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Nutritional composition of frog (Rana esculanta) waste meal

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In the present study, the waste obtained from the frozen frog leg industry was used for the production of frog waste meal, and its proximate, amino acids, fatty acids, mineral and vitamin compositions were evaluated to determine the nutritional quality. In addition, the total bacterial count, Salmonella, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, mgN/100g) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA, mg malonaldehyde/kg) were also measured to determine the microbiological and chemical quality of frog waste meal (FWM). The crude protein, fat and ash content of FWM on a dry weight basis were 68.6%, 17.0% and 13.2%, respectively. The amino acid profiles were found to be fairly close to those of fish meal in terms of protein sources and rich in the glutamic acid, glycine, proline, arginine, and methionine. The proportions of fatty acid composition in FWM were analysed and findings were 26.7% for total saturated fatty acid (SFA), 42.5% for total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), 17.0% for total n - 6 and 3.3% for n - 3 ratio. The major SFA, MUFA and PUFA in FWM were palmitic acid (19.1%), oleic acid (26.0%) and linoleic acid (16.7%), respectively. FWM was found to be high in mineral content, especially Zn, K, Cu, Mn, and Mg and high level of some vitamins such as folic acids and thiamin. The total bacterial count was found to be 2.9x10(4) CFU/g, and Salmonella was not observed. TVB-N and TBA in FWM was determined to be 157.4+/-5.8 mg N/100g and 1.2+/-0.1 mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively.

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... According to FAO (2006), the part of worldwide frog trade (all species considered) supplied by aquaculture increased from 3% in 1980 to 15% in 2002. Due to the good taste of their meat like that of chicken and their color, frog consumption spread over many countries (Tokur et al., 2008). Importation of frog thigh was estimated to about 8000 tons in 2001 in the European Union (Negroni, 2003). ...
... Lesaffre (56% crude protein, 0% crude fat, 16.72 Kj.g -1 gross energy, France) d Nestlé HealthCar Nutrition GmbH, D-67574 Osthofen (0.2% crude protein, 0% crude lipid, 16.18 Kj.g -1 gross energy) e SIGMA-ALDRICH (0% cruds protein, 0% crude lipid, 15.94 Kj.g -1 gross energy, France) f Setalg, France (0% crude protein, 100.0% crude lipid, 37.00 Kj.g -1 gross energy, France) g Songhaï center (0% crude protein, 99.9% crude lipid, 37.00 Kj.g -1 gross energy, Benin) h Vitamin premix contains (g 100 g -1 of premix) : ascorbc acid, 50.0 ; D-calcium pantothenate, 5.0 ; choline chloride, 100.0 ; inositol, 5.0 ; menadione, 2.0 ; niacin, 5.0 ; pyridoxine HCL, 1.0 ; riboflavin, 3.0 ; thiamin HCL, 0.5 ; DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate (250 IU g -1 ), 8.0 ; vitamin A acetate (20,000 IU g -1 ), 5.0 ; vitamin micro-mix, 10.0 ; cellulose, 805.5 ; Vitamin micro-mix contains (g.kg -1 of micro-mix) : biotin, 0.5 ; cholecalciferol (1µg = 40 IU), 0.02 ; folic acid, species is also reared in Philippines and Malaysia due to its quick growth and tenderness of its meat (Tokur et al., 2008). Consequently, it is important to assess nutritional needs of H. occipitalis in order to master feed formulation for its rearing. ...
... January-June 2019| Volume 7 | Issue 1 | Page 3 Olvera-Novoa et al., 2007;Prapee et al., 1997;Carmona-Osulde et al., 1997), R.esculanta (Tokur et al., 2008), but published studies explaining nutritional needs of H. occipitalis are almost inexistent nowadays. The current study aims to determine the optimal ration of H. occipitalis tadpoles. ...
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The current study aims at evaluating the effect of experimental feed protein rate on growth and feed utilization in Hoplobatrachus occipitalis tadpoles. Six same-energy feed diets containing crescent protein rates (20, 30, 40, 45, 50 and 60 %) were formulated and tested on Hoplobatrachus occipitalis tadpoles though initial mean weight was 0.380 ± 0.004 g. Each diet was tested in triplicate for 24 days. 55 tadpoles was stocked per pond containing 30L water. Survival rates recorded ranged between 85.454 and 92.727% for all treatments. Growth and feed utilization parameters varied significantly with feed protein rate (P < 0.05). The best growth performances were recorded with 60% protein diet. According to the mathematical model (polynomial regression II) used for analysis of specific growth rate variations in relation to feed protein rate, optimal and maximal protein needs of Hoplobatrachus occipitalis tadpoles are 33 and 51% respectively. The highest protein rate of tadpoles’ carcass was noticed in tadpoles fed on 45% protein diet. The highest rate of lipid and dry matter was observed in tadpoles fed on 50% protein feed. The optimum and maximum protein requirements for better growth of H. occipitalis tadpoles are 38.30% and 54.10%, respectively.
