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Empathy and conflict resolution in friendship relations among adolescents

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Abstract

The present study addressed empathy's role in conflict resolution within the context of adolescent same-sex friendship relations. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess dispositional affective empathy and conflict resolution styles (problem solving, conflict engagement, withdrawal and compliance). The data of 307 adolescents (149 boys, 158 girls) were included in a multigroup path analysis with sex as a moderator variable. In agreement with the hypothesis that higher levels of dispositional empathy are associated with more successful conflict management, dispositional affective empathy was found to be positively linked to problem solving and negatively linked to conflict engagement among adolescent boys and girls. Dispositional affective empathy was not related to the two more passive strategies (withdrawal and compliance). Sex differences were demonstrated in empathic tendencies, with girls being more empathic than boys. Sex differences were also established in conflict resolution strategies, with girls using problem solving, withdrawal and compliance more frequently than boys. Both sexes scored equally low on conflict engagement, however, and were found to prefer problem solving to all other conflict resolution strategies. Findings are discussed in terms of previous research on empathy and conflict resolution.

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... affective empathy). Richardson et al. [29] argued that perspective taking would inhibit aggressive responses due to the high level of cognitive functioning allowing one to control impulses and reducing aggressive conflict resolution strategies [35] . The study examined 189 college students who were given the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. ...
... The study examined 189 college students who were given the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. The results confirmed that high levels of cognitive empathy were negatively associated to every measure of aggression suggesting that perspective taking lead to more constructive conflict responses [29,35] . While affective empathy also demonstrated an inverse relationship with aggressive traits such as negativism and assault [31] . ...
... While affective empathy also demonstrated an inverse relationship with aggressive traits such as negativism and assault [31] . Likewise, De Wied, Branje and Meeus, [35] found that empathy was positively connected to problem solving abilities and negatively to conflict involvement in adolescents. Castillo et al. [21] connectedly states that the ability to identify, absorb and control one's own emotions and perceive other's emotions, boosts conflict resolution dexterities relating to healthier social interactions as well as reducing aggression. ...
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The present study examined the inverse relationship between empathy (cognitive and affective) and forms of aggression (physical, verbal, anger and hostility). Previous research has continuously argued that empathy mitigates forms of aggression in individuals due to cognitive perspective taking and emotional sharing with others, that buffer hostile behaviour towards one another. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding this association in Greek culture. This correlational analysis examined empathy using the widely known multifaceted Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index and aggression was explored using the multi-dimensional Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire in a sample of 92 Greek undergraduate college students from two private institutions in Athens, Greece. Gender effects on aggression and empathy levels were investigated as well. The results revealed that cognitive and emotional empathy indeed demonstrates a negative relationship with direct physical aggression. However, other forms of aggression such as verbal aggression, hostility and anger were positively associated with personal distress and Empathic fantasy majorly linked to Greek emotional regulation difficulties. Females displayed higher Empathic fantasy scores compared to males. A cultural perspective was adopted in exploring the results considering norms, gender roles, collective regulation capacities and societal conditioning, offering links to previous literature and theories.
... This finding also explains why educational programs including learning experiences related to empathy affect conflict resolution skills (Guner, 2007;Kadivar, 2007;Karahan 2005;Karahan, 2008;Shapiro et al., 2002;Spears, 2004, Sunbul, 2008Tapan, 2006;Uysal, 2003) in a positive way. Lastly, the finding coincides with some other findings stating that the security personnel with a high level of empathetic tendency rather use constructive conflict resolution methods (Koroglu, 2012), secondary school students with a low level of empathetic tendency exhibit more aggressive behaviours in conflict resolution (Rehber, 2007), empathetic tendency has a positive effect on problem solving skills in conflict resolution (de Wied;Branje, & Meeus, 2007), empathetic communication makes it easier to resolve conflicts (Cochran, Cochran, & Hatch, 2002) ,a positive relationship was found between secondary school students' conflict resolution behaviours and empathetic tendencies (Cakir, 2016),individuals showing more empathy utilize more positive problem solving approaches in conflict resolution (Perrone-McGovern, et al., 2014), affective empathy is related to more successful conflict management (de Wied et al., 2007), and that peaceful conflict resolution and empathy have a strong (Bjorkqvist & Osterman, 2000) relationship. The results of this research regarding empathetic tendency and conflict resolution skills also reinforce the research results that examine the relationship between personality and conflict resolution skills. ...
... This finding also explains why educational programs including learning experiences related to empathy affect conflict resolution skills (Guner, 2007;Kadivar, 2007;Karahan 2005;Karahan, 2008;Shapiro et al., 2002;Spears, 2004, Sunbul, 2008Tapan, 2006;Uysal, 2003) in a positive way. Lastly, the finding coincides with some other findings stating that the security personnel with a high level of empathetic tendency rather use constructive conflict resolution methods (Koroglu, 2012), secondary school students with a low level of empathetic tendency exhibit more aggressive behaviours in conflict resolution (Rehber, 2007), empathetic tendency has a positive effect on problem solving skills in conflict resolution (de Wied;Branje, & Meeus, 2007), empathetic communication makes it easier to resolve conflicts (Cochran, Cochran, & Hatch, 2002) ,a positive relationship was found between secondary school students' conflict resolution behaviours and empathetic tendencies (Cakir, 2016),individuals showing more empathy utilize more positive problem solving approaches in conflict resolution (Perrone-McGovern, et al., 2014), affective empathy is related to more successful conflict management (de Wied et al., 2007), and that peaceful conflict resolution and empathy have a strong (Bjorkqvist & Osterman, 2000) relationship. The results of this research regarding empathetic tendency and conflict resolution skills also reinforce the research results that examine the relationship between personality and conflict resolution skills. ...
... This finding also explains why educational programs including learning experiences related to empathy affect conflict resolution skills (Guner, 2007;Kadivar, 2007;Karahan 2005;Karahan, 2008;Shapiro et al., 2002;Spears, 2004, Sunbul, 2008Tapan, 2006;Uysal, 2003) in a positive way. Lastly, the finding coincides with some other findings stating that the security personnel with a high level of empathetic tendency rather use constructive conflict resolution methods (Koroglu, 2012), secondary school students with a low level of empathetic tendency exhibit more aggressive behaviours in conflict resolution (Rehber, 2007), empathetic tendency has a positive effect on problem solving skills in conflict resolution (de Wied;Branje, & Meeus, 2007), empathetic communication makes it easier to resolve conflicts (Cochran, Cochran, & Hatch, 2002) ,a positive relationship was found between secondary school students' conflict resolution behaviours and empathetic tendencies (Cakir, 2016),individuals showing more empathy utilize more positive problem solving approaches in conflict resolution (Perrone-McGovern, et al., 2014), affective empathy is related to more successful conflict management (de Wied et al., 2007), and that peaceful conflict resolution and empathy have a strong (Bjorkqvist & Osterman, 2000) relationship. The results of this research regarding empathetic tendency and conflict resolution skills also reinforce the research results that examine the relationship between personality and conflict resolution skills. ...
... Females are also more upset by violations of politeness and more likely to challenge participants who violate rules of conduct (Smith et al. 1997). Hence, women are less likely than men to rebut another woman's question/challenge (Jeong and Davidson-Shivers 2006) and are more likely to empathize with others and seek consensus or other mutually satisfactory resolutions (De Wied et al. 2007). These findings help to explain how and why females sometimes exhibit more responsiveness (response elicitation and uptakes) and cohesive communication than men do Lin et al. 2019). ...
... For example, my idea, our idea, your idea, his/her/their idea, and the idea progressively shows a person's greater distance from the idea through the use of pronouns (my, our, your, his, her, their) and articles (the, a, an). As greater deictic proximity suggests a speaker's closer relationship with the referent (Semin 2007), a person's use of closer deictic markers in a message may reflect greater concern about his/her relationship with the addressee, suggesting greater empathy, mutual agreement or consensus seeking via flexible, general explanations rather than rigid, specific evidence (De Wied et al. 2007). Hence, we propose this hypothesis: ...
... For example, "Ana is sitting at the table" vs. "There is Ana sitting at the table." As directing addressees suggests greater personal attention (Levinson 2008) and a closer relationship among equals than otherwise, ceteris paribus (politeness theory, Eelen 2014), they might be more likely to empathize, and seek mutual agreement through flexible explanations rather than rigid evidence (De Wied et al. 2007). Likewise, after the previous speaker uses a spatial deictic marker, the current speaker might adapt to his or her preference and use an explanation rather than evidence. ...
Article
We examined how social antecedents impact students’ use of explanations versus evidence to justify arguments using statistical discourse analysis on 2028 postings from 87 graduate students in five courses, each participating in four online debates. The results show that students overall were much more likely to justify arguments with explanations than with evidence. Explanations were more likely than evidence to be used in postings by women, when students posted responses to messages that conveyed greater social proximity (using he/she/they and using you instead of we) or directed attention (there), when making posts in early parts of a discussion thread and in the opening argument. Evidence was more likely to be used when responding to messages from men and when making posts towards the end of each discussion thread.
... Although the potential gender difference in empathy has been widely studied, the results are controversial. Considering empathy as a unidimensional construct, most of studies have emphasized that girls are more empathic than boys (Zahn-Waxler et al., 1992;de Wied et al., 2007;Auyeung et al., 2009;Lucas-Molina et al., 2018). The authors of these studies argue that children learn at an early stage the roles assigned to their gender, which is why girls are more concerned about others' emotions than boys, in accordance with their caregiver role (Strauss, 2004). ...
... In terms of gender similarities or differences, the comparison of girls' and boys' empathic abilities revealed that fathers perceived girls as paying more attention to others' feelings than boys, i.e., as displaying more affective empathy. This result was largely consistent with the existing literature (Zahn-Waxler et al., 1992;de Wied et al., 2007;Auyeung et al., 2009;Lucas-Molina et al., 2018). As argued by Strauss (2004), in our society children assume behaviors and attitudes which correspond to their gender at an early age. ...
Article
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Preschoolers face new challenges in their social life: the development of social and emotional abilities in order to have positive relationships with peers and adults. Empathy, the ability to share and understand the emotions of others, contributes to this socio-emotional adjustment. This exploratory study examines mothers and fathers' perceptions of their child's empathy and individual factors, such as age, gender, and personality, which are related to cognitive and affective empathy in 63 typically developing preschoolers. Links between children's individual characteristics (empathy and personality) and their social adjustment on the one hand and risk of developing internalized vs. externalized behaviors on the other were also investigated. Parents completed four questionnaires about their child's empathy, personality, and social (mal)adjustment. The results showed that mothers and fathers perceived their children's cognitive and affective empathy, attention to others' feelings, and social actions (such as helping), in the same way, except for emotion contagion. Gender differences appeared specifically for some components of empathy: girls were said to pay more attention to others' emotions while boys had better cognitive empathy. Moreover, children's empathy as perceived by mothers or fathers was positively linked with their age, and with personality factors (extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness to experience). Cognitive empathy and personality were found to be partly related to higher social skills and lower externalized and internalized behaviors. The results nuanced specific links between cognitive and affective empathy and social adjustment as well as behavior problems at preschool age. These results may have some implications for future research and prevention in childhood.
