Article

The Art of Nursing: Communication and Self-Expression

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Abstract

Nursing is considered both an art and a science, yet the nature of art and science has been historically depicted as two distinct fields of inquiry in the health professions. To meet the health challenges of the future, blending science and art through nursing theory, research, and practice is critical. This article describes how nurses in a master's of nursing program at Dalhousie University broke with tradition for the practicum course to articulate and apply the theoretical elements of knowing using aesthetic inquiry. The challenge was in articulating and guiding students through the theory of aesthetic knowing, the linkages with the fine arts, and the conceptualization of nursing art.

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... As such, we developed and implemented arts-based learning (ABL) activities to stimulate affective processes and active learning among second-year students within a theory course of an undergraduate baccalaureate-nursing program. This teaching innovation facilitates the development of learning skills, including critical thinking, creativity, and emotional intelligence (Casey, 2009;Jack, 2012;MacDonnell & MacDonald, 2011;McGarry & Aubeeluck, 2013;Price et al., 2007). Practitioners require these skills to understand the complex nature of human experience (Jack, 2012;Rieger & Chernomas, 2013;Roberts, 2010). ...
... Megan Nguyen, MN, RN; Joyal Miranda, PhD, RN; Jennifer Lapum, PhD, RN; and Faith Donald, PhD, NP-PHC tive learning through the arts, they gain the ability to express and understand ineffable human experiences through its symbolic language (Blomqvist et al., 2007;Jack, 2012). Various art forms can be used for ABL, including narratives (Rieger & Chernomas, 2013), visual art (Casey, 2009;Price et al., 2007), music (Pavill, 2011), creative writing (MacDonnell & MacDonald, 2011), drama (McGarry & Aubeeluck, 2013, and poetry (Lapum et al., 2011). ...
Article
Background: Learner-oriented strategies focusing on learning processes are needed to prepare nursing students for complex practice situations. An arts-based learning approach uses art to nurture cognitive and emotional learning. Knowles' theory of andragogy aims to develop the skill of learning and can inform the process of implementing arts-based learning. This article explores the use and evaluation of andragogy-informed arts-based learning for teaching nursing theory at the undergraduate level. Method: Arts-based learning activities were implemented and then evaluated by students and instructors using anonymous questionnaires. Results: Most students reported that the activities promoted learning. All instructors indicated an interest in integrating arts-based learning into the curricula. Facilitators and barriers to mainstreaming arts-based learning were highlighted. Findings stimulate implications for prospective research and education. Conclusion: Findings suggest that arts-based learning approaches enhance learning by supporting deep inquiry and different learning styles. Further exploration of andragogy-informed arts-based learning in nursing and other disciplines is warranted. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):407-410.].
... Irrespective of the approach that nurses take, care for the well-being of humans is inherent in all aspects of nursing (Yam & Rossiter, 2000). While much emphasis has been placed on the scientific aspects of nursing, the art of nursing is less well understood (Price et al. 2007;Jenner, 1997). According to Finfgeld-Connett (2008b), since the time of nurse Nightingale , nurses have struggled to define their practice. ...
... Furthermore, Fagerberg (2004) and Naden (1998) indicated that nurses use their creativity to find new ways to meet the individual needs of their patients, which can also be considered relevant to the art of nursing. Nurses were reported to demonstrate the art of nursing by using their creativity in caring for patients (Jenner, 1997;Rose & Parker, 1994;Price et al., 2007). Similar statements were also observed in our study. ...
Article
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Introduction: Nursing is commonly accepted as a science and an art. Aim: To determine the degree to which nursing students perceived the artistic aspects of nursing. Methodology: A qualitative approach was used and the study conducted at the Health Sciences Faculty, and Nursing Department (n=54). The instrument of data collection consisted of two parts, the first one questions regarding the sociodemographic characteristics of the students and the second part a semi-structured interview form with questions targeting to elicit information on the students perception of the artistic aspects of nursing. The interviews were conducted face-to-face using an in-depth interviewing technique and content analysis was used data analysis. Result: The average age of the students was 19.35±1.2. The data analysis resulted to three themes: interaction, professional values and using professional knowledge. Some of the students stated that applying the knowledge obtained through science to patient care defines the artistic aspect of nursing. Conclusion: In nursing education, a variety of art forms, such as drama, literature, music, and painting, could be used to help students grasp the significance of certain topics, such as human emotions, as they relate to nursing.
