Agonists of protease-activated receptors 1 and 2 stimulate electrolyte secretion from mouse gallbladder
Cholecystitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. Inflammation induces the activation of proteases that can signal to cells by cleaving protease-activated receptors (PARs) to induce hemostasis, inflammation, pain, and repair. However, the distribution of PARs in the gallbladder is unknown, and their effects on gallbladder function have not been fully investigated. We localized immunoreactive PAR(1) and PAR(2) to the epithelium, muscle, and serosa of mouse gallbladder. mRNA transcripts corresponding to PAR(1) and PAR(2), but not PAR(4), were detected by RT-PCR and sequencing. Addition of thrombin and a PAR(1)-selective activating peptide (TFLLRN-NH(2)) to the serosal surface of mouse gallbladder mounted in an Ussing chamber stimulated an increase in short-circuit current in wild-type but not PAR(1) knockout mice. Similarly, serosally applied trypsin and PAR(2) activating peptide (SLIGRL-NH(2)) increased short-circuit current in wild-type but not PAR(2) knockout mice. Proteases and activating peptides strongly inhibited electrogenic responses to subsequent stimulation with the same agonist, indicating homologous desensitization. Removal of HCO(3)(-) ions from the serosal buffer reduced responses to thrombin and trypsin by >80%. Agonists of PAR(1) and PAR(2) increase intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in isolated and cultured gallbladder epithelial cells. The COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam and an inhibitor of CFTR prevented the stimulatory effect of PAR(1) but not PAR(2). Thus PAR(1) and PAR(2) are expressed in the epithelium of the mouse gallbladder, and serosally applied proteases cause a HCO(3)(-) secretion. The effects of PAR(1) but not PAR(2) depend on generation of prostaglandins and activation of CFTR. These mechanisms may markedly influence fluid and electrolyte secretion of the inflamed gallbladder when multiple proteases are generated.
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