Inhaled nitric oxide in infants >1500 g and

Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
Journal of Perinatology (Impact Factor: 2.07). 07/2007; 27(6):347-52. DOI: 10.1038/
Source: PubMed


Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) use in infants >1500 g, but <34 weeks gestation with severe respiratory failure will reduce the incidence of death and/or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
Infants born at <34 weeks gestation with a birth weight >1500 g with respiratory failure were randomly assigned to receive placebo or iNO.
Twenty-nine infants were randomized. There were no differences in baseline characteristics, but the status at randomization showed a statistically significant difference in the use of high-frequency ventilation (P=0.03). After adjustment for oxygenation index entry strata, there was no difference in death and/or BPD (adjusted relative risk (RR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 1.48; P=0.50), death (adjusted RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.47 to 3.41; P=0.65) or BPD (adjusted RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.47 to 3.41; P=0.21).
Although sample size limits our ability to make definitive conclusions, this small pilot trial of iNO use in premature infants >1500 g and <34 weeks with severe respiratory failure suggests that iNO does not affect the rate of BPD and/or death.

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Available from: Krisa P Vanmeurs, Dec 12, 2014
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    • "The rationale for the use of iNO in the prevention of BPD stems from animal and human studies supporting an anti-inflammatory role for NO and beneficial effects in lung structure and gas exchange [69–73]. Several large clinical trials with different study designs yielded variable results [74–79]. These studies included iNO given as prophylaxis to prevent BPD, as rescue therapy for severe acute respiratory failure, and as treatment for severe BPD in a variable patient population. "
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