... This will explore the connection of their expectations linked to their provision of holistic care while engaging with a childbearing family. Price et al (2007) reports that: ...
... By changing the approach to nursing education to include aesthetic knowledge, educators can begin to promote a more balanced health system that allows patients, family members, and healthcare professionals to explore expressions of illness as they make meaning from their life experiences (p.157). Price et al (2007) continued to explore blending art and science and concluded that: ...
Conference Paper
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Art therapy is used as a tool for personal growth and greater self-understanding. Art enhances communication between individuals, groups and professional teams and is an effective tool to explore change. In 2006, I developed and coordinated a third year Bachelor of Nursing unit on Maternal and Newborn Health Care. The first cohort of the Bachelor of Nursing students was entering their final year. Being a small group, having shared two years together, one would have thought that they would be supportive and cohesive. However to the contrary, the group was fragmented, insular and remote, with little demonstration of compassion or empathy for one another. Knowing that the ability to communicate and collaborate is essential to working well within the interdisciplinary health team, the group needed to evolve from being distant individuals with a student mindset to a model of engagement. The project describes the changes in the dynamics of the group and personal growth of the students as a result of using art therapy as an assessable component in the unit. The students were required to develop an artwork, which reflected their interpretations, emotions and feelings about the process of pregnancy, childbirth and parenting. Not only did the activity develop an overwhelming change of individual appreciation for one another, but the marked change in their attitudes and development toward professional accountability was noted by lecturers and unit coordinators who taught the students in their following and final semester.
... Accordingly, Schön (1983, p. 49) argues that professionals need 'an epistemology of practice implicit in the artistic, intuitive processes which some practitioners do bring to situations of uncertainty, instability, uniqueness and value confl ict.' Many researchers claim that arts-based approaches in education, research and nursing practice offer ways of calling forth inner creative forces and developing possibilities for new or different perceptions and understandings (Darbyshire, 1994;Johnson & Jackson, 2005;Koithan, 1996;Price et al., 2007). Eisner (2002, p. 10) asserts that: one cognitive function the arts perform is to help us learn to notice the world…Art provides the conditions for awakening to the world around us. ...
... In continuing to regard arts-informed approaches as confi ned to distinct humanities modules within a taught curriculum, Marnocha and Marnocha (2007, p. 518) warn of the dangers of humanities becoming 'academic electives detached from clinical experiences' and recommend the integration of arts-based approaches across the curriculum particularly in relation to clinical practice elements. Many practitioners working with arts-based humanities approaches provide useful examples of using these methods in a variety of nursing education practice and research contexts (Killion, 2001;McKie Adams, Gass, & MacDuff, 2008;Michael & Candela, 2006;Price et al., 2007;Wainwright & Williams, 2005). Jackson and Sullivan (1999) found that study of the arts actually complemented the techno-scientifi c knowledge upon which their curriculum was based and McKie et al. (2008) recommend engagement with wider 'communities of practice' whereby the curriculum is opened up to the interdisciplinary infl uence of others with an interest in the dialogue between health and the arts. ...
Article
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This paper is concerned with the methods, processes, and experiences of using arts-based inquiry within the context of an undergraduate nursing curriculum. Exploration of these phenomena was achieved through an ethnographic study that involved participatory research among twenty second year students as they engaged in a Nursing Humanities option module. The capacity of arts-based approaches in the nursing curriculum to foster inquiry and critical thinking; essential attributes in contemporary nursing, is explored through re-presentation and analysis of student artwork/art-making processes, contextual discussions and researcher field notes. The challenges encountered in using arts-informed pedagogical approaches within current nursing curricula are made visible and possibilities for integrating aesthetic inquiry into nurse education programmes are discussed.