... Frog meats have a great appeal to different communities because of their high-content of proteins and minerals and lowcontent of fat. Frog legs are highly appreciated in many European countries such as France, Belgium and United States because of their superior palatability and similarity in color and taste with their chicken counterparts (Tokur et al., 2008). Besides foods, frogderived materials are used in traditional and homeopathic medicines to cure a number of diseases including respiratory infections, coughs, appendicitis and wound healing in Africa, North America, Britain, China and Germany (Mohneke et al., 2011). ...
... Oduntan et al. (2012a;2012b) proposed that the consumption of edible frog (Rana esculenta) to substitute bush meat is feasible since it has a competent source of animal proteins and other vital nutrients for human in great abundance and it is widely distributed in most of the West African countries, especially in the swampy, rainforest, and savannah eco-zones (IUCN, 2012). Tokur et al. (2008) studied the nutritional composition of frog waste meal that includes the head, viscera, skin and upper part of the body after the third vertebra. Up to 45% of the frog body parts ultimately go to the waste without being properly utilized for useful purposes. ...
... They can be recycled and converted into several products of high economic value such as valuable protein, lipid fractions, vitamin, minerals, vehicle for lipid-soluble vitamins or ingredients in cosmetics. There might be limitless other uses for this material, and new uses are being invented over the time (Ozogul et al., 2008;Tokur et al., 2008). Frogs are also rich in proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and minerals (Ozogul et al., 2008;Tokur et al., 2008;Mendez et al., 1998) and are comparable with those of freshwater fish species. ...
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The agro-based production and consumption of frogs coupled with world-wide trading have been increased in the recent years giving rise to the risk of frog fat adulteration in expensive vegetable and marine oils. For the first time, we profiled here frog fats using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy coupled with multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). The comparison of the FTIR spectral absorbance intensities demonstrated linkage of frog fats to other edible fats and oils. Three commercially available marine oils and three vegetables oils were studied with frog fats and clear pattern of clusters with distinctive identifiable features were obtained through PCA modeling. PCA analysis identified 2922.21 cm-1, 2852.88 cm-1, 1745.45 cm-1, 1158.29 cm-1 and 721.51 cm-1 FTIR-frequencies as the most discriminating variables influencing the group separation into different clusters. This fundamental study has clear implications in the identification of frog fat from its marine and vegetable counterparts for the potential detection of frog fat adulteration in various fat and oils.
... A part from their ecological importance, frog meat is an attractive food in European big restaurants since the 16 th century [8] . It represents a very important source of protein that can be affiliated to chicken meat with a good taste [9] . It is so necessary to rear them not only for species conservation but to satisfy human protein demand. ...
... Moreover, Shearer et al. [38] explained that moisture, proteins, fats and ash rates in aquatic animals tend to vary according to species, climate, seasons, sexual maturity and food diet. Our crude proteins values are lower than those observed by Tokur et al. [9] in Rana esculenta while lipids values are upper. ...
... Concerning crude ash values, our results are similar to those of Tokur et al. [9] . This difference between crude proteins and lipids values could due to the different proportions of bones and flesh in species. ...
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The experiment was carried out for 24 days in open circuit made of 18 cemented ponds containing 50 L water each. The current study aims to estimate the optimal feed ration in Hoplobatrachus occipitalis tadpoles (0.097 ± 0.026 g). Six rations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of biomass/day) were tested in triplicate to evaluate their effect on the growth, survival and the carcass composition of these latter. Results showed Specific Growth Rate and Feed Efficiency was not significantly influenced by feed ration (P˃0.05). Highest Specific Growth Rates were observed in tadpoles fed on rations of 15 and 20 % of biomass or 9.059 ± 0.209 %/Day and 9.027±0.142 %/Day respectively. Besides, highest mean values of Feed Efficiency were obtained in tadpoles fed on rations of 10 and 15% of biomass or 0.778±0.383 and 0.757±0.052. Optimal and maximum feed rations in tadpoles of H. occipitalis are respectively 6.02 and 21.37 % of biomass per day.
