Multiplex Analysis of Serum Cytokines in Melanoma Patients Treated with Interferon- 2b

Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Clinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.72). 04/2007; 13(8):2422-8. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-1805
Source: PubMed


Interferon (IFN)-alpha2b is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for operable high-risk melanoma that has been shown to significantly and durably prolong relapse-free survival (RFS) of patients with stage IIB-III melanoma. Development of reliable serum assays may contribute to the development of methods for earlier detection of melanoma and the selection of patients who may be most susceptible to current available interventions with IFNalpha.
A powerful high-throughput xMAP multiplex immunobead assay technology (Luminex Corp., Austin, TX) was used to simultaneously test 29 cytokines, chemokines, angiogenic as well as growth factors, and soluble receptors in the sera of 179 patients with high-risk melanoma and 378 healthy individuals.
Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-13, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, IFNalpha, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and TNF receptor II were found to be significantly higher in patients with resected high-risk melanoma compared with healthy controls. Bayesian Network algorithm classification of the data offered 90% sensitivity at 98% specificity with 96.5% of melanoma patients distinguished from healthy individuals. IFN-alpha2b therapy resulted in a significant decrease of serum levels of immunosuppressive and tumor angiogenic/growth stimulatory factors (VEGF, epidermal growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor) and increased levels of antiangiogenic IFN-gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and IFN-alpha. Pretreatment levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and chemokines MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta were found to be significantly higher in the serum of patients with longer RFS values of 1 to 5 and >5 years when compared with patients with shorter RFS of <1 year.
These data show that multiplexed analysis of serum biomarkers is useful for the evaluation of prognostic markers of clinical outcome and potential predictive markers of response to IFN-alpha2b in patients with high-risk operable melanoma.