... Freshwater and Stickley (2004) advocate a transformatory learning process, which includes reflective learning and use of the arts, such as poetry, drama, music and film. Story extracts can be used to explore understanding of what it is to be human, as part of the education of health professionals (Gallagher and McKie, 2010), and can assist not only in our understanding of others, but also of ourselves (Price et al., 2007). Creative learning methods support a deeper level of learning (Ramsden, 1992) and creativity in teaching can support the development of analytical and problem solving skills (Sternberg, 2008). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to explore the use of a creative teaching method to facilitate learning about becoming older. An excerpt from a story was shared with a group of first year undergraduate student nurses. This was followed by a discussion of the holistic aspects of ageing. Use of this method encouraged a more critical discussion of ageing when compared to didactic teaching methods, and this approach is not restricted to nursing practice. This method can guide similar work in any subject in which assumptions can be challenged, and where meaningful discourse needs to be encouraged.  ÂÂ
... Aesthetic inquiry refers to knowing through an aesthetic experience (Archibald, 2012), and is defined as "a method of knowing that implies an ability to appreciate and comprehend the elements of an art form" (Price et al., 2007, p. 155). Nursing scholars refer to aesthetic inquiry as a way to develop important nursing knowledge about the meaning of a lived experience and the relational narratives of nursing practice (Archibald, 2012;Doane & Varcoe, 2007;Price et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Background: There is a growing interest in arts-based pedagogy (ABP) to promote the wide range of competencies needed for professional nursing. The aim of this study was to develop a theoretical understanding of how students learn through ABP in undergraduate nursing education. Methodology and Methods: We used a constructivist grounded theory methodology which incorporated art-elicitation interviews. Thirty nursing students and eight nurse educators shared about their ABP experiences. Data were analyzed with grounded theory procedures. Results: The arts as a catalyst for learning emerged as the core category and elucidates how the unique quality of the arts created powerful pedagogical processes for many students. When students engaged with these processes, they resulted in surprising and transformative learning outcomes for professional nursing. Conclusions: These findings provide insight into why and how students learned through ABP, and can inform the effective implementation of ABP into healthcare education.
... Two groups of authors used artwork and one used poetry as pedagogy for teaching the art of nursing. Price et al. (2007) studied exposure to classic artwork as pedagogy for teaching the art of nursing to graduate nursing students. They found that both creating and gaining an appreciation for art enhances nurses' abilities to connect and communicate with patients. ...
Article
There is wide agreement that nursing practice is a combination of art and science. While the science is easily found in nursing education, research, and practice, the art is overshadowed. Philosophical and theoretical discussions on the art of nursing are plentiful, but research demonstrating its importance to nursing practice is lacking. In this article, the nature of nursing is explored separate from science, and a comprehensive exploration of the literature on the art of nursing is presented. Three themes concerning the art of nursing are identified and discussed, including implications for research, practice, and education.
... In their systematic review of the literature, Fraser and al Sayah (2011) identified that the integration of arts within health research (both as a form of knowledge production and knowledge translation) emerged with increased qualitative inquiry within the health sciences, particularly the use of theatre as a frequent arts-based dissemination strategy. As an engaging pedagogical tool (Price et al., 2007), the use of arts and theatre is suggested to be more effective than conventional teaching methods for enhancing practitioner skills for complex physical Mitchell, Jonas-Simpson, & Ivonoffski, 2006) and social health-related conditions (Eakin & Endicott, 2006;Rossiter et al., 2008). Theatrical productions based on qualitative research findings are grounded in real life scenarios, encompassing verbatim quotes and embodying recurrent themes that represent a personified and vital piece that health care professionals can empathize with (Gray, Fitch, Labrecque, & Greenberg, 2003). ...
... Arts-based approaches offer me and the nursing students I work with, a means of generating and exploring evocative understandings (Richardson, 2003) of lived experiences and identities as nurses. Arts-based approaches in education, research and nursing practice offer ways of calling forth inner creative forces and developing possibilities for new or different perceptions and understandings (Darbyshire, 1994;Koithan, 1996;Johnson & Jackson, 2005;Price et al., 2007). Eisner (2002, p. xii) asserts that many of the "most complex and subtle forms of thinking" occur when students have an opportunity to work meaningfully on the creation of images, "whether visual choreographic, musical literary or poetic," and to scrutinize them appreciatively. ...
Book
This beautiful volume offers a range of research possibilities for practitioners. Bringing together the work of a community of scholars whose work blurs the edges between the arts and social sciences in the name of practice-based inquiry, Creative Practitioner Inquiry in the Helping Professions offers engaging and accessible exemplars alongside clear explanations of the theoretical understandings and backgrounds to the approaches offered. The book's contributors are teachers, doctors, social workers, counsellors, psychotherapists, health and community workers and organisational consultants; together they passionately engage in arts-based research as an effective and accessible instrument of inquiry, knowledge dissemination and social change.