... The frog waste by-products which is associated with the production of edible frog can be used as a supplemental protein source for monogastric animals. Frog meal is a nutrient-rich by-product, with a composition similar to that of fish, protein (65-71%), fat (7-17%) and ash (13-24%) (Ariyani et al., 1984;Tokur et al., 2008). Frog meal is high in digestible nutrient (Islam et al., 1994;Ali et al., 1995) and can be fed to poultry as replacement for fish meal because of its quality in biological value. ...
... Meanwhile, lower CP content of frog meal (71.19%) as compared to that of fish meal (72.42%) observed in this study probably resulted from the species of frog and different processing methods. The proximate composition of frog meal in the present study was in consonance with the findings of Tokur et al. (2008) on the chemical evaluation of frog meal but different from the observations of Fuller (2004). However, the CP value obtained for frog meal in this trial was higher than 47.31% reported by for frog probably because the oil in frog meal had been extracted which could have resulted in higher crude protein content. ...
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An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of graded levels of frog meal as replacement for fish meal at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens in a 42-day feeding trial. One hundred and eighty seven-day-old Arbor acre broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments in a completely randomised design. Each diet had 6 replicates with 6 birds each. At week 5, two birds per replicate were placed in metabolic cages for a 3-day excreta collection for digestibility determination. At week 6, same sets of birds from each replicate were sacrificed, the digestive tract excised and digesta samples were collected at the terminal ileum. Also, two birds from each replicate were slaughtered by cutting through the jugular vein for carcass characteristics and organs were harvested and weighed. Results showed that there were no significant differences in the final weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio recorded for birds among the treatments. However, the feed intake, protein intake (PI), protein efficiency ratio (PER), ileal and excreta crude protein digestibility of birds were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. Highest feed intake was recorded for birds on 50% Frog Meal (FRM) and 50% Fish Meal (FM), though similar to what was obtained in birds fed other levels of FRM inclusion. Identical PI was recorded for birds on the control diet, 25 and 50% FRM diets and were considerably higher (P<0.05) than PI observed in birds on 75 and 100% FRM. Highest PER (2.21) was observed in birds on 100% FRM diet which was similar to those on 75% FRM inclusion level but least PER (1.99) was recorded for birds on the control diet. Ileal and excreta CP digestibility coefficients of birds on the experimental diets varied significantly (P<0.05). Highest ileal CP digestibility coefficient (0.75) was recorded in birds fed 50% FRM and 50% FM while the least (0.65) value was observed in birds fed 100% FRM. There were no significant differences recorded in the primal cuts and organ weights of birds except for head, drumstick, thighs and shanks. It is concluded that frog meal can replace fish meal up to 100% in broiler diets without adverse effect on performance. Keywords: Frog meal, Fish meal, Performance response, Broiler chickens
... The frog waste by-products which is associated with the production of edible frog can be used as a supplemental protein source for monogastric animals. Frog meal is a nutrient-rich by-product, with a composition similar to that of fish, protein (65-71%), fat (7-17%) and ash (13-24%) (Ariyani et al., 1984;Tokur et al., 2008). Frog meal is high in digestible nutrient (Islam et al., 1994;Ali et al., 1995) and can be fed to poultry as replacement for fish meal because of its quality in biological value. ...
... Meanwhile, lower CP content of frog meal (71.19%) as compared to that of fish meal (72.42%) observed in this study probably resulted from the species of frog and different processing methods. The proximate composition of frog meal in the present study was in consonance with the findings of Tokur et al. (2008) on the chemical evaluation of frog meal but different from the observations of Fuller (2004). However, the CP value obtained for frog meal in this trial was higher than 47.31% reported by for frog probably because the oil in frog meal had been extracted which could have resulted in higher crude protein content. ...