... Extant research supports the notion that healthy friendships are indexed by high levels of companionship, connection, and prosocial behavior (Padilla-Walker et al., 2015). Moreover, friendships provide youth with multiple opportunities to be sensitive to their friends' needs, develop social intimacy, enact supportive behaviors, and even recognize or apologize for hurting a friend's feelings (De Wied et al., 2007;Roberts et al., 2014). Our results suggest that experiencing these healthy friendship processes could help to reduce levels of CU traits. ...
... In sum, our findings highlight the importance of studying friendships as they relate to CU traits. Effective and adaptive friendships are contingent on socioaffiliative skills, including empathy, guilt, and conflict resolution (Buhrmester, 1990;De Wied et al., 2007), processes that appear to be impaired in adolescents with higher CU traits (Waller et al., 2019a). However, our findings demonstrate that while adolescents high on CU traits may struggle to develop positive and high-quality friendships, those who do may be significantly less likely to show persistent and high levels of CU traits across time. ...
Article
Introduction Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits show severe and chronic forms of antisocial behavior, as well as deficits in socioaffiliative processes, such as empathy, guilt, and prosocial behavior. Adolescence represents a critical developmental window when these socioaffiliative processes can help to deepen the strength of supportive peer friendships. However, few studies have explored the relationship between CU traits and friendship quality during adolescence. In the current study, we used data from the Pathways to Desistance dataset to examine reciprocal and longitudinal associations between CU traits and friendship quality at three assessment points separated by 6 months each during adolescence. Methods The sample included adolescents who had interacted with the justice system (age at baseline, M = 16.04, SD = 1.14; N = 1354; 13.6% female). CU traits were assessed using the callousness scale of the self-reported Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory and friendship quality using a scale adapted from the Quality of Relationships Inventory. Models accounted for co-occurring aggression, impulsive-irresponsible traits, grandiose-manipulative traits, age, gender, location, and race. Results At every assessment point, CU traits were uniquely related to lower friendship quality. Moreover, we found evidence for reciprocal effects between the first two assessment points, such that CU traits were related to decreases in friendship quality over time, while lower friendship quality simultaneously predicted increases in CU traits across the same period. Conclusions Interventions for CU traits could benefit from including specific modules that target the social processes associated with adaptive and successful friendships, including empathic listening and other-orientated thinking.
... Research suggests that empathy (both cognitive and affective aspects) is important for positive social and cognitive development, peer relationships, and overall adjustment (Gleason et al., 2009;Woods et al., 2009). In addition to empathy facilitating prosocial and positive behaviors, research has shown that it also mitigates or lessens engagement in aggressive behaviors (de Wied et al., 2007;Loudin et al., 2003). Across three separate studies, researchers found that higher levels of empathy were associated with lower levels of aggression for children, adolescents, and young adults (Carlo et al., 1999;Kaukianinen et al., 1999;Mehrabian, 1997). ...
... While our study clearly indicated that empathy and engagement in relational aggression and prosocial teasing are related, the exact mechanism(s) behind these associations are unclear. Some research claims that empathy has a mitigating effect on the engagement in relational aggression, but true casual investigations are lacking (de Wied et al., 2007;Loudin et al., 2003). Additionally, little is known about the nature of the causal link between prosocial teasing and empathy, as virtually no research has been conducted on the full assortment of behaviors that fall under the definition of prosocial teasing. ...
Article
Prosocial teasing is the positive playful form of relational aggression, and studies have found children engage in playful teasing more often than aggressive teasing. Therefore , understanding the basic characteristics or skills that contribute to the more complex social skill of prosocial teasing is important. The current study focused on the role of empathy in students' perception of their engagement in two different forms of relational behaviors, playful and aggressive. Associations between empathy and engagement in playful and aggressive relational behaviors were investigated with 389 fifth-grade students in the Midwest with the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) rating scale and modified Children's Social Behavior Scale-Self-Report (CSBS-S), along with gender interaction in those relationships. Results demonstrated that empathy was significantly and negatively related to the level of engagement in both relational aggression and prosocial teasing. No gender differences were found in levels of relational aggression or in prosocial teasing. Gender differences were observed in empathy, where girls reported higher levels of empathy than boys. Results indicated that empathy was a significant predictor of engagement in both relational aggression and prosocial teasing for both fifth-grade boys and girls. Implications concerning these findings are discussed. Psychology in the Schools. 2022;1-13. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/pits
... Diversos estudios correlacionan la competencia para resolver conflictos con un mayor autoconcepto, con una valoración 01-22 Revista Páginas de Educación. Vol. 12, Núm. 2 (2019) ISSN: 1688-5287;e-ISSN: 1688-7468 3 elevada de las conductas prosociales y con la capacidad de autorregulación emocional (Arce et al., 2015;Björkqvista, Östermana y Kaukiainen, 2000;De Wied, Branje y Meeus, 2007;Galvis, 2014;Luengo, Pastorelli, Eisenberg, Zuffianò y Caprara, 2013). Debido a la interconexión de nuestro mundo emocional, no se puede desvincular el aprendizaje de la resolución de conflictos de otras destrezas sociales y emocionales (Soriano, 2006). ...
... Por otro lado, y dejando aparte la tipología escolar, se advierte que el grado de satisfacción tanto en mujeres como hombres es mayor cuando el estilo de resolución de conflictos es colaborativo. Sin embargo, se ha destacado que -en lo que se refiere a competencias-las adolescentes muestran mayores destrezas empáticas (De Wied et al., 2007;Garaigordobil y Maganto, 2011;Luengo et al., 2013) y de comunicación (Rodrigo et al., 2008). Chicas y chicos muestran, desde antes de la adolescencia, diferentes estrategias para solucionar esas situaciones (Maccoby, 2003). ...
Article
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El propósito de esta investigación es analizar los diferentes estilos de resolución de conflictos presentes en escolares adolescentes de España y ver si existen diferencias significativas entre varones y mujeres, teniendo en cuenta además el tipo de centro al que asisten (mixto o diferenciado por sexo). Para ello se definió una muestra de 816 alumnos, de 12 escuelas españolas, a la que se aplicó un cuestionario basado en el Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), adaptado y validado para adolescentes. Los resultados confirman diferencias entre sexos, ya identificadas en otras investigaciones; y, para ambos sexos, en la escuela diferenciada aparecen puntajes más altos en el estilo colaborador respecto de los estudiantes varones y mujeres que asisten a una escuela mixta. Para los demás estilos de resolución de conflictos no se encontraron diferencias significativas.
... It is suggests that women are more sensitive and understanding when faced with unpleasant situations (Harenski, Antonenko, Shane & Kiehl, 2008;Rueckert & Naybar, 2008). Similarly, women make moral judgments related to care for others and are usually more conflict-sensitive, whereas men tend to be less sensitive to painful situations (Bjorklund, 2003;de Wied et al., 2007). ...
Article
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The Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale (SCBCS) is a brief measure of compassion, created in English and translated into Brazilian Portuguese. Nonetheless, to date, no study has assessed the psychometric evidence of its Spanish translation. This study examines the evidence of validity, reliability, and factorial invariance according to the gender of a Spanish version of the SCBCS. Participants included 273 Peruvian university students (50.9% women) with an average age of 21.23 years (SD = 3.24); divided into two groups of men and women to conduct the invariance factor analysis. Other measures of mindfulness, well-being, empathy, and anxiety were applied along with the SCBCS. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) indicated that a unifactorial model adjusted significantly to the data (χ2 = 12,127, df = 5, p = .033, χ2 /df = 2.42, CFI = .998, RMSEA = .072 [CI90% .019, .125]; SRMR = .030, WRMR = .551) and presented good reliability (α = .90 [95% .88–.92]; ω = .91). Moreover, correlations between the SCBCS and other measures of mindfulness (r = .53, p < .05, cognitive empathy (r = 55; p < .05), affective empathy (r = .56, p < .05), well-being (r = .55, p < .05), and anxiety (r = −.46; p < .05) supported the convergent and discriminant validity. Likewise, the multiple-group CFA supported the factorial invariance according to the gender of the SCBCS. Results indicate that the SCBCS possesses evidence of validity, reliability, and invariance between men and women for measuring compassion toward others in Peruvian undergraduate students. SCBCS is expected to be used by researchers, healthcare professionals, teachers, and others as a useful measure of compassion in college students.
... • Altruistic helping behavior: Several studies have found a positive correlation between empathy and helping behavior toward humans in general [38,39]. For example, dispositional empathy (i.e., the tendency for individuals to imagine and experience the feelings and experiences of others) [40] has been associated with numerous positive behaviors, such as constructive and non-aggressive conflict resolution [41,42], assistance for emotionally troubled peers [43], and student helpfulness [44]. Similarly, it has been discovered that dispositional empathy is associated with differential involvement of cognitive and affective aspects of empathy in memory formation [45], thus supporting the idea that empathy is involved in modulating both lower-ordered and higher-ordered psychological aspects. ...
Chapter
Empathy, defined as “the ability to understand and share another’s emotional state or context,” is absolutely essential to human interactions at both the individual and societal levels as it enables people to share and understand other people’s feelings. If empathy is indeed such an important facet of humanity, the question of how it can be learned and taught is crucial. Today, new methods and tools to help individuals foster their empathic abilities are available, including information and communication technologies. Within this context, video games appear to be an interesting new approach for developing empathy since they provide situated, action-oriented, and embodied experiences that allow individuals to “step into someone else’s shoes.” Furthermore, computer games are low cost and widespread among the population and, if effective, could have a wide impact on promoting a more empathic society. Considering this perspective, a critical analysis of the potential of two recent best-selling video games – Detroit: Become Human and The Walking Dead – is discussed, with the aim to offer insights and practical applications for the adoption of these games to promote empathy-related abilities, in players.
... offer the potential for understanding the perspectives of others, generating creative solutions to significant problems, and growing intellectually. However, the extent to which disagreements are useful depends on the willingness of opposing sides to try to understand opposing positions (de Wied, Branje, & Meeus, 2007;Stone, Patton, & Heen, 2010). Promoting IH as an epistemic virtue worth cultivating and informing the public about research on IH has the potential to reduce social extremism, polarization, and the frequency of unresolvable disagreements over time. ...