... Arts-based approaches offer me and the nursing students I work with, a means of generating and exploring evocative understandings (Richardson 2003) of lived experiences and identities as nurses. Arts-based approaches in education, research and nursing practice offer ways of calling forth inner creative forces and developing possibilities for new or different perceptions and understandings (Darbyshire 1994, Koithan 1996, Johnson & Jackson 2005, Price et al. 2007). Eisner (2002: p xii) asserts that many of the 'most complex and subtle forms of thinking' occur when students have an opportunity to work meaningfully on the creation of images 'whether visual choreographic, musical literary or poetic' and to scrutinize them appreciatively. ...
... Besides the direct implications that music can have on healthcare professionals, music can also be a tool to help them improve their care giving (Price et al., 2007). Both nurses and doctors use a degree of "improvization" in their daily work, as they have to address the needs of their patients in a changing environment (Hanley & Fenton, 2007). ...
Article
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Objective: This study focuses on a group of nurses (n = 11) and doctors (n = 9) who have been regularly exposed to live music for the past five years, as part of a music programme targeted on children, in an Italian paediatric hospital. The aims of the study were to focus on the impact of incidental exposure to music of the hospital staff and to analyse any repercussion that such exposure had on their work. Methods: Grounded theory research method informed the analysis of the semi-structured interviews (N = 20). Results: Results suggest that the hospital staff have a positive view of the music intervention in the light of its perceived benefit on the patients. However, some aspects of the programme, such as the selection of music, were reported to impact negatively on their work. Conclusions: Implications for the development of music programmes in hospitals are discussed.
... Creative art may appeal to students with different learning styles (Simons and Hicks, 2006) and may ensure inclusivity is promoted (Cho and Forde, 2001). Art has been used constructively in nursing education as a means of developing self understanding, and an understanding of the experiences of others (Price et al., 2007). Painting has been used to develop emotional self awareness (McAndrew and Warne, 2010), pictures have been used to explore feelings of loneliness in the older person (Blomqvist et al., 2007), and the creation of masks has been used as a form of assessment, in relation to therapeutic communication (Emmanuel et al., 2010) ...
Article
This paper explores a way in which Heidegger's later philosophy on meditative thinking can be used to support the development of emotional self awareness in pre registration nursing students. The development of art work supported the consideration of feelings in relation to particular incidents from practice. The students were afforded the opportunity to think 'for thinking's sake' about their feelings around emotionally challenging situations. They were then more able to consider others' feelings and think differently about the situations encountered. The students found the process beneficial although in an already packed curriculum, it may be difficult to afford the time and space needed to adopt more transformatory ways of learning. A more objective and focused delivery may be preferable to the nurse educator, but when exploring human emotion, consideration could be given to whether this is beneficial to the student.
... Aes-thetic knowing involves perception, empathy, insight, and understanding the lived experience of people. Price et al. (2007) encouraged the development of aesthetic knowledge through the integration of arts in nursing curricula, suggesting that "aesthetic knowledge enhances one's ability to achieve harmony and healing" (p. 159), in that art forms can enhance aesthetic knowing by seeking what conveys meaning for each person. ...
Article
This qualitative exploratory study sought to explore and analyse the perceptions of first year nursing students aged 18-25 years toward older persons in aged care facilities. The expectations of first year nursing students in relation to performing nursing care on older persons was also examined. The students’ perceptions were explored using a photo-elicitation technique to evoke an emotive response. By challenging and confronting the participants with realistic photographs of nursing care, this technique encouraged the research participants to engage in anticipatory reflection prior to their first aged care clinical placement. Data were gathered through demographic questionnaires and semi-structured photo-elicitation interviews. Findings were analysed using thematic analysis. Themes included dissecting what it means to be a nurse, recognising dependence, and the re-visioning of therapeutic relationships including considering patient dignity and empathising with older persons. A youthful reflection on the differences between young and old included participants’ fearing for themselves in future, and this was another identified theme. The photo-elicitation technique challenged and confronted participants as they became aware of the responsibilities of performing nursing care and their belief that they lacked emotional preparedness. Experiencing sensitivity and awkwardness to nakedness of older person’s bodies was also highlighted by most of the participants’ responses. The findings suggest that it is essential in this time of demographic change and the growing ageing population that nursing education responds to the challenge of an evolving health care system by providing qualified, experienced aged care nurses who are familiar with the reality of older people. Therefore, first year nursing students’ transition to aged care nursing clinical placement and the adoption of positive attitudes is paramount. Despite a large number of research studies highlighting nursing students’ disinterest in caring for older persons, there have been few studies investigating educational interventions that could assist in overcoming this negative trend. The findings from this study have important implications for teaching strategies aimed at understanding undergraduate nursing students. Using photography to elicit emotional responses can also assist with reflective practice, which can be useful to enhance self awareness and an aesthetic and personal knowing. Encouraging anticipatory reflection can help socially prepare nursing students, increase their readiness for learning and foster more positive attitudes to caring for older people prior to the students’ initial aged care clinical placement.