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    • "Interferon-α (IFN) has been suggested to exert activity against melanoma through immunomodulatory mechanisms [7], although it also has an anti-proliferative effect. Evidence for the involvement of different immunomodulatory mechanisms has been derived from several studies which have shown an increase in tumor infiltrating cells [8], the development of autoantibodies and clinical manifestations of autoimmunity (~30%) [9,10], a decrease in circulating Treg cells [11], modulation of the STAT1/STAT3 balance in tumor cells and host lymphocytes [12], changes in serum cytokine concentrations [13], and normalization of T-cell signaling defects in peripheral blood lymphocytes [14,15]. In the adjuvant setting, a meta-analysis of randomized melanoma trials using a wide range of IFN dose regimens revealed that the benefits of IFN are independent of dose or therapy duration, and translate into an absolute OS benefit of approximately 3% (95% CI: 1–5%) at 5 years [16,17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of the addition of fotemustine and/or interferon (IFN) to standard therapy with dacarbazine alone in patients with advanced malignant melanoma was investigated in a multicenter, randomized 2x2 factorial design trial. A total of 260 patients were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (A) fotemustine and dacarbazine repeated on 3-week cycle; (B) same treatment as (A) plus IFN-α2b three times per week; (C) dacarbazine alone repeated on 3-week cycle; (D) same treatment as (C) plus IFN-α2b three times per week. Two comparisons were planned to assess the efficacy of fotemustine (groups A+B vs. C+D) and IFN-α2b (groups A+C vs. B+D). Addition of fotemustine did not significantly improve overall survival (OS) (p=0.28) or progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.55); Hazard ratio (HR) for OS was 0.93 (95% CI 0.71-1.21). Similarly, addition of IFN-α2b did not improve OS (p=0.68) or PFS (p=0.65); HR for OS was 0.92 (95% CI 0.70-1.20). Overall response rate was not improved by the addition of either fotemustine (p=0.87) or IFN-α2b (p=0.57). The combination of all three drugs resulted in the highest occurrence of adverse events. No significant improvement in outcomes were observed with the addition of either fotemustine or IFN-α2b to dacarbazine. Trial registration NCT01359956
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Translational Medicine
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    • "Although changes in the blood levels of angiogenic proteins have been observed in patients administered a variety of anti-angiogenic treatments, they have not been consistent [1]. In one study in patients with cutaneous melanoma administered interferon-alfa-2b, IL-8 levels increased while VEGF and bFGF did not change [40]; in another, levels of VEGF decreased, while levels of bFGF and IL-8 did not change [41]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Blood biomarkers are needed to monitor anti-angiogenic treatments for cancer. The association of blood levels of microRNAs (miRs) implicated in angiogenesis with circulating endothelial cells (CEC) and with angiogenic proteins was examined in patients administered drugs with anti-angiogenic activity. Methods Blood was collected from patients with uveal melanoma enrolled on an adjuvant therapy trial in which they were treated sequentially with dacarbazine and interferon-alfa-2b. Plasma levels of nine angioregulatory miRs, miR-16, 20a, 106a, 125b, 126, 146a, 155, 199a, and 221, were determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction; CEC, by semi-automated immunomagnetic; and plasma angiogenic proteins, by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Results Levels of miR-199a were positively correlated and miR-106a negatively correlated with CEC pre-therapy. Decreases in miR-126 and miR-199a and increases in miR-16 and miR-106a were observed after interferon-alfa-2b, but not after dacarbazine. CEC also increased after treatment with interferon but not after treatment with dacarbazine. Levels of miRs did not correlate with levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and interleukin-8. Angiogenic proteins also did not change significantly with treatment. Conclusions Blood levels of specific angioregulatory miRs are associated with CEC, and changes in specific angioregulatory miRs parallel increases in CEC after treatment with interferon-alfa-2b. Blood levels of specific angioregulatory miRs are not associated with levels of angiogenic proteins. miRs warrant further evaluation as blood biomarkers of angiogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Translational Medicine
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    • "In addition to promoting progression of cancer, elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels have been associated with a variety of pathologies, such as fatigue, depression and cachexia (20–23). Levels of serum cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-13, GM-CSF, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MP)-1α, MP-1β, IFNα, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, epidermal growth factor, VEGF and TNF receptor II are reported to be significantly higher in patients with breast cancer and with resected high-risk melanoma than in healthy controls (24,25). These factors promote cancer growth and stimulate angiogenesis, which lead to cancer growth and metastasis in these and other cancers (26,27). "
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    ABSTRACT: Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role in the formation of tumors and metastasis and has been found to correlate with the aggressiveness of tumor growth and invasiveness of cancer. Ascorbic acid, which is known to be essential for the structural integrity of the intercellular matrix, is not produced by humans and must be obtained from the diet. Cancer patients have been shown to have very low reserves of ascorbic acid. Our main objective was to determine the effect of ascorbate supplementation on metastasis, tumor growth and tumor immunohistochemistry in mice unable to synthesize ascorbic acid [gulonolactone oxidase (gulo) knockout (KO)] when challenged with B16FO melanoma or 4T1 breast cancer cells. Gulo KO female mice 36-38 weeks of age were deprived of or maintained on ascorbate in food and water for 4 weeks prior to and 2 weeks post intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 5x105 B16FO murine melanoma cells or to injection of 5x105 4T1 breast cancer cells into the mammary pad of mice. Ascorbate-supplemented gulo KO mice injected with B16FO melanoma cells demonstrated significant reduction (by 71%, p=0.005) in tumor metastasis compared to gulo KO mice on the control diet. The mean tumor weight in ascorbate supplemented mice injected with 4T1 cells was reduced by 28% compared to tumor weight in scorbutic mice. Scorbutic tumors demonstrated large dark cores, associated with increased necrotic areas and breaches to the tumor surface, apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and weak, disorganized or missing collagen I tumor capsule. In contrast, the ascorbate-supplemented group tumors had smaller fainter colored cores and confined areas of necrosis/apoptosis with no breaches from the core to the outside of the tumor and a robust collagen I tumor capsule. In both studies, ascorbate supplementation of gulo KO mice resulted in profoundly decreased serum inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 (99% decrease, p=0.01 in the B16F0 study and 85% decrease, p=0.08 in the 4T1 study) compared to the levels in gulo KO mice deprived of ascorbate. In the B16FO study, ascorbate supplementation of gulo KO mice resulted in profoundly decreased serum VEGF (98% decrease, p=0.019 than in the scorbutic gulo KO mice). As expected, mean serum ascorbate level in ascorbate-restricted mice was 2% (p<0.001) of the mean ascorbate levels in supplemented mice. In conclusion, ascorbate supplementation hinders metastasis, tumor growth and inflammatory cytokine secretion as well as enhanced encapsulation of tumors elicited by melanoma and breast cancer cell challenge in gulo KO mice.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · International Journal of Oncology
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