Article
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Objective Intellectual humility (IH) refers to the recognition that personal beliefs might be wrong. We investigate possible interpersonal implications of IH for how people perceive the intellectual capabilities and moral character of their sociopolitical opponents and for their willingness to associate with those opponents. Method In four initial studies (N =1,926, M age=38, 880 females, 1035 males), we measured IH, intellectual and moral derogation of opponents, and willingness to befriend opponents. In two additional studies (N =568, M age=40, 252 females, 314 males), we presented participants with a specific opponent on certain sociopolitical issues and several social media posts from that opponent in which he expressed his views on the issue. We then measured IH, intellectual and moral derogation of the opponent, participants’ willingness to befriend the opponent, participants’ willingness to “friend” the opponent on social media, and participants’ willingness to “follow” the opponent on social media. Results Low‐IH relative to high‐IH participants were more likely to derogate the intellectual capabilities and moral character of their opponents, less willing to befriend their opponents, and less willing to “friend” and “follow” an opponent on social media. Conclusions IH may have important interpersonal implications for person perception, and for understanding social extremism and polarization.
... Wied believes that the basis of prosocial behavior is the motive of altruism [7], which manifests itself in sympathy, in meeting the needs of the helpless, in the desire to patronize, console, protect, care, soothe and heal those who need it. Smith, Blake, Harris identify altruism, selfishness and social motivation [8]. ...
Chapter
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This paper presents scientific and theoretical approaches to the study of prosocial behavior. The psychological determinants of volunteers’ prosocial behavior were studied. The relevance of the research was determined by the situation in modern world. Global attention is attracted to the ways that can improve the quality of life in the society. Value orientations, styles of parent-child interaction and prosocial tendencies of volunteers are investigated. There are gender differences in the determinants, types of prosocial behavior, in values-based orientations, in the styles of parent-child interactions in the family in the studied groups. The relationship between the styles of parent-child interaction and prosocial trends in the studied groups of volunteers is considered. The correlation between the types of value orientations and prosocial tendencies is revealed. The psychological determinants of prosocial behavior among volunteers, divided by gender, age and direction of volunteer activity, are examined. The results of the research are presented.
... For couples who voted differently, the election may have had relational effects by prompting conflict and stress. Even though little research has examined the relational consequences of the 2016 presidential election, research shows that stress may either have a positive or negative effect on couples depending on individuals' willingness to show respect and empathy toward their partner (De Wied, Branje, & Meeus, 2007). For example, Porter and Schumann (2017) found that when dyads approached a political disagreement with a growth mindset, they were more open to hearing their partner's opposing argument. ...
Article
The theory of resilience and relational load was used to examine the impact of voting patterns in the 2016 U.S. presidential election on individuals’ romantic relationships. Married/cohabitating individuals (N = 961) completed online surveys at three time points during the transition to the Trump Presidency. The results supported our emotional capital hypothesis in that ongoing relationship maintenance in one’s relationship predicted less stress about the Trump presidency, less conflict, less relational load, greater communal orientation, and greater relational resilience. The positive effect of ongoing relationship maintenance on these relational outcomes occurred regardless of how the partners voted. At the same time, voting differently than one’s partner was still stressful and negatively influenced these outcomes. The results also supported our relational load model, which found that differences in voting negatively affected individuals’ communal orientation and the degree to which they maintained their relationships, which fueled conflict and stress. This conflict and stress was associated with an increase in relational load and a decrease in relational resilience.
... Variability in social cognition profiles could be investigated considering abilities in receptive and expressive language, in executive functions and empathy (Hippolyte et al., 2010). For instance, several authors have demonstrated that low levels of prosocial behaviors are associated with low empathyrelated abilities in preschoolers (Strayer and Roberts, 2004;Williams et al., 2014), and that social problem solving is stronger in more empathetic children and adolescents (Coie and Dodge, 1998;de Wied et al., 2007). It would therefore be interesting to explore the empathy profile of these children. ...
Article
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Social cognitive abilities – notably, Theory of Mind (ToM) and social information processing (SIP) – are key skills for the development of social competence and adjustment. By understanding affective and cognitive mental states and processing social information correctly, children will be able to enact prosocial behaviors, to interact with peers and adults adaptively, and to be socially included. As social adjustment and inclusion are major issues for children with intellectual disabilities (IDs), the present study aimed to explore their social cognitive profile by combining cluster analysis of both ToM and SIP competence, and to investigate the structure of relations between these skills in children with IDs. Seventy-eight elementary school children with non-specific IDs were recruited. They had a chronological age ranging from 4 years and 8 months to 12 years and 6 months and presented a preschool developmental age. Performance-based measures were administered to assess ToM and SIP abilities. Questionnaires were completed by the children’s parents to evaluate the children’s social competence and adjustment and their risk of developing externalizing or internalizing behaviors. Exploratory analysis highlighted strengths and weaknesses in the social cognitive profiles of these children with IDs. It also emphasized that the understanding of affective and cognitive mental states was used differently when facing appropriate vs. inappropriate social behaviors. The present study leads to a better understanding of the socio-emotional profile of children with IDs and offers some suggestions on how to implement effective interventions.
... For example, empathy is often related to positive outcomes regarding peer relationships. Higher empathy has been related to defending peers who are being bullied (van Noorden et al., 2014), and high affective empathy (i.e., having emotion such as com-passion in response to another person's experience; Davis, 1983) has been related to using positive problem-solving strategies with peers (De Wied, Branje, & Meeus, 2007). ...
Article
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We consider strengths to be the competencies and characteristics within students that are valued not only by the student but by society as well. Strengths develop from the everyday life experiences of students. Here at the Centre for Education and Research on Positive Youth Development (CERPYD) at Lakehead University , we have developed a strength-based approach for schools. We strongly believe that identifying student strengths is important because it allows teachers to gain a more comprehensive and balanced understanding of each student's behaviour and learning style in order to set practical goals that can set the stage for student engagement and a positive school climate. Within this article we consider how strength-based strategies and tools can facilitate the character development of students in the classroom. In this context, we consider character to be the moral and ethical traits of students and the display of these traits in their emotional experiences, cognition and behaviour.
... There are many consequences of empathic expression's association with femininity. Gender differences in conflict resolution and friendship formation have been traced to empathic ability, and adolescent boys have been found to lag behind girls when it comes to problem-solving and intimacy as a result of lesser empathic ability (Chow et al., 2013;Wied et al., 2007). There are negative consequences for girls and women as well. ...
Article
I propose the gender gap in delinquency is linked to adolescents’ orientation to gender-normative behavior and empathic development. I use longitudinal data on 1,525 youth from the Denver Youth Survey to analyze relationships among gender, empathy, and delinquency. I find girls exhibit higher levels of empathy across adolescence than do boys, and these differences emerge in preadolescence. Empathy is inversely related to delinquency, and is predictive of fraud and theft, but not violent delinquency. Finally, empathy partially mediates the effect of being male on delinquency. I therefore argue the gender gap in delinquency can be explained—in part—by adherence to gender norms governing empathetic expression.
... Children answered each item on a scale from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree). Consistent with previous research (De Wied, Branje, & Meeus, 2007), an exploratory factor analysis of the current data revealed that the measure is multidimensional, including a separate subscale of children's sadness in response to other's pain. As this subscale seemed most relevant to engaging in pro-bullying bystander behaviors (e.g., as opposed to such empathic responses as understanding why others cry at sad songs/shows or taking enjoyment in others opening gifts), it was included in analyses. ...
Article
Pro-bullying bystander behavior is a key socio-contextual factor underlying the perpetuation of bullying, yet investigators know relatively little as to what contributes to its development. The current study uses a short-term longitudinal design to identify child characteristics and relationship qualities that predict pro-bullying bystander behavior over the course of one school year. Participants were 484 children (239 girls; M age = 10.25 years). Children completed self-report measures of pro-bullying bystander behavior, empathy, moral disengagement, and perceived norms for defending, and peer-report measures of peer victimization and popularity. Main effects of fall empathy and moral disengagement emerged in the prediction of spring pro-bullying bystander behavior, although the latter just for boys. At low levels of perceived norms for defending , high levels of popularity and, for girls, high levels of peer victimization predicted heightened pro-bullying bystander behavior. Thus, anti-bullying efforts may benefit from targeting these social-cognitive and relational processes predictive of pro-bullying bystander behavior and fostering group norms that mitigate these risks.
... Empathy is beneficial for understanding and sharing others' feelings (de Waal, 2012;Decety, Bartal, Uzefovsky, & Knafo-Noam, 2016). People with higher empathy have higher emotional sensitivity (Choi & Watanuki, 2014;Yan, Pei, & Su, 2017), which helps with interpersonal conflict resolution (de Wied, Branje, & Meeus, 2007). However, empathy is influenced by one's cognitive ability. ...
Article
The current meta‐analysis was designed to determine the relationship between executive function (EF) and empathy, as well as to identify any moderators. A search of Chinese and English databases yielded 18 studies and 67 effect sizes involving a total of 6006 participants. Results with the random effects model showed that EF was significantly positively correlated with empathy (r = .14, p < .001). Subgroup analysis showed that EF was more strongly related to cognitive empathy (r = .20, p < .001) than to affective empathy (r = .09, p = .03). Looking at the two dimensions of empathy, we further found that cognitive empathy is closely related to subcomponents of EF, including inhibitory control (r = .23, p < .001), working memory (r = .20, p < .001), and cognitive flexibility (r = .15, p = .036), while only affective empathy was closely related to inhibitory control (r = .12, p < .001). Results suggested that future research should consider that the relationship between empathy and EF varies depending on the division of specific subcomponents. This finding may help in explaining possible mechanisms of how EF affects empathy.
... This is surprising, as emotions in general and empathy in particular are increasingly being recognized as crucial factors in determining the course of conflicts (Halpeirn, 2015). A first correlational study that used questionnaire-based measures in adolescents observed that dispositional empathy, encompassing experience sharing, sympathy, and empathic distress, was related to more successful interpersonal conflict management strategies, such as positive problem solving (De Wied, Branje, & Meeus, 2007). Similarly, correlational evidence based on self-reports of college students revealed that the feeling of self-compassion was related to a greater probability of compromising in interpersonal conflicts (Yarnell & Neff, 2013). ...
Article
Empathy and empathy-related processes, such as compassion and personal distress, are recognized to play a key role in social relations. This review examines the role of empathy in interpersonal and intergroup relations, including intractable conflicts. Despite the limitations of empathy, there is growing evidence that empathy and compassion are associated with more prosocial behavior in interpersonal relations. Furthermore, empathy and compassion have been associated with more favorable attitudes and higher readiness for reconciliation across a range of intergroup settings. This review ends by summarizing recent evidence for the beneficial effects of compassion training on interpersonal and intergroup relations and by outlining new avenues for future research on how compassion training could reduce intergroup conflicts.
... The path from empathy to child prosocial behavior in this study sustains the claim that highly empathic children can put themselves in others' shoes to try to feel others' emotional status, thus better at reducing others' distress and seldom harming others (Batson, 1991). The higher ability to use other's affective information to predict other's intention makes children do better at solving social problems and decreasing interpersonal conflicts (de Wied, Branje, & Meeus, 2007). Our findings support the important role of child empathy in their learning of social behaviors. ...