... Carper (1978) first identified aesthetics as a significant way of knowing in nursing practice (Pardue, 2005), whilst Johns (1995) argued that aesthetics forms the basis from which other ways of knowing can take place. Through art, nurses can come to develop a better understanding of themselves and of the human experience of others (Price et al., 2007). In nursing education, art continues to be used successfully to express creativity, imagination and reflection (McKie et al., 2008), although greater emphasis is given to the conventional approach which centres on development of analytical skills such as evaluating and explaining. ...
Article
Creative art as part of assessment in nursing is a powerful alternative to traditional methods of promoting engagement for students who have different learning styles, and who value engagement in creative activities. This paper describes an innovative assessment approach for first year nursing students which addressed the development of a beginning knowledge base in therapeutic communication as well as critical thinking and writing skills. Each student was asked to design a wearable mask to display an abstract interpretation of the therapeutic communication skills required as a nursing student, followed by a discussion about therapeutic nursing communication. Results from an evaluation of the assessment are described using Bigg's (1995) structure of observed learning outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. Seventy percent of students (n=35) found the new assessment to be an effective learning strategy. As a creative exercise, 82% (n=41) found the assessment to have engaged them at a personal level. More effort is needed for innovative assessment strategies to promote student engagement. Use of a creative assessment approach that incorporates art creation shows much promise in bridging the gap from a superficial understanding of concepts to an understanding characterised by deeper learning.
... Ways of Knowing and Learning Strategies Price, et al. (2007, p. 159 ...
Article
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Nursing students’ exposure to clinical placements with older adults is instrumental in helping them adopt positive attitudes toward care of that population. This qualitative pilot study analyzed perceptions and expectations of a group of first-year students prior to a clinical placement with older adults. A photo-elicitation technique, involving viewing of realistic photographs of older adults being cared for, was used to help students clarify expectations. This was followed by thematic analysis of their perceptions and expectations. Analysis revealed five main themes: Dissecting What It Means to Be a Nurse, Revisioning Therapeutic Relationships in Terms of Dignity, Youthful Reflection on the Differences Between Young and Old, Feeling Challenged and Confronted, and Experiencing Sensitivity and Awkwardness Toward Older Adults’ Nakedness. Engagement with images of older adults encouraged students to anticipate their clinical placement in an aged care setting in a more meaningful, reflective way than they may have done without prior exposure, suggesting a need for realistic pre-practice education. <br /
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The purpose of this paper is to consider the many influences that have an impact on appropriate speech-language pathology service delivery. The competitive cooking and entertainment television program, MasterChef, is used as an analogy to consider the ingredients, blend and approach required to improve speech-language pathology services. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) enter the profession with the aim of assisting those with communication and swallowing disorders to have a better quality of life. Thus, we should be restless to continue to improve our services in order to achieve the best influence and outcomes by changing our recipes and ingredients. However, having good technical skills as a SLP is not sufficient in ensuring that the services are the best they can be. We have to consider available resources, customers and service users, who it is that judges our services, whether we are as good as we could or should be, what can help us improve our services, what the appetite is for our services, and how we incorporate evidence-based practice. This paper considers the value of understanding and using information on incidence and prevalence, evidence-based practice and outcome measurement. Blending technical, clinical and academic abilities with personal skills will result in an award-winning menu.
Chapter
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Internationally, student nurse education has changed remarkably over the last fifty years, transforming itself from an apprenticeship based, service driven model towards an all graduate profession. As a nursing educator, aiming to contribute to the professional identity formation and knowledge development of student nurses, I am positioned in this changing landscape.