Article
Full-text available
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of graded levels of frog meal as replacement for fish meal at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens in a 42-day feeding trial. One hundred and eighty seven-day-old Arbor acre broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments in a completely randomised design. Each diet had 6 replicates with 6 birds each. At week 5, two birds per replicate were placed in metabolic cages for a 3-day excreta collection for digestibility determination. At week 6, same sets of birds from each replicate were sacrificed, the digestive tract excised and digesta samples were collected at the terminal ileum. Also, two birds from each replicate were slaughtered by cutting through the jugular vein for carcass characteristics and organs were harvested and weighed. Results showed that there were no significant differences in the final weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio recorded for birds among the treatments. However, the feed intake, protein intake (PI), protein efficiency ratio (PER), ileal and excreta crude protein digestibility of birds were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. Highest feed intake was recorded for birds on 50% Frog Meal (FRM) and 50% Fish Meal (FM), though similar to what was obtained in birds fed other levels of FRM inclusion. Identical PI was recorded for birds on the control diet, 25 and 50% FRM diets and were considerably higher (P<0.05) than PI observed in birds on 75 and 100% FRM. Highest PER (2.21) was observed in birds on 100% FRM diet which was similar to those on 75% FRM inclusion level but least PER (1.99) was recorded for birds on the control diet. Ileal and excreta CP digestibility coefficients of birds on the experimental diets varied significantly (P<0.05). Highest ileal CP digestibility coefficient (0.75) was recorded in birds fed 50% FRM and 50% FM while the least (0.65) value was observed in birds fed 100% FRM. There were no significant differences recorded in the primal cuts and organ weights of birds except for head, drumstick, thighs and shanks. It is concluded that frog meal can replace fish meal up to 100% in broiler diets without adverse effect on performance.
... More than 50 species of frogs are naturally harvested for human consumption throughout the world [1]. Rana catsbeiana (Shaw, 1862) (American bullfrog), Rana tigrina (Daudin, 1802) (Indian bullfrog), Rana esculanta (Linnaeus, 1758) (Edible/common water frog) and Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771) (Marsh frog) [2]. In many countries of Europe and America, the demand for the frog leg is quite large because of its taste similar to that of chicken and overall flavor. ...
... Glutamic acid, aspartic acid and leucine are the highest amino acids found in frogs as also found in other studies of the amount of amino acids. [2,10,17,55,59]. The amount of sixteen amino acids was measured in this study which was carried out with the female marsh frogs collected from the nature and raised on the farm. ...
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In this study, the proximate composition and some amino acid profiles of the marsh frog (66.54 ± 6.75 g) grown using marsh frogs (Pelophylax ridibundus) collected from nature (62,613 ± 15,86 g) and the pellet food containing 35% crude protein were examined in this study. This study has been carried out on female frogs, particularly for the fact that in the same age female ones weigh more than their male counterparts. As a result of the study, it was determined that the amount of crude protein in the leg meat of the female cultured frogs was higher than that of the female wild frogs and that these values are 19.69 ± 0.17 g / 100 g and 18.88 ± 0.48 g / 100 g without a statistically significant difference (P> 0.05) between them. It was evaluated that the amount of fat in fe-male frogs raised in the farm was 0.71 ± 0.03 g and that of the wild frogs was 0.82 ± 0.03 g and that the difference between these amounts was not signifi-cant (P> 0.05). Sixteen amino acid analyses indicated that the amount of amino acids in the female frogs cultivated was higher than in the wild and it was determined that the difference between the amounts of amino acids other than isoleucine, leucine, valine and alanine was significant (P <0.05). The high amounts of lysine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and leucine were respectively detected in the meat of female frogs, both from the nature and from farms. Of these sixteen amino acids, while nine are essential amino acids (lysine, histidine, arginine, threonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine), lysine has been identified as the essential amino acid with the highest concentration in female frogs found both in nature and in farms. As a result, it has been determined that P. ridibundus is a worthwhile crop and a rich source of nutrients for humans.
... The wild and cultured frogs are imported from Turkey and other countries such as Indonesia, China, Thailand, India, and Vietnam (Sardava and Srikar, 1982;Fugler, 1985;Martin, 2000). The demand for frogs has been increasing due to the decrease in the number of frogs in the world, and, as a result, there has been a tendency towards frog culture in the world (Chardonnet et al., 2002;Miles et al., 2003;Tokur et al., 2008). Therefore, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the annual aquaculture production of frogs has increased in the world. ...
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Frogs can be added to a list of different raw materials which have sustainable economic value to their producers. Therefore, the biochemical attributes of the frogs require further scientific scrutiny. The major objective of the current study is to investigate some biochemical compositions of edible portions of Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771) grown in different conditions. The wild frogs, semicultured frogs, and cultured frogs were investigated regarding female and male specimens, leading to six groups that were determined to investigate the biochemical features of frogs. The results show that they (all frogs in all six groups) have low lipid contents (p < 0.05). The protein contents of the frogs varied in the range of 10.54%–16.10%. The lowest ash contents were found in semicultured male and female frogs. The average moisture contents were roughly 80% for all specimens. The major fatty acids were C16:0, C18:0, C18:1n9, C18:2n6, and C20:4n6 for wild, semicultured, and cultured frogs, respectively, for both sexes, showing their respective amounts varied among groups. All in all, the results show that there exist some differences in the nutritional content of frogs grown in different conditions in terms of the analyzed parameters.