Article
The present study examined a two mediator model with both prosocial and aggressive behaviors as mediators in the association between child empathy and peer acceptance. A sample of 537 sixth to eighth graders reported items on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; as the index of empathy). Children's aggressive, prosocial behaviors, and peer acceptance were measured using peer-nominated questionnaires. Results showed that child empathy was positively associated with children's prosocial behavior and peer acceptance, but negatively associated with child aggression. Children's prosocial behavior was positively associated with peer acceptance, whereas their aggressive behavior was negatively associated with peer acceptance. To contribute to the extant literature, we found that children's prosocial and aggressive behaviors could completely mediate the linkage between child empathy and peer acceptance. Moreover, these two types of social behavior play equally important mediating roles. These results suggested that empathic children were more liked in peer group not only due to their more prosocial behavior, but simultaneously due to their lower aggression. In other words, both high prosociality and low aggression were important requisites for peer acceptance.
... For youth who have experienced trauma, increased training in empathy is an important antidote to the adverse effects of trauma exposure (Perry, 2002). Higher levels of empathy in youth are related to greater problem-solving skills and lower conflict (de Wied, Branje, & Meeus, 2007). Research has also found that training youth and their families in communication skills is linked to a greater likelihood of decreased delinquent behaviors in youth (Davalos et al., 2005). ...
Article
This research study used Photovoice methodology to investigate the impact of a trauma-responsive restorative justice program for youth involved with the juvenile justice system. The 14-week program in Florida uses restorative circle practice and training in nonviolent communication (NVC) to build relationships among a diverse body of youth (ages 11-18) in order to decrease recidivism, as well as to promote individual and community well-being. Participants used smartphones to capture and share images about the program. Through a focus group circle dialogue and written quotes, participants described the how the program has helped them to grow in empathy and confidence, resolve interpersonal conflicts, and strengthen relationships. This study contributes to the literature on community-based interventions for at-risk youth by sharing a program that has benefits for youth participants and the larger community. Findings may be used to guide participatory multi-racial, multi-generational community-based restorative interventions to support at-risk youth.
... The path from empathy to child prosocial behavior in this study sustains the claim that highly empathic children can put themselves in others' shoes to try to feel others' emotional status, thus better at reducing others' distress and seldom harming others (Batson, 1991). The higher ability to use other's affective information to predict other's intention makes children do better at solving social problems and decreasing interpersonal conflicts (de Wied, Branje, & Meeus, 2007). Our findings support the important role of child empathy in their learning of social behaviors. ...
... Secondly, both cultural stereotypes (Plant et al., 2000) and prior research suggests that women have greater empathy than men (Christov-Moore et al., 2014;Lennon & Eisenberg, 1987;Schulte-Rüther et al., 2008;Toussaint & Webb, 2005). Affective empathy (also known as empathic concern or sympathy), as an other-focused emotion, is an important component of social-emotional health (Cassels et al., 2010;de Wied et al., 2007) and is correlated with positive outcomes like prosocial behavior (Batson et al., 1988;Eisenberg et al., 1989), relationship quality (Andreychik, 2019), subjective well-being (Wei et al., 2011), and life satisfaction (Grühn et al., 2008). Past research has found the perceived empathy of salespeople in the banking industry predicted customers' relationship quality ratings (Itani & Inyang, 2015), and thus may be an important quality for financial advisors. ...
Article
This study examines gender differences in COVID-19-related stress and the relationship between COVID-19-related stress and life satisfaction in a large sample of financial advisors in the United States (n = 499). Compared to men, women reported greater increases in work-related stress since the onset of COVID-19, higher levels of stress from managing family responsibilities, and more stress from witnessing the impact of COVID-19 on their clients (i.e., empathetic stress). Using an integrative model of top-down and bottom-up influences on life satisfaction, COVID-19-related stress predicted life satisfaction among women but not men. Consistent with integrative models of both bottom-up and top-down influences on satisfaction assessment, trait affect was found to predict life satisfaction. Implications of the unequal stress of COVID-19 on men and women within the financial planning profession are discussed.
... It also provides a foundation for social behavior as a central component of normal social functionality (Charbonneau & Nicol, 2002), forms a basis for social relations (Noller & Ruzzene, 1991) and improves psychological wellbeing (Musick & Wilson, 2003). Moreover, it has been observed that empathy positively correlates with prosocial behaviors such as helping, peaceful conflict resolution, and problem solving (de Wied et al., 2007). Wilson and Kneisl (1988) suggested that it would not be possible for individuals with no empathic tendencies to enter other people's emotional worlds, and then, they could not help others in the real sense. ...
Article
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Background/purpose – Attitude towards the teaching profession functions as an important factor in the successful continuation of the education and training process. In this context, the first aim of the study is to examine teachers’ attitudes towards teaching according to gender, education level, experience, and location of the school. Second, it is to reveal whether or not empathic tendency, teaching competence belief, and job satisfaction predict attitudes towards the teaching profession. Materials/methods – In this research, correlational research model, which is one of the quantitative research methods, was used. For these purposes, data were collected from 316 teachers with an average age of 40.34 (SD = 3.15) years old, of which 189 are female (59.8%) and 127 (40.2%) male. The Attitude Scale towards Teaching Profession, Empathic Tendency Scale, Ohio Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Job Satisfaction Scale were used as the study’s data collection tools. Results – According to the first findings obtained from the research, while teachers’ attitudes towards teaching did not differ according to gender, education level (primary/secondary school), or school location (urban or rural); they were found to differ according to their length of experience. Accordingly, the attitudes of teachers with a seniority of more than 20 years were shown to be more positive than those with less experience. Second, empathic tendency, belief in teaching self-efficacy, and also job satisfaction were found to positively and significantly predict attitude towards the teaching profession. Conclusion – Within the framework of these findings, it can be said that gender, education level and school location are not determining variables in teachers' attitudes towards the teaching profession. On the other hand, it has been seen that work experience is important in the attitude towards the profession. Finally, it can be said that self-efficacy belief towards the teaching profession and job satisfaction are important variables in the attitude towards teaching. The obtained findings are then discussed, interpreted, and recommendations put forwards in light of the current literature.
... Zaki and Ochsner (2016) identified the empath as a perceiver and the "other" as the target and reported that experiencing empathy does not always increase the well-being of the perceiver (e.g., empathy fatigue) and empathic response does not always increase the well-being of the target (e.g., psychopathology). Higher levels of empathy are generally, however, negatively related to conflict and positively related to prosocial problem-solving behaviors; specifically, people who are more emotionally responsive to others when faced with conflict may inhibit antisocial responses (Wied et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Social emotional abilities (i.e., specific skills), defined as the set of cognitive abilities, emotion-based knowledge, and behavioral competencies (i.e., skill levels) that facilitate adaptively employing prosocial processes and behaviors (i.e., “actions”), such as emotional regulation and sympathetic and empathetic response behaviors, is contemporarily modeled and measured as emotional intelligence. This conceptualization can be problematic, however, as the two concepts are not the same and traditional methods of measuring emotional intelligence can have limited practical utility. The social emotional ability development (SEAD) theoretical model introduced in this treatise represents a pragmatic and simplified approach to the development of social emotional ability and competency as abstracted from constructs of emotional intelligence, social intelligence, and sociocultural learning theory. Further, the SEAD model reaches beyond the individual as the unit of analysis to explore, conceptualize, differentiate, investigate, and define the hierarchal, bi-directional, and contextual nature of the dimensions of social emotional ability within close relationships. Implications for how the SEAD model can be used by researchers, practitioners, educators, individuals, families, and couples across a broad spectrum of domains and interventions are discussed.
... emotional, instrumental; Berndt, 1989), influences youth behaviors, goals, and attitudes through modeling or peer pressure (Berndt & Murphy, 2003), and even provides a unique socialization context for the acquisition of essential social skills (e.g. sharing, conflict resolution; de Wied, Branje, & Meeus, 2007;Salvas, et al., 2014). Fukuyama also emphasizes that the amount of trust in non-kin relationships (friendships) is ultimately the key to the progress of large corporations (Warris & Rafique, 2009). ...
Article
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Prior qualitative research by Faturochman and Minza (2014) on trust in Indonesia found that trust is influenced by relational attributes, including closeness, support, and reciprocity. This study aims to examine whether the findings of the previous research can be applied in specific forms of relationships, e.g. friendship. The survey method is used in this study, involving 97 males and 123 (N = 220) females who completed a scale related to the variables studied. We found that support and reciprocity significantly predicted the score of trust. However, closeness did not. It was also found that the effect of support is higher than reciprocity. Based on the research, we created the regression model with the contribution of support to the trust 37.8%, then reciprocity addition which was analyzed together with support gave a total contribution to the trust 41.5%. The implication of this study is further discussed.
... Along with the capacity to be vulnerable, adolescents must be able to respond empathetically to their partners' needs. Although research regarding this level of emotional exchange within adolescent romance is sparse, scholars have noted that individuals in mid-to-late adolescence engage in these processes with same-sex friends (Chow et al., 2013;de Wied et al., 2007). As adolescents' relationship skills are transferable between friend and romantic relationships (Engels et al., 2001), it is likely that teens who can manage fear of romantic rejection have the capacity to engage in these types of exchange with their romantic partner, fostering attachment security. ...
Article
Romantic relationships provide a meaningful context from which individuals can develop attachment security and find fulfillment for their emotional and physical attachment needs. The process for developing attachment security in adolescent romantic relationships is not well documented. A new model is proposed outlining the context and processes wherein adolescent romantic attachment security can develop. The contextual role of one's family of origin, cognitive development, and romantic competency is noted. Within this context, it is hypothesized that the relational processes of physical affection and emotional disclosure interact as direct influences on the development of attachment security. These facets of the conceptual model are outlined in light of the current literature on both attachment and adolescent romantic relationships. It is concluded that adolescent romantic attachment warrants further study, as adolescent romantic relationships have strong implications for future relationships.
... In light of such changes, empathy enables youth to feel concerns for others and to demonstrate their concerns through positive social actions (Eisenberg & Spinrad, 2014). Through its cognitive and emotional components, empathy enables youth to apply successful relationship skills (e.g., conflict resolution skills) when forming and maintaining healthy relationships with peers, family members, and others (Albiero, Matricardi, Speltri, & Toso, 2009;de Wied, Branje, & Meeus, 2007;del Barrio, Aluja, & García, 2004). Furthermore, empathy is associated with altruistic and prosocial behaviors (Eisenberg, 2000;FeldmanHall et al., 2015;Mestre, Carlo, Samper, Malonda, & Mestre, 2019;Van der Graaff, Carlo, Crocetti, Koot, & Branje, 2018), which are both linked to positive outcomes such as increases in self-esteem and academic success (Padilla-Walker & Carlo, 2014). ...