Article
Internationally, student nurse education has changed remarkably over the last fifty years, transforming itself from an apprenticeship based, service driven model towards an all graduate profession. As a nursing educator, aiming to contribute to the professional identity formation and knowledge development of student nurses, I am positioned in this changing landscape. The traditional reliance in nurse education on vocational training pedagogies and performance outcome strategies is being challenged as we scrutinise instruction models of conventional pedagogy and explore alternative interpretive pedagogies such as critical, feminist, phenomenological, and postmodern approaches (Diekelmann, 2001). In contemporary nursing, teachers and nursing students alike operate in a context where these alternative approaches to nursing pedagogy rub up against traditional perspectives and practices. Koithan (1996, p. 535) asserts that "the profession requires an awareness and multiple methodological strategies for an educational system that models creativity and thinking rather than conformity and performance." Nurses encounter situations every day that are emotionally, ethically and cognitively complex. There are no textbook answers and nurses call on past experiences, knowledge, intuition and critical reflection to respond in the moment in these encounters (Benner, 1984). Knowledge and acts of nursing/meaning are created between people engaged in health/care interactions in dynamic and unsignalled ways (Watson, 1988; Peplau, 1998). This complexity of integration and inter-relation has few reference points in positivistic domains; nursing educators argue that, while scientific and positivistic inquiry are recognised and valued as a means of generating some aspects of nursing knowledge, the domination of nursing and midwifery curricula by scientific rationality has meant that the intuitive and relational aspects of nursing work and knowledge have been marginalized (Jackson & Sullivan, 1999). Further, an emphasis on outcomes and the observable may "inadvertently obscure the uncertainty within and complexity of nursing practice, as well as the multifaceted problems facing nurses and clients on a daily basis" (Ironside, 2003, p. 515). Schön (1983, p. 49) claims that professionals need "an epistemology of practice implicit in the artistic, intuitive processes which some practitioners do bring to situations of uncertainty, instability, uniqueness and value conflict".
Article
Reflective writing is a mandatory part of nurse education but how students develop their skills and use reflection as part of their experiential learning remains relatively unknown. Understanding reflective writing in all forms from the perspective of a student nurse is therefore important. To explore the use of reflective writing and the use of poetry in pre-registered nursing students. A qualitative design was employed to explore reflective writing in pre-registered nursing students. A small university in Scotland. BSc (Hons) Adult and Mental Health Pre-registration Student Nurses. Two focus groups were conducted with 10 student nurses during March 2012. Data was analysed thematically using the framework of McCarthy (1999). Students found the process of reflective writing daunting but valued it over time. Current educational methods, such as assessing reflective accounts, often lead to the 'narrative' being watered down and the student feeling judged. Despite this, reflection made students feel responsible for their own learning and research on the topic. Some students felt the use of models of reflection constricting, whilst poetry freed up their expression allowing them to demonstrate the compassion for their patient under their care. Poetry writing gives students the opportunity for freedom of expression, personal satisfaction and a closer connection with their patients, which the more formal approach to reflective writing did not offer. There is a need for students to have a safe and supportive forum in which to express and have their experiences acknowledged without the fear of being judged. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Purpose: University nutrition students' experiences of participation in an arts module as part of a senior nutrition course were explored to gain an understanding of the relationship of art to dietetics practice. Methods: The module comprised discussions, readings, and presentations from dietitian artists, along with three assignments: the production of art, an artist statement, and a reflection paper. The art production depicting an aspect of body image was presented to the class and optionally at a body image conference. An exploratory, qualitative methodology informed by Schön's reflective practice framework was employed. Three surveys administered at various times during the arts module were used to collect students' reflections and were thematically analyzed. Results: Three themes emerged: hesitance to acceptance, emotion and connection, and relationship with dietetics. The education process facilitated a transformation among students, noted as changes in knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes over the course of the module. Conclusions: The arts provide an alternative platform for an exploration of self and others, for improving practice, and for an examination of novel ways for doing so. Reflection as an education component enables students to contemplate relationships, knowledge, emotions, and practice as interrelated and evolving entities.
