Evaluation of the Performance of Flow-through Anodic Fenton Treatment in Amide Compound Degradation
A flow-through anodic Fenton treatment (FAFT) system based on the batch AFT technology was previously developed to degrade pesticides in aqueous solution. As one of a series of benchtop and pilot-scale studies in process optimization, the goal of the reported work is to evaluate the performance of the FAFT system under various operating conditions, which is critical to bringing this technology into practical general use in the field. For this purpose, the removal efficiency of the parent pesticide and the concentration of the hydroxyl radical in FAFT were calculated on the basis of a previously developed FAFT kinetic model and used for the evaluation. N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), an insect repellent, was used as a chemical probe. Experimental data showed that the key to a high treatment efficiency is to operate the FAFT system to achieve a maximum *OH production with a minimum input of energy and chemicals. For the anodic half-cell, the system should be operated under flow-through conditions with a self-developed optimum pH of 3.0, a relatively high flow rate, and the initial effluent recycled within 6-10 min to the FAFT system for further treatment; for the cathodic half-cell, it should have a fixed volume and be entirely replaced by another batch of cathodic solution only when the pH reaches a very high value. The delivery rate of the ferrous iron should be maintained at an electrolytic current between 0.01 and 0.02 A; the ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ should be between 5:1 and 10:1. NaCl was found to be the best electrolyte, with concentrations of 0.01-0.02 and 0.08 M in the anodic and cathodic half-cells, respectively. The FAFT system was successfully applied to degrade various model amide compounds and DEET formulations, which suggests the likelihood of extending this approach to other pesticide-containing wastewaters.