic peptides are elevated, diagnostic evidence of diastolic LV dysfunction also requires additional non-invasive investigations such as TD, blood flow Doppler of mitral valve or pulmonary veins, echo measures of LV mass index or left atrial volume index, or electrocardiographic evidence of atrial fibrillation. A similar strategy with focus on a high negative predictive value of successive investigations is proposed for the exclusion of HFNEF in patients with breathlessness and no signs of congestion. The updated strategies for the diagnosis and exclusion of HFNEF are useful not only for individual patient management but also for patient recruitment in future clinical trials exploring therapies for HFNEF.

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    • "The ratio of E wave to the early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e′) was determined using color-coded tissue Doppler imaging with the sample volume positioned in the septal mitral annulus. LV diastolic dysfunction was defined in line with the findings from a previous report [14]. Briefly, electrocardiographic evidence of atrial fibrillation or an E/e′ N 15 or 8 b E/e′ b 15, with an E/A b 0.5, a deceleration time N 280 ms, and an LV mass index N 122 g/m 2 for women or N 149 g/m 2 for men defined LV diastolic dysfunction. "
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    ABSTRACT: Albuminuria is an established risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular events in high-risk populations. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between normoalbuminuria and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. The present study evaluated the impact of the low-grade albuminuria on LV diastolic function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · IJC Metabolic and Endocrine
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    • "Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health problem worldwide and can lead to heart failure (HF) (National Health Service, 2010; American Heart Association, 2014). Epidemiological studies, by Paulus et al. (2007) and Wang and Nagueh (2009), stated that at least 50% of the HF patients have left-ventricular diastolic dysfunction with normal systolic pump function. Despite the wide variety of surgical and pharmacological treatments developed over the past, diastolic dysfunction is still a common and less well-understood medical condition. "
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    ABSTRACT: Majority of heart failure patients who suffer from diastolic dysfunction retain normal systolic pump action. The dysfunction remodels the myocardial fibre structure of left-ventricle (LV), changing its regular diastolic behaviour. Existing LV diastolic models ignored the effects of right-ventricular (RV) deformation, resulting in inaccurate strain analysis of LV wall during diastole. This paper, for the first time, proposes a numerical approach to investigate the effect of fibre-angle distribution and RV deformation on LV diastolic mechanics. A finite element modelling of LV passive inflation was carried out, using structure-based orthotropic constitutive law. Rule-based fibre architecture was assigned on a bi-ventricular (BV) geometry constructed from non-invasive imaging of human heart. The effect of RV deformation on LV diastolic mechanics was investigated by comparing the results predicted by BV and single LV model constructed from the same image data. Results indicated an important influence of RV deformation which led to additional LV passive inflation and increase of average fibre and sheet stress-strain in LV wall during diastole. Sensitivity of LV passive mechanics to the changes in the fibre distribution was also examined. The study revealed that LV diastolic volume increased when fibres were aligned more towards LV longitudinal axis. Changes in fibre angle distribution significantly altered fibre stress-strain distribution of LV wall. The simulation results strongly suggest that patient-specific fibre structure and RV deformation play very important roles in LV diastolic mechanics and should be accounted for in computational modelling for improved understanding of the LV mechanics under normal and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Biomechanics
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    • "impaired relaxation) into clinically overt HF, disability and death. The 5-year mortality rate of symptomatic HF is approximately 60% [3]. Diastolic HF is characterised by slow LV relaxation, increased LV stiffness, increased interstitial deposition of collagen, and modified extracellular matrix proteins [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background In previous studies, we identified two urinary proteomic classifiers, termed HF1 and HF2, which discriminated subclinical diastolic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction from normal. HF1 and HF2 combine information from 85 and 671 urinary peptides, mainly up- or down-regulated collagen fragments. We sought to validate these classifiers in a population study. Methods In 745 people randomly recruited from a Flemish population (49.8 years; 51.3% women), we measured early and late diastolic peak velocities of mitral inflow (E and A) and mitral annular velocities (e' and a') by conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography, and the urinary proteome by capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. Results In the analyses adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, blood pressure, heart rate, LV mass index and intake of medications, we expressed effect sizes per 1-SD increment in the classifiers. HF1 was associated with 0.204 cm/s lower e' peak velocity (95% confidence interval, 0.057–0.351; p = 0.007) and 0.145 higher E/e' ratio (0.023–0.268; p = 0.020), while HF2 was associated with a 0.174 higher E/e' ratio (0.046–0.302; p = 0.008). According to published definitions, 67 (9.0%) participants had impaired LV relaxation and 96 (12.9%) had elevated LV filling pressure. The odds of impaired relaxation associated with HF1 was 1.38 (1.01–1.88; p = 0.043) and that of increased LV filling pressure associated with HF2 was 1.38 (1.00–1.90; p = 0.052). Conclusions In a general population, the urinary proteome correlated with diastolic LV dysfunction, proving its utility for early diagnosis of this condition.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
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