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This bibliometric study of scientific papers aimed to outline a profile concerning scientific publication involving expressions of art in nursing education and care. The SciELO and Medline databases were consulted using the key words, "art", "nursing", "teaching", and "care". The research uncovered 271 publications, given inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 45 articles published from 2004 to 2008 were analyzed. The country with the largest number of publications was the United States, followed by Brazil. The most frequent Brazilian journals were Texto & Contexto Nursing Journal and the Brazilian Journal of Nursing, with most studies using qualitative methods. With respect to the expression of art in the titles from analyzed studies, 55.5% of the publications referred to art and care, 26.6% to art and education, and 4.4% to both terms. It was concluded that art does not appear in the researched studies as an object of science, but as a tool for developing nursing care and education.
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Professional nursing defines its foundation of practice as embedded in the sciences and humanities of a liberal education. This liberal education is commonly alluded to with the phrase "the art and science of nursing." Yet how do we as nursing educators integrate these two concepts? This article describes a method of integrating the humanities as part of an innovative clinical experience. A defined visual art experience was used to improve professional nursing students' observational and communication skills, narrative sequencing abilities, and empathy. The nursing and medical literature describing the use of visual art encounters in health care education is reviewed. The incorporation of an art education program into the curriculum of a cohort of accelerated baccalaureate nursing students is described. Qualitative evaluation measures from the students suggest this was an experience that broadened their understanding of patient encounters.
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This article proposes that the use of art with a stroke group is an excellent method of facilitating communication. Most stroke patients, whether right or left hemiplegics, can participate in this form of group therapy. Participants and group leaders find it to be a rewarding method of communication. While stroke patients express physical goals with therapists, their emotional goals may often be overlooked. Art projects allow stroke patients to express expectations, goals and feelings regarding themselves, their families, friends, and environmental needs. Patients also express feelings about the rehabilitation program and their adjustment to policies and procedures. Art therapy is a method of data assessment useful in planning rehabilitative goals with the patient and family.
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This article describes a project created as part of the Arts in Medicine program at Shands Hospital at the University of Florida. The overall mission is to identify and develop connections between the creative arts and the healing arts that will improve the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health of our community. The immediate aim of this project is to facilitate the development of similar programs on other clinical units and in other hospitals. The key component is the inclusion of professional artists as artists in residence in an intensive care unit setting. Their primary function is to conduct creative arts workshops and to work one on one to facilitate the use of art as a therapeutic intervention with patients, families, and health caregivers. This pilot program is being conducted on the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit and is exploring the links between nurses, physicians, artists, patients, and families in the creative process. The nurse's role has proved to be that of facilitator and advocate, directly incorporating the artist's interactive process into the daily activities of patients and families. The artists have designed and implemented each creative project and acted as consultants in how to incorporate it. The basic assumption is that every individual is a natural artist. We believe that creating opportunities for everyone to explore the possibilities of artistic expression without judgment or criticism can lead to greater self-awareness and self-esteem and can release our innate creative energy. We hypothesize that this energy can be directed as a potent force into our physical, mental, and spiritual healing.
Forms of artistic expression, literary and visual art, are used by breast cancer patients and survivors to show feelings of fear, reflection, acceptance, and transcendence. This method of expression can free the individual from complications often caused by personal interaction. The Healing Legacies Arts Registry provides a living record of art and writing by women and men who have experienced breast cancer.
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This article describes the development of aesthetic inquiry and the emerging conceptualization of the art of nursing as an art form. Aesthetic knowing, which emerges from aesthetic inquiry, is described as connoisseurship of the art of nursing and includes appreciation of the art form and insight into meanings of the art. A method of aesthetic criticism is described that links artistic experience, history, form, alternate meanings, and future possibilities. The inquiry yielded two essential elements of the art of nursing, movement and narrative, which, when manifested as an art form have the capacity to shift experience into a different realm.
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To explore the role of the arts in spirituality and spiritual care and the importance of the arts and creativity in health care settings, particularly where individuals are confronting life-threatening illnesses. Professional and lay journals/magazines, and personal experience with oncology and hospice patients. The arts are now viewed as an integral component of holistic care for patients and families. By offering opportunities to engage in the arts and creative expression, persons with cancer can be enabled to mourn, grieve, celebrate life, be empowered to endure their situation, and find healing and meaning. Comprehensive supportive care for cancer patients requires the efforts of an interdisciplinary team. Artists can play a role as a part of this team. Oncology nurses must be knowledgeable of the role of the arts and creative expression in the provision of care to patients with cancer and how to incorporate the arts into the cancer care setting.
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