Article
According to dynamic, relational developmental systems-based theoretical perspectives, empathy is fundamental to understanding fluctuations in adaptive functioning. Most studies measuring empathy focus on group-based statistics, assuming short-term stability and developmental equivalence across people in empathy. The present research examined person-specific short-term fluctuations in empathy and their potential relations with well-being, indexed by mood and sleep. Collecting approximately 1260 observations nested in 35 adolescents (M age = 15.91, SD = 1.69) across 16 to 18 weeks, dynamic structural equation modeling identified person-specific fluctuations in empathic concern and perspective taking. On average, fluctuations in empathy were associated with daily mood but not daily sleep. However, the relations between empathy, mood and sleep differed across participants, and age moderated the within-person relation between empathic concern and sleep. The results contribute to our understanding of person-specificity in empathy variability and highlight that adolescents' capacity for empathy may vary across time and places.
... Alternatively, a third factor-for example, challenges with social or emotional skills-may underlie both direct aggression behavior and friendship quality. For example, fewer social skills may contribute both to increased physical aggression and to a reduced ability to effectively navigate conflicts or have positive experiences with friends (e.g., de Wied et al., 2007;Dodge et al., 2007). More work is needed to understand the mechanisms linking direct aggression to diminished positive features in friendship. ...
Article
This meta-analysis examined concurrent associations between aggression, withdrawal, assertion, and prosocial behavior and each of positive and negative friendship quality across studies with 22,657 children and adolescents (Mage = 11.71 years; 51.7% girls; 67.7% White). Studies were published between 1995 to 2021 and 32.4% were conducted outside of North America. Aggression was linked to more negative, r̄ = .19, 95% CI [.14, .24], and less positive, r̄ = -.05 [-.08, -.01], friendships. Withdrawal was associated with less positive friendships, r̄ = -.13 [-.18, -.08], whereas prosocial behavior was related to more positive, r̄ = .29 [.22, .37], as well as less negative, r̄ = -.16 [-.20, -.12], friendships. Assertion was related to more positive friendships, r̄ = .15 [.01, .28].
... Cooperation, as a prosocial behaviour, may influence the performance of individuals in tasks that address cognitive abilities as those related to the theory of mind, categorization, and problem-solving (Rogoff, 1990(Rogoff, , 1998Garton & Pratt, 2001;Harris et al., 2008). Specifically, empathy has been shown to influence many prosocial behaviours and affect positively conflict resolution in youth (de Weid et al., 2007). ...
Article
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We investigated behavioural patterns of school subjects from Colombia and Tenerife (Spain) of 10–12, 13–14 and 15–17 years old (150 per age group), during a crossed puzzle game. We video-recorded all sessions, elaborated an ethogram and classified behavioural patterns within functional categories (Empathy, Help Organizing, Agonistic, Cooperation, Selfishness and Tension-Distension); their frequencies were analyzed by Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). Results showed significant differences between countries in Help Organizing, Cooperation, Agonistic and Tension-Distension; the same categories except Cooperation differed between age ranges, but no category significantly differed between sexes. GLMM of factor scores from a principal component analysis applied to behavioural categories showed subjects from Colombian schools had significantly lower PC1 factor scores (Empathy, Selfishness and Tension-Distension) than those from Tenerife; the contrary occurred for PC2 (Help Organizing and Cooperation) and no significant difference was found for PC3 (Agonistic and Selfishness). We discuss several potential causes of the differences found.
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Çalışma özel yetenekli tanısı almış ve almamış çocukların empatik eğilimleri ile arkadaş ilişkilerinde kalıp yargıları düzeylerinin karşılaştırılması ve çocukların empatik eğilimleri ve arkadaş ilişkilerinde kalıp yargıları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırmaya Erzincan il merkezindeki Millî Eğitim Bakanlığına bağlı ortaokullara devam eden 40 özel yetenekli tanısı alan ve 63 özel yetenekli tanısı almayan olmak üzere toplam 103 çocuk dahil edilmiştir. İlişkisel tarama yöntemi kullanılan çalışmada, çocuklara "Arkadaşlık İlişkilerinde Kalıp Yargılar Ölçeği" ve "KA-Sİ Ergenler İçin Empatik Eğilim Ölçeği" uygulanmıştır. Araştırmada verilerin analizinde bağımsız örneklemler için t testi, korelasyon ve çoklu regresyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda özel yetenekli olma durumunun çocukların empatik eğilimleri ve arkadaş ilişkilerinde kalıp yargıları üzerinde anlamlı farklılık oluşturmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Çocukların empatik eğilimleri ile akran ilişkilerinde kalıp yargı arasında ilişki olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca duygusal empatinin arkadaş ilişkilerinde kalıp yargının anlamlı yordayıcısı olduğu saptanmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Arkadaşlık ilişkileri, kalıp yargı, empati, özel yetenekli çocuk. Abstract. This study was conducted to compare the empathic tendencies of children with and without special talents and their level of stereotypes in their peer relationships, and to examine the relationship between children's empathic tendencies and stereotypes in peer relationships. In the study, attending secondary schools under the Ministry of National Education in the city center of Erzincan, a total of 103 children were included, who were diagnosed 40 with special talents and 63 who were not diagnosed with special talents. Attending secondary schools in the city center of Erzincan, A total of 103 children were included, who were diagnosed 40 with special talents and 63 who were not diagnosed with special talents, in the study. In the study using relational screening method, "Stereotypes Scale in Friendship Relationships" and "Empathic Tendency Scale for KA-Sİ Adolescents" were applied to children. In the study, in the analysis of the data were used correlation and multiple regression analysis, t test for independent samples. As a result of the research, it was determined that special talent did not create a significant difference on children's empathic tendencies and stereotypes in friendship relations. It has been determined that there is a relationship between children's empathic tendencies
Article
The positive peer relations arising from cooperative learning can contribute to the development of affective empathy, which in turn can reduce bullying (Van Ryzin & Roseth, 2019). However, from a theoretical perspective, the direction of effects between peer relations and empathy could be in the opposite direction, or bi-directional. In the current paper, we employed a process-oriented approach (i.e., cross-lag difference score modeling; McArdle, 2009) to investigate the longitudinal relationship between positive peer relations and affective empathy as well as their joint effect on bullying. Using four waves of data from a cluster randomized trial including 15 middle schools (7 intervention and 8 control schools; N = 1,890 students, 47.1% female, 75.2% White), we found a bi-directional or reciprocal relationship between peer relations and affective empathy, and change in both constructs predicted lower levels of bullying. Cooperative learning predicted positive change in peer relations and affective empathy, as well as lower levels of bullying. These results suggest that the structured social interactions that occur during cooperative learning can enhance student interpersonal relations, and simultaneously the experiential skill building of cooperative learning can contribute to a more profound understanding of the emotional states of others. These effects amplify one another and, in turn, significantly reduce bullying in middle school. Given that cooperative learning has already been demonstrated to enhance academic motivation and achievement (Roseth et al., 2008), we argue that cooperative learning offers an effective, attractive alternative to traditional curriculum-based bullying prevention programs.
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Solving conflicts is one of the most useful skills nowadays, however a lot of people are not even aware that a division into conflict resolution styles exists. There are five different ones-compromising is believed to be the most often used, while collaborating is the most efficient one. One can work on own style, change it with an appropriate effort, as features that we are born with, but that people can also develop, may suggest a predisposition to solve disputes in a specific way. Studies show, that high empathy is connected to successful conflict resolution (de Wied, Branje, Meeus, 2007). Furthermore, agreeableness, as one of the personality traits is said to be strongly associated with interpersonal conflict-its process and outcomes (Jensen-Campbell, Graziano, 2001). In my study, I decided to connect these two features as predictors of preference of collaborative conflict resolution style, as the most efficient and successful and check the intercorrelations between them. Moreover, conflict resolution and game theory are interrelated and therefore I decided to extend my research and check if preferring cooperation in solving disputes predicts believe in a non-zero-sum game. My assumptions and hypothesis were proven, as empathy, agreeableness and collaborating conflict resolution style were intercorrelated. Results also indicated a weaker, but still significant correlation between collaboration and believe in a non-zero-sum game.
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Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out on the Adolescent Measure of Empathy and Sympathy (AMES) with two subsamples of emerging adults (each n = 799). The analyses resulted in a three-factor solution, accounting for 66.71% of the variance.
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Si bien se ha estudiado la relevancia de las amistades de calidad como un factor favorecedor del bienestar de los adolescentes, es menos claro cuáles son las variables que facilitan que las amistades sean percibidas como íntimas. Este estudio aporta evidencias sobre el rol que podría cumplir la empatía para favorecer la construcción de amistades íntimas, utilizando como referencia el modelo de intimidad interpersonal (Reis & Shaver, 1988), que plantea que la intimidad se logra y construye desde la apertura de experiencias personales con amigos. El diseño es no experimental y la muestra corresponde a preadolescentes y adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años. A través de un modelo SEM, se contrastó y confirmó el modelo hipotetizado, encontrándose que la empatía afectiva y cognitiva tienen un efecto en la dimensión de apertura, y que esta dimensión a su vez media la relación entre ambas formas de empatía con la intimidad. Los resultados se discuten a la luz de los procesos a través de los que se mantiene la intimidad en la adolescencia, y sobre cómo la empatía puede ser un factor explicativo de estos procesos.
Conference Paper
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Empati, iletişim çatışmalarının yaşanmaması ve sağlıklı ilişkilerin kurulmasında oldukça önemli bir role sahiptir. Çocukların kişilik gelişimlerinde ve gelecek yıllarda yaşamlarını şekillendirmelerinde önemli bir role sahip olan ve çocuğun birincil yakın çevresini oluşturan aileleri, çocukların gelişiminde oldukça önemli görülmektedir. Bu kapsamda çocuğun rol model aldığı ebeveynleri, çocuğun tüm gelişim alanlarında olduğu gibi empati becerilerinin gelişiminde de önemli görülmektedir. Bu kapsamda mevcut araştırmada çocukların empati becerilerinin çeşitli demografik değişkenlere göre farklılıklarının belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Çalışmanın örneklem grubunu, Ankara’nın Mamak merkez ilçesinde ilköğretim okullarına devam eden, 10- 11 yaş arasında olan ve çalışmaya gönüllü katılan 150 çocuk oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada çocukların kendilerine ve ebeveynlerine ilişkin kişisel bilgilerini almak amacıyla Demografik Bilgi Formu ve çocukların empati düzeylerini belirlemek için Çocuk ve Ergenler için Empati Ölçeği Türkiye Formu kullanılmıştır. Çalışmaya katılan çocukların cinsiyetleri, yaşları, kardeş sayıları, doğum sıraları ve ebeveynlerinin öğrenim düzeyleri arasında anlamlı bir farklılık olmadığı görülmektedir. Çalışmadan elde edilen bulgulara bakıldığında çocukların empati düzeylerinin demografik değişkenler ile anlamlı bir farklılık göstermediği belirlenmiştir. Empatik beceriler birçok faktörde etkilenebilmekte ve ele alınan yaş grubunun soyut empati döneminde olması aynı zamanda empati duygusuna aşina olmaları gibi gelişimsel özellikleri de göz önünde bulundurulduğunda çocukların empati düzeyleri ile demografik değişkenler arasında anlamlı bir farklılık bulunmaması beklenen bir durum olarak değerlendirilebilmektedir. Daha sonra gerçekleştirilecek çalışmalarda empatinin çocuğun kişilik gelişiminde daha etkili olan farklı kavramlar ile karşılaştırılması önerilmektedir.
