Bezold G, Politch JA, Kiviat NB, Kuypers JM, Wolff H, Anderson DJ. Prevalence of sexually transmissible pathogens in semen from asymptomatic male infertility patients with and without leukocytospermia

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Fertility and sterility (Impact Factor: 4.59). 06/2007; 87(5):1087-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.08.109
Source: PubMed


To determine the prevalence of pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in semen from asymptomatic male infertility patients with and without leukocytospermia (LCS), and associations between STIs, inflammatory markers, and other semen variables.
Retrospective, controlled study.
Academic Medical Center.
Two hundred and forty-one male infertility patients undergoing routine semen analysis: 132 with LCS, and 109 without LCS.
The DNA from STI pathogens (human papillomavirus [HPV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], herpes simplex virus [HSV], human herpesvirus type 6 [HHV-6], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], hepatitis B virus [HBV], and Chlamydia trachomatis [CT]), routine semen parameters, and markers of accessory gland and epididymal function and inflammation.
The DNA from STI pathogens was detected in 45/241 (18.7%) of the samples (CMV, 8.7%; HPV, 4.5%; HHV-6, 3.7%; HSV, 3.7%; CT, 2.5%; EBV, 0.4%; and HBV, 0%), with no difference in prevalence between the LCS and non-LCS groups. The DNA of STI pathogens in semen was associated with a decrease in sperm concentration, motile sperm concentration, total sperm count, and neutral alpha-glucosidase concentration, whereas LCS was associated with a decrease in total sperm count, percent normal forms, and fructose concentration.
The DNA of STI pathogens was detected in semen from a high percentage of asymptomatic male infertility patients, and was associated with poor semen quality. Efforts to diagnose and treat subclinical genital-tract infections should be intensified.

Download full-text


Available from: Nancy B Kiviat, Feb 11, 2015
    • "Some authors have indicated a lack of any connection between leukocytospermia and diminished semen quality525354. However, the vast majority of clinical and experimental in vitro reports have shown a direct association between leukocytospermia and deterioration in semen parameters, in terms of total sperm count [55, 56], sperm motility [9, 55,57585960, sperm morphology [56, 59, 60], and sperm viability [60] . Moreover, according to some authors, leukocytospermia represents an essential or additional risk factor that needs to be treated if sperm quality is to be improved [61, 62]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The invasion of the male reproductive tract by microorganisms, and its subsequent consequences for sperm fertilizing potential, has been intensely discussed. The role of the bacteria that are responsible for the colonization and contamination of the male urogenital tract, rather than its infection, in diminished sperm parameters raises the most controversy. There are numerous premises suggesting that bacterial semen infection is associated with male infertility. However, the molecular mechanism by which the fertility is affected is complex and multifactorial, and still presents a puzzle. Some authors have suggested that direct interactions between bacteria and human spermatozoa facilitate sperm immobilization, affect sperm morphology, and thus weaken the ability of sperm to fertilize. On the other hand, the massive infiltration of activated leukocytes into the inflammatory site may be associated with impairment of sperm fertilizing potential, due to oxidative, apoptotic, and immune processes. This review presents current research trends and aims to summarize the present knowledge of semen inflammation and causative bacterial agents in the male urogenital tract, with its consequence on seminological parameters, and male fertility status.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
  • Source
    • "The latter represents a non-complicated form of MAGI with the lowest effect on sperm parameters compared with the complicated forms of MAGI (prostato–vesciculitis and prostato–vesiculo–epididymitis), which involve more than one accessory gland and have a greater negative effect on male fertility (La Vignera et al., 2011). On this basis, the risk is to under-diagnose MAGI, a clinical condition associated with HPV infection, another medical condition strongly underestimated, as shown in several studies (Bezold et al., 2007; Cai et al., 2014; Iwasawa et al., 1992). The HPV infection has been shown to present with few or atypical symptoms (Bartoletti et al., 2014) and a chronic course that can affect the quality of sperm parameters (Foresta et al., 2010; Lai et al., 1997) or to be present in sperm banks of assisted reproductive technique centres (Foresta et al., 2011a, 2011b; Garolla et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the semen of patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI) was evaluated. One hundred infertile patients with MAGI were classified into group A: patients with an inflammatory MAGI (n = 48) and group B: patients with a microbial form (n = 52). Healthy age-matched fertile men (34.0 ± 4.0 years) made up the control group (n = 20). Amplification of HPV DNA was carried out by HPV-HS Bio nested polymerase chain reaction for the detection of HPV DNA sequences within the L1 ORF. Ten patients in group A (20.8%) and 15 patients in group B (28.8%) had a HPV infection; two controls (10.0%) had HPV infection. Patients with MAGI had a significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with controls; patients with a microbial MAGI had significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with patients with an inflammatory form (both P < 0.05). Patients with MAGI and HPV had a slight, but significantly lower sperm progressive motility and normal morphology compared with patients with MAGI HPV-negative (P < 0.05). Elevated frequency of HPV infection occurred in patients with MAGI, suggesting that HPV should be investigated in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Reproductive biomedicine online
  • Source
    • "According to recent findings 15–20% of infertile male subjects are affected by semen infection [8], and most data have been concordant with respect to the relevance of STDs to male infertility [7], [8]. Several STDs in semen were associated with poor sperm quality [9] and decreased sperm concentration and motility [7]. However, there are few studies evaluating these aspects, and additional epidemiological studies in different populations and clinical scenarios are needed to determine the real impact of STD pathogens on male infertility. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) -1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
Show more