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A lack of empathy is related to some negative aspects of adolescent interpersonal functioning in the literature, such as bullying. However, the relationship between empathy and positive aspects of adolescent interpersonal functioning is less clear. Thus, this study sought to examine the association between empathy and positive components of peer relationships among adolescents. A scoping review was conducted to identify relevant literature and to provide a narrative overview of the identified studies. Three databases were searched (PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Sociological Abstracts). Subsequently, three reviewers independently analyzed articles to determine inclusion. Twenty-eight studies met inclusionary criteria. The aspects of peer relationships that were studied most frequently included peer attachment, social status (i.e., peer acceptance, likeability, social preference, and popularity), and friendship closeness or quality. The associations between empathy and some aspects of peer relationships among adolescents varied based on type of empathy and gender. Although inconsistencies were observed, the included studies often showed either a positive relationship or no relationship between empathy and positive peer relationship variables. In several studies, empathy was positively related to peer attachment and friendship quality or closeness, but not significantly related to popularity. Additional research is needed to further clarify these relationships. The results are integrated within a positive psychology framework examining the role of empathy as a potential strength in interpersonal functioning.
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This paper describes the development of a situation‐based tool to assess emerging adults’ social competence with same‐gender friends, providing information about (1) challenges occurring in these relationships, (2) the behaviors used to manage these situations, and (3) the perceived effectiveness of these strategies. Undergraduates (N = 747; 409 women; Mage = 20.16, SD = 1.43) participated in five studies. Transgressions, conflicts of interest, and support situations emerged as key challenges, and emerging adults reported using aggressive, assertive, avoidant, and apologizing behaviors to manage these situations. In general, apologizing and assertive behaviors were judged more effective than aggressive or avoidant behaviors. Results yielded the Inventory of Friendship Challenges for Emerging Adults (IFCEA), which showed expected associations with measures of interpersonal behavior.
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Many studies have documented the impacts of problematic mobile phone use on an individual’s well-being. However, few of them examined the association between the problematic mobile phone use and altruism. To address this issue, a total of 674 Chinese undergraduate students (aged from 18 to 24) joined in the current study and were tested with the self-report questionnaires for measuring their levels of problematic mobile phone use, altruism, alexithymia and empathy. The results showed that problematic mobile phone use negatively predicted altruism both directly and indirectly via alexithymia, cognitive empathy and affective empathy. The study demonstrated the link between problematic mobile phone use and altruism and added our understanding of this association.
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Os instrumentos psicológicos auxiliam o psicólogo no processo de avaliação, sendo ferramentas fundamentais para direcionar estratégias interventivas. Entre tantas medidas de avaliação com crianças e adolescentes, a empatia torna-se fundamental para o conhecimento, considerando a capacidade de se colocar em perspectiva em relação às emoções e comportamentos de outra pessoa. Este estudo trata de revisão sistemática, como objetivo de investigar, nas produções científicas das bases de dados BVS/Bireme, Medline e Scielo, instrumentos de avaliação da empatia em crianças e adolescentes. Foram 19 estudos, indicando que os instrumentos avaliados apresentam adequadas propriedades psicométricas para a avaliação da empatia em crianças e adolescentes. No Brasil, poucos estudos foram realizados, sendo que a maioria das pesquisas trata de medidas adaptadas do âmbito internacional.
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Potential addiction to social media is one of the problems that some people, especially adolescents, are facing. For this reason, many studies have been conducted in this field in recent years. There is no research investigating how empathy is associated with excessive and problematic online social media use, whilst some studies have associated social media use with empathy as the main component of social development. Hence, the purpose of this study is to examine the influences of Empathic Concern (EC) and Perspective Taking (PT) on social media addiction (SMA). Moreover, prior studies revealed that Internet addiction behavior of individuals varies according to differences in personality traits. Accordingly, we further intend to understand how the impacts of EC and PT on SMA are intensified by considering individuals’ traits differences, and thus, personality traits were included in the research model as the moderators. To assess the research model, the data collected through the distributed printed questionnaire among 592 high-school 15–18 years old students (42.1% male) were analyzed utilizing the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach. The results revealed that both EC and PT significantly and negatively predict SMA. Furthermore, the moderating analysis showed that Extraversion negatively moderated the relationships between EC and SMA and PT and SMA. Further analysis revealed that while there were no differences across genders, behaviors associated with SMA were more common among students of high-income schools in contrast to low-income schools. Implications of the study are further discussed.
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Children's friendships represent mutual dyadic relationships that differ from peer relations, which have lesser affective ties. This meta-analytic review fit categorical models (L. V. Hedges, 1982) to examine the behavioral and affective manifestations of children's friendships as evinced by comparisons of friends and nonfriends. Analysis of our broadband categories revealed that friendships, compared with nonfriend relations, are characterized by more intense social activity, more frequent conflict resolution, and more effective task performance. Also, relationships between friends are marked by reciprocal and intimate properties of affiliation. At the level of narrowband categories, friendship relations afford a context for social and emotional growth. These behavioral and affective manifestations of friendship are moderated by the age level of participants, the strength of the relationship, and the methodology of the study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews the literature on sex differences in empathy (defined as vicarious affective responding to the emotional state of another) and related capacities (affective role taking and decoding of nonverbal cues). The literature is discussed according to method used to assess empathy and affective role taking. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were also computed. In general, sex differences in empathy were found to be a function of the methods used to assess empathy. There was a large sex difference favoring women when the measure of empathy was self-report scales; moderate differences (favoring females) were found for reflexive crying and self-report measures in laboratory situations; and no sex differences were evident when the measure of empathy was either physiological or unobtrusive observations of nonverbal reactions to another's emotional state. Moreover, few sex differences were found for children's affective role taking and decoding abilities. (156 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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recently, we have begun to explore . . . [the] process of emotional contagion / people's conscious analyses give them a great deal of information about their social encounters / [people] can also focus their attention on their moment-to-moment emotional reactions to others, during their social encounters / this stream of reactions comes to them via their fleeting observations of others' faces, voices, postures, and instrumental behaviors / further, as they nonconsciously and automatically mimic their companions' fleeting expressions of emotion, people also may come to feel as their partners feel / by attending to the stream of tiny moment-to-moment reactions, people can gain a great deal of information on their own and their partners' emotional landscapes begin by defining emotion and emotional contagion and discussing several mechanisms that we believe might account for this phenomenon / review the evidence from a variety of disciplines that "primitive emotional contagion" exists / examine the role of individual differences in emotional contagion / outline some of the broad research questions researchers might profitably investigate (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Relationships between social intelligence, empathy, and three types of aggressive behavior were studied. Peer-estimation techniques were used to measure all major variables. Altogether, 526 Finnish schoolchildren from three age groups (10, 12, and 14 years old) participated in the study. As was hypothesized, indirect aggression correlated positively and significantly with social intelligence in every age group studied. Physical and verbal forms of aggression had almost zero correlation to social intelligence. Empathy correlated negatively and significantly with every type of aggression except indirect aggression in 12-year-old children. The major findings are in line with the developmental theory by Björkqvist et al. [1992. Aggr Behav 18:117–127] suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than direct forms of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 25:81–89, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Perspective-taking functions as an inhibitor of interpersonal aggression and as a facilitator of prosocial behavior. The present study examined the extent to which perspective-taking enhances nonaggressive responses in a situation in which people typically make aggressive responses. It also examined the relationship between perspective-taking and response to interpersonal context. Subjects participated in a reaction-time task in which they could respond either aggressively or nonaggressively in two different interpersonal contexts (i.e., the target either increased or decreased provocation during the interaction). As predicted, perspective-taking was related to the inhibition of aggressive responding and the facilitation of nonaggressive responding. In general, perspective-taking was associated with less aggression, including relatively more positive and fewer negative responses. This was especially the case in the interpersonal context in which the target had increased provocation across the trials of the task.
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To investigate how teenagers deal with conflict in romantic relationships, 869 high school students (mean age 16, range 14–19), experienced in romantic relations, completed a conflict tactic scale (adapted from Rands et al., 1981, and Straus, 1979). A principal components analysis revealed six factors, which in descending frequency of use were Compromise, Distraction, Avoidance, Overt Anger, Seeking Social Support, and Violence. Conflict tactics varied as a function of demographic characteristics. Specifically, older teens used Compromise more than younger; girls used Compromise and Overt Anger more and Distraction less than boys; African-Americans used Violence more and Compromise less than European-Americans, whereas Asian-Americans used Distraction and Avoidance more than European-Americans. To assess predictors of conflict tactics, teens also completed scales assessing self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965), immature and mature defense mechanisms (Araujo and Steiner, 1998, under review) and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors (Achenbach, 1966). Each of these was singly and jointly associated with the use of conflict tactics. In multiple regression analyses, the externalizing problem score best predicted Overt Anger and Violence in dealing with romantic conflict, the internalizing problem score best predicted Avoidance and Distraction; whereas the mature defense mechanism score was the best predictor of seeking Social Support and Compromise.
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Describes the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and its relationships with measures of social functioning, self-esteem, emotionality, and sensitivity to others. 677 male and 667 female undergraduates served as Ss. Each of the 4 IRI subscales displayed a distinctive and predictable pattern of relationships with these measures, as well as with previous unidimensional empathy measures. Findings provide evidence for a multidimensional approach to empathy. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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A number of researchers have proposed that empathy, sympathy, or both, defined primarily in affective terms, may inhibit aggressive and antisocial behaviors (N. D. Feshbach & S. Feshbach, 1982; S. Feshbach, 1970; Parke & Slaby, 1983). Apart from brief reviews, however, no systematic review of the research concerning the relation of empathy/sympathy to aggression and other antisocial, externalizing behaviors has been conducted. In this review, we organized the relation of empathy/sympathy to relevant negative behaviors principally by mode of assessing empathy (i.e., picture/story, questionnaire methods, facial/gestural reactions, and experimental inductions) and analyzed empirical findings with meta-analytic techniques. Empathic/sympathetic responding was negatively related to aggression and antisocial, externalizing behaviors for questionnaire methods and negatively but nonsignificantly related for other indexes of empathy. Child abuse also was associated with low levels of empathy/sympathy, as was the receipt of such abuse. Relations between the empathy indexes and aggression/externalizing behaviors were generally the same for male and female subjects, especially after controlling for sample size. We discuss conceptual issues related to the pattern of findings, as well as directions for future research.
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In a prior review involving a meta-analysis (Underwood & Moore, 1982), no relation between affective empathy and prosocial behavior was found. In this article, the literature relevant to this issue is reexamined. The studies were organized according to the method used to assess empathy. When appropriate, meta-analyses were computed. In contrast to the earlier review, low to moderate positive relations generally were found between empathy and both prosocial behavior and cooperative/socially competent behavior. The method of assessing empathy did influence the strength of the relations; picture/story measures of empathy were not associated with prosocial behavior, whereas nearly all other measures were. Several possible explanations for the pattern of findings are discussed, as are the implications of the findings.
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the prediction of adults' situational and dispositional empathy-related responses from measures of emotionality (emotional intensity and positive and negative affect) and regulation. A multimethod approach including self-reported, facial, and heart rate (HR) responses was used to assess situational vicarious emotional responding; Ss' (and sometimes friends') reports were used to assess the dispositional characteristics. In general, dispositional sympathy, personal distress, and perspective taking exhibited different, conceptually logical patterns of association with indexes of emotionality and regulation. The relations of situational measures of vicarious emotional responding to dispositional emotionality and regulation varied somewhat by type of measure and gender. Findings for facial and HR (for men) measures were primarily for the more evocative empathy-inducing stimulus. In general, the findings provided support for the role of individual differences in emotionality and regulation in empathy-related responding.
Article
This study was designed to explore relations of emotional empathy (two scales) with aggression and violence (three scales). An initial study investigated validity of one of the violence scales, the Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale (REV), by comparing individual REV scores with individual histories of criminal violence for a sample of incarcerated juveniles. Validity of the REV was supported by a very strong correlation of .71 between REV scores and the amount of criminal violence in this homogeneous sample. The second study yielded positive intercorrelations among measures of aggression and violence, positive intercorrelations among measures of emotional empathy, and negative correlations (ranging from –.22 to –.50, P < .05) of measures of aggression and violence with measures of emotional empathy. Analyses of the five scales in terms of the Pleasure‐Arousability‐Dominance (PAD) Temperament Model helped explain similarities of the emotional empathy scales with other individual difference measures of prosocial orientation (e.g., affiliation). PAD analyses also explained some paradoxical effects of experimental "empathy arousal" on aggression toward victims. Aggr. Behav. 23:433–445, 1997. © 1997 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
Article
Relationships between social intelligence, empathy, and three types of aggressive behavior were studied. Peer‐estimation techniques were used to measure all major variables. Altogether, 526 Finnish schoolchildren from three age groups (10, 12, and 14 years old) participated in the study. As was hypothesized, indirect aggression correlated positively and significantly with social intelligence in every age group studied. Physical and verbal forms of aggression had almost zero correlation to social intelligence. Empathy correlated negatively and significantly with every type of aggression except indirect aggression in 12‐year‐old children. The major findings are in line with the developmental theory by Björkqvist et al. [1992. Aggr Behav 18:117–127] suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than direct forms of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 25:81–89, 1999. © 1999 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
Article
The studies presented in this paper examined empathy, especially perspective taking, as a potential inhibitor of interpersonal aggression. The theoretical rationale for these investigations derived from Zillmann's [(1988): Aggressive Behavior 14: 51–64] cognitive excitation model. Study 1 revealed that dispositional empathy correlates negatively with self‐reported aggression and with conflict responses that reflect little concern for the needs of the other party. Empathy also was positively related to constructive responses to interpersonal conflict (i. e., those that do involve concern for the needs of the other party). In Study 2, perspective taking was manipulated with instructions to subjects prior to participation in a reaction‐time task designed to measure aggression. When threat was relatively low, subjects who were instructed to take the perspective of the target responded less aggressively than did those who had been instructed to focus on the task. Study 3 examined the effect of dispositional perspective taking on verbal aggression. Threat was manipulated in terms of the combination of provocation and gender of the interactants. As predicted, perspective taking related to aggression inhibition under conditions of moderate threat–for males under low provocation and females under high provocation. These effects were predicted and explained in the context of the cognitive‐excitation model. © 1994 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
Article
Relationships between social intelligence, empathy, and three types of aggressive behavior were studied. Peer-estimation techniques were used to measure all major variables. Altogether, 526 Finnish schoolchildren from three age groups (10, 12, and 14 years old) participated in the study. As was hypothesized, indirect aggression correlated positively and significantly with social intelligence in every age group studied. Physical and verbal forms of aggression had almost zero correlation to social intelligence. Empathy correlated negatively and significantly with every type of aggression except indirect aggression in 12-year-old children. The major findings are in line with the developmental theory by Björkqvist et al. [1992. Aggr Behav 18:117–127] suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than direct forms of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 25:81–89, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
To facilitate a multidimensional approach to empathy the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) includes 4 subscales: Perspective-Taking (PT) Fantasy (FS) Empathic Concern (EC) and Personal Distress (PD). The aim of the present study was to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of these 4 subscales. Hypothesized relationships among the IRI subscales between the subscales and measures of other psychological constructs (social functioning self-esteem emotionality and sensitivity to others) and between the subscales and extant empathy measures were examined. Study subjects included 677 male and 667 female students enrolled in undergraduate psychology classes at the University of Texas. The IRI scales not only exhibited the predicted relationships among themselves but also were related in the expected manner to other measures. Higher PT scores were consistently associated with better social functioning and higher self-esteem; in contrast Fantasy scores were unrelated to these 2 characteristics. High EC scores were positively associated with shyness and anxiety but negatively linked to egotism. The most substantial relationships in the study involved the PD scale. PD scores were strongly linked with low self-esteem and poor interpersonal functioning as well as a constellation of vulnerability uncertainty and fearfulness. These findings support a multidimensional approach to empathy by providing evidence that the 4 qualities tapped by the IRI are indeed separate constructs each related in specific ways to other psychological measures.
Article
Examined the prediction of adults' situational and dispositional empathy-related responses from measures of emotionality (emotional intensity and positive and negative affect) and regulation. A multimethod approach including self-reported, facial, and heart rate (HR) responses was used to assess situational vicarious emotional responding; Ss' (and sometimes friends') reports were used to assess the dispositional characteristics. In general, dispositional sympathy, personal distress, and perspective taking exhibited different, conceptually logical patterns of association with indexes of emotionality and regulation. The relations of situational measures of vicarious emotional responding to dispositional emotionality and regulation varied somewhat by type of measure and gender. Findings for facial and HR (for men) measures were primarily for the more evocative empathy-inducing stimulus. In general, the findings provided support for the role of individual differences in emotionality and regulation in empathy-related responding.
Article
Preliminary psychometric data are presented for two inventories that assess conflict in couples. The Ineffective Arguing Inventory (IAI) is a self-report measure that assesses a dysfunctional style of couple conflict resolution. The Conflict Resolution Style Inventory (CRSI) has complementary self-report and partner-report versions that assess four personal conflict resolution styles for each member of the couple. Subjects were both partners of 75 gay, 51 lesbian, 108 married nonparent, and 99 married parent couples. Findings for each inventory are presented regarding the factor structure of items, the internal consistency of composite scores, the 1-year stability of composite scores, the relation between couple members' composite scores, and the link between composite scores and relationship satisfaction, change in satisfaction, and relationship dissolution. Generally, results warrant further examination of the IAI and CRSI as measures of conflict for couples.
Article
The management of conflict in close dating relationships was examined through a relational competence model. This model of competence emphasizes the need for appropriate and effective behaviors. The current study explored appropriateness by assessing relational messages that are prescriptively expected during conflict, the association between relational responsiveness and communication satisfaction, and the influence of empathic processes on relational responsiveness for couples who were relationally uncertain (i.e., contemplated breaking-up). Findings indicate that people expect their relational partners to convey messages of affiliation and non-dominance during disagreements of important issues. The results also reveal that behaving in ways that meet or positively exceed expectancies are associated with more satisfaction. This is especially true for dominance. Finally, the evidence suggests that empathy is not for everyone. Attempts at being more empathic can result in less relational responsiveness.
Article
Preferred strategies for responding to interpersonal conflicts in adolescence were analyzed as a function of cultural background (Indonesia vs. Germany) and gender in a study involving 261 adolescents from the two countries. Respondents were presented with three scenarios describing interpersonal conflicts in different role relationships. Following each scenario, they were asked to choose one of three strategies for dealing with the conflict: a confrontational response, a submissive response, or a compromise-oriented response. As predicted, there were significant differences in terms of preferred conflict resolution strategies. Confrontational responses were more prominent among German adolescents than among Indonesian adolescents, whereas the reverse pattern was found for submissive responses. Preferred conflict resolution strategies varied in both cultural groups as a function of the role relationship with the conflict partner. No gender effects were found in any of the analyses.
Article
This article considers single sample approximations for the cross-validation coefficient in the analysis of covariance structures. An adjustment for predictive validity which may be employed in conjunction with any correctly specified discrepancy function is suggested. In the case of maximum likelihood estimation under normality assumptions the coefficient obtained is a simple linear function of the Akaike Information Criterion. Results of a random sampling experiment are reported.
Article
The studies presented in this paper examined empathy, especially perspective taking, as a potential inhibitor of interpersonal aggression. The theoretical rationale for these investigations derived from Zillmann's [(1988): Aggressive Behavior 14: 51–64] cognitive excitation model. Study 1 revealed that dispositional empathy correlates negatively with self-reported aggression and with conflict responses that reflect little concern for the needs of the other party. Empathy also was positively related to constructive responses to interpersonal conflict (i. e., those that do involve concern for the needs of the other party). In Study 2, perspective taking was manipulated with instructions to subjects prior to participation in a reaction-time task designed to measure aggression. When threat was relatively low, subjects who were instructed to take the perspective of the target responded less aggressively than did those who had been instructed to focus on the task. Study 3 examined the effect of dispositional perspective taking on verbal aggression. Threat was manipulated in terms of the combination of provocation and gender of the interactants. As predicted, perspective taking related to aggression inhibition under conditions of moderate threat–for males under low provocation and females under high provocation. These effects were predicted and explained in the context of the cognitive-excitation model. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
This study presents the development and validation of an index of empathy for use with children and adolescents. 56 first graders, 115 fourth graders, and 87 seventh graders were studied. Item means, item-total correlations, test-retest reliabilities, correlations testing the relationship of empathy to aggressiveness and acceptance of individual differences, correlations testing the relationship of this adapted index of empathy to other existing measures of empathy as well as to social desirability response set and reading achievement formed the basis of internal, discriminant, convergent, and general construct validation. The measure demonstrated satisfactory reliability and preliminary construct validity. The study of a subset of items controlling for same-sex versus cross-sex stimulus figures provided the basis for investigating developmental aspects of empathic arousal toward peers of different sexes. Overall, the availability of comparable forms of a measure of empathy for use with children, adolescents, and adults will be useful for exploring the developmental antecedents and conditions surrounding the expression of emotional empathy.
Article
A theory of accommodation processes is advanced, and the results of 6 studies are reported. Accommodation refers to the willingness, when a partner has engaged in a potentially destructive act, to inhibit impulses to react destructively and instead react constructively. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that accommodation is lower under conditions of reduced social concern and lower interdependence. Studies 3, 4, and 5 revealed that accommodation is associated with greater satisfaction, commitment, investment size, centrality of relationship, psychological femininity, and partner perspective taking and with poorer quality alternatives. Commitment plays a fairly strong role in mediating willingness to accommodate. Study 6 showed that couple functioning is associated with greater joint and mutual tendencies to inhibit destructive reactions. Study 6 also demonstrated that self-reports of accommodation are related to relevant behavioral measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
[This book examines] empathy from the standpoint of contemporary social/personality psychology—emphasizing these disciplines' traditional subject matter (e.g., emotion, cognition, helping, aggression) and its research techniques (survey research, laboratory experiments). [The author's] goal was to provide a thorough, readable . . . summary of contemporary empathy research [primarily for advanced undergraduate and graduate students]. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The literature on empathy, primarily from counseling and psychotherapy and secondarily from social and developmental psychology, is reviewed. Obstacles that may account for theoretical confusions and empirical difficulties in studying empathy are highlighted. The decrease in empathy research in recent years appears attributable to the lack of clear focus and effective research tools as well as the shift in interest from empathy to other concepts such as the working alliance. It is argued that there is a need to return to studying empathy. Researchers should distinguish between dispositional and experiential empathy and between intellectual empathy and empathic emotions and indicate whether they are examining therapist or client experience of empathy. Suggestions for future research are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
explores the merits of various conceptual approaches to the phenomenon of empathy / the principal theories of empathy are outlined, and their strengths, weaknesses, and limitations are discussed / a new theoretical model of empathy is then presented / this model incorporates and integrates much established theory / the presentation is followed by a discussion of pertinent research findings / finally, the new model's implications for affective development are projected special consideration is given to the changing ecology of empathetic experience / focus is on the new communication technology with its enormous capacity for replacing immediate, affect-producing social exchanges with sign events that abstract, simulate, and represent such exchanges (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
devoted to issues of empathy as they have emerged in developmental psychology, including the following: (1) the various meanings of the concept; (2) its biological, cognitive, and affective roots; (3) its sociological antecedents; (4) theoretical anticipated correlates such as aggression and prosocial behavior, as well as additional cognitive and personal correlates; (5) empathy's role as a protective factor; (6) and measurement issues and the training of empathy / draw heavily on studies carried out in our research laboratory . . . primarily with children and sometimes with parents / implications of the developmental literature for the clinical enterprise will be discussed (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Empathy was measured by an interview assessing emotions and cognitions in response to videotaped vignettes of persons in affective events and by empathy self-report questionnaires. As hypothesized, empathy was lower among conduct-disordered (CD) than comparison youth and was related inversely to antisocial and aggressive attitudes for all youth tested. Affectively, CD youth ( n = 30) reported fewer concordant emotional responses to vignette persons than did a comparison peer group ( n = 32). Cognitively, CD youth reported fewer correct identifications of vignette persons' emotions, lower mean levels of cognitive attributions for their own responsive emotions, and lower scores on empathy-related cognitive scales. Significant gender differences occurred, with girls scoring higher than boys on empathy questionnaires. Findings are discussed in terms of previous empathy and aggression research, and directions for future study are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examines 2 questions: what is the developmental significance of children's friendship relations, and where should future research efforts be directed to clarify the contributions of these relationships. The benefits of having friends and the effects of not having friends are examined. The philosophical and psychological origins of current conceptualizations about the developmental significance of friendship is traced. Two lines of investigation are used to inform understanding of friendship's contribution to developmental outcome. Findings are reported from a quantitative review of the empirical literature on friendship in childhood and adolescence. The implications and limitations of these findings are considered, drawing special attention to the need for longitudinal studies and the need for investigation of moderator influences created by the age of the child, the identity of the child's friends, and the quality of the relationship. The literature is examined that considers differences between children who have and who do not have friends. Potential methodological problems associated with this literature are discussed, and findings from a longitudinal investigation of adults who did or did not have a stable, mutual best friend in preadolescence are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study was designed to explore relations of emotional empathy (two scales) with aggression and violence (three scales). An initial study investigated validity of one of the violence scales, the Risk of Eruptive Violence Scale (REV), by comparing individual REV scores with individual histories of criminal violence for a sample of incarcerated juveniles. Validity of the REV was supported by a very strong correlation of .71 between REV scores and the amount of criminal violence in this homogeneous sample. The second study yielded positive intercorrelations among measures of aggression and violence, positive intercorrelations among measures of emotional empathy, and negative correlations (ranging from –.22 to –.50, P < .05) of measures of aggression and violence with measures of emotional empathy. Analyses of the five scales in terms of the Pleasure-Arousability-Dominance (PAD) Temperament Model helped explain similarities of the emotional empathy scales with other individual difference measures of prosocial orientation (e.g., affiliation). PAD analyses also explained some paradoxical effects of experimental "empathy arousal" on aggression toward victims. Aggr. Behav. 23:433–445, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
This study examined the unique contributions of social anxiety and empathy to relational aggression in 300 19–to–25–year–old (M=21.25; SD=1.32) male (n=97) and female (n=203) college students using hierarchical linear regression analysis. The interactive relations between gender and social anxiety, and between gender and empathy, were also assessed. In addition to the gender and overt aggression covariates, fear of negative evaluation and perspective taking were unique predictors of relational aggression. Males, students who were more overtly aggressive, and those who reported greater fear of negative evaluation were more relationally aggressive than were peers. Students with higher levels of perspective taking reported using less relational aggression than did peers. A gender x empathetic concern interaction indicated that for males only, lower levels of empathetic concern were associated with higher levels of relational aggression. Results are discussed within a social information-processing perspective. Aggr. Behav. 29:430–439, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
This study investigated the victimisation experiences and conflict resolution strategies of 591 adolescents (304 boys and 287 girls) enrolled in grades 8 (mean age 13.3 years), 9 (mean age 14.3 years), and 10 (mean age 15.4 years) in a metropolitan secondary school in Adelaide, South Australia. A modified self-report version of the Direct and Indirect Aggression Scales (DIAS) [Bjorkqvist et al., 1992b] and a conflict resolution questionnaire drawn particularly from the work of Feldman and Gowen [1998] were administered. Boys reported more physical and verbal but less indirect victimisation than girls. Girls reported greater use of compromise, obliging, and avoidance than boys but similar amounts of overt anger. Older students reported greater use of compromise than younger students. More highly victimised students reported less use of compromise but more use of anger and avoidance than their less victimised peers. Aggr. Behav. 31:1–12, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Unique characteristics of adolescent relationships with friends and romantic partners are evident in the resolutions and outcomes of their conflicts. New research indicates that disagreements with close peers, in contrast to those with parents and others, are managed in a manner that avoids disruption of the relationship.
Article
In this study, we examined how aggression, prosociality, and withdrawal, as reactions to interpersonal conflict situations, manifest themselves in pre-, mid-, and late adolescence (N = 2594). The subjects filled out a questionnaire that contained a description of two everyday problem situations with a set of problem-solving strategies. The results showed that aggression develops curvilinearily and that both prosociality and withdrawal decrease with age. In addition, both direct and indirect aggression, as well as withdrawal, were found to be more typical among boys than among girls whereas, in late adolescence, prosociality was more typical among girls. The most often used strategy in preadolescence was prosociality and in midadolescence, aggression. In late adolescence, girls used prosocial and withdrawal strategies most whereas the most often used strategy among boys was aggression.
Article
A series of meta-analyses examine developmental trends in peer conflict resolution. Peer conflict resolutions are most likely to involve negotiation, with coercion and then disengagement the next most likely strategies. Patterns of conflict resolution differ with age. Coercion is common among children and disengagement is rare. Negotiation is prevalent among adolescents and young adults; the former do not differ in terms of coercion and disengagement, whereas the latter tend to avoid coercion in favor of disengagement. Conflict resolutions also vary as a function of peer relationships, assessment procedures, and reporters. Negotiation prevails in all peer relationships except those with siblings; there is more negotiation among romantic partners than among friends, and more negotiation among friends than among acquaintances. Negotiation is the overwhelming strategy of choice for those presented with hypothetical disputes, but actual conflicts tend to be resolved by coercion. Observers indicate that most conflicts involve coercive resolutions, in contrast to self-reports, which suggest that negotiation prevails. Although conclusions are qualified by the limited number of studies available, follow-up moderator analyses indicate that negotiation increases and coercion declines with age across most peer relationships, assessment procedures, and reporters such that different patterns of conflict resolution during childhood give way to the same relative ordering of strategies during young adulthood.
Article
Empathy reduces aggressive behavior. While empathy and social intelligence are strongly correlated, it is, for both logical and consequential reasons, important to regard them as different concepts. Social intelligence is required for all types of conflict behavior, prosocial as well as antisocial, but the presence of empathy acts as a mitigator of aggression. When empathy is partialed out, correlations between social intelligence and all types of aggression increase, while correlations between social intelligence and peaceful conflict resolution decrease. Social intelligence is related differently to various forms of aggressive behavior: more strongly to indirect than to verbal aggression, and weakest to physical aggression, which is in accordance with the developmental theory of aggressive style. More sophisticated forms of aggression require more social intelligence.
Article
Interdependent and disengaged friendships in a middle-class sample of suburban Israeli adolescents were examined for differences in reports of conflict behavior. A total of 194 (100 females, and 94 males) close, reciprocal friends participated in a joint problem-solving task used to categorize friendships. Interdependent friends balanced closeness and individuality by cooperating on the task, whereas disengaged friends emphasized individuality by working independently on the task. In separate interviews, these friends recounted their most important conflict from the previous week. Older adolescents (M = 17.4 years) reported more conflicts over private disrespect than did younger adolescents (M = 12.7 years), whereas younger adolescents reported more conflicts over public disrespect and undependability than did older adolescents. Differences between friendship types in conflict initiation, negative affect, and relationship impact were found among older adolescents but not younger adolescents; differences in conflict resolutions were found in both age groups. In contrast to disengaged friends, interdependent friends were better able to manage conflicts in a manner that emphasized relationship harmony over individual gain.