... The development of frog farming worldwide in recent years has led to an increase in the number of studies designed to elaborate nutritionally adequate feeds with a better cost-benefit relationship (Tokur, Gürbüz, & Özyurt, 2008). Furthermore, significant improvements in feeding techniques have been studied (Casali, Moura, Lima, & Silva, 2005;Castro, Argentim et al., 2014;Castro, Ribeiro et al., 2014;Fenerick Junior & Stéfani, 2005;Oliveira et al., 2009). ...
Article
The ability of frogs to digest dietary nutrients changes with growth, with the animals becoming more or less demanding. The objective of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients of protein, energy and ether extract of 14 ingredients used in bullfrog diets (spray-dried blood meal, hydrolysed feather meal, poultry by-product meal, red blood cell concentrate, tilapia by-product meal, sardine fishmeal, salmon fishmeal, meat and bone meal, corn gluten meal, soybean meal, corn, wheat bran, soy protein concentrate and soybean oil). A total of 2,325 bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) in different phases of development were used: early phase (mean weight of 30–50 g), growth phase (80–110 g) and finishing phase (150–200 g). Faeces were collected using the method of dissection. Marked differences in digestibility of the ingredients were observed between the different phases of frog development. Among the ingredients studied, salmon fishmeal and corn gluten meal showed good utilization of the protein (78.9% and 86.7%, respectively) and energy fraction (89.4% and 83.3%, respectively). The salmon fishmeal, poultry by-product meal, sardine fishmeal, soy protein concentrate, wheat bran and soybean oil exhibited good ether extract utilization (81.2%–92.8%), recommending their use in bullfrog diets.
... But closer studies can be seen which has done with frog waste meal. However the crude protein content of frog waste meal was found very high in the study of Tokur et al. (2008) (68.6%) and Thirumalai et al. (1971) (70.8%). This difference may be explained by the different bone and skin proportions of the waste materials. ...
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Buzdolabında 3,2±1,08 °C’da depolanan kızartılmış ve haşlanmış kurbağa etinin raf ömrünün tespiti. Bu kıyaslama çalışması farklı pişirme metotlarının bütün kurbağa eti üzerindeki etkileri üzerine yapılmıştır. Haşlama ve kızartma pişirme metotları kullanılmış örnekler raf ömrünün tespit edilmesi için buzdolabı şartlarında (3,2± 1,08 oC) depolanmıştır. Haşlanmış olan örnekler kimyasal ve duyusal analizler açısından kızarmış örneklere göre daha iyi sonuçlar vermiştir. Kızartılmış ürünlerin TBA değerleri 10.60± 0.12 (mg malonaldehit/kg) bulunur iken haşlanmış örneklerde 8.16±0.57 (mg malonaldehit/kg) olduğu görülmüştür. Depolamanın 9. gününde, duyusal olarak da ransidite tespit edilmiştir. Tüm örnekler parlaklıklarını renk analiz sonucuna göre yitirmişlerdir. Doku profil analizi sonuçları göstermiştir ki sertlik, çiğnenebilirlik, elastiklik ve dış yapışkanlık parametreleri açısından kızartılmış ve haşlanmış ürünler arasında istatistiksel farklılıklar tespit edilmiştir. Kimyasal analizlere göre, kurbağa eti gerek kızartılarak gerek ise haşlanarak buzdolabında dokuz güne kadar raf ömrüne sahiptir
... α-Linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3,ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3,EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3,DHA) were the major n-3 PUFA (Ozogul et al. 2007). In addition, frog meat has a high concentration of minerals, especially Zn, K, Cu, Mn and Mg and vitamins such as folic acid and thiamin (Pires et al., 2006;Ozogul et al., 2007;Tokur et al., 2008). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ultraviolet (UV)-C treatment on the decrease of the inoculated Staphylococcus aureus population in precooked shredded bullfrog meat. The precooked meat was inoculated with 8 log cfu/g of S. aureus. The packaged bullfrog's back meat was then exposed to low (0.65 mW/s/cm2), medium (1.04 mW/s/cm2) and high (1.68 mW/s/cm2) UV-C intensities over different time intervals (60, 100 and 140 s). A reduction of 3 log cfu/g was observed in all treatments when compared with the inoculated but nonirradiated treatment (T0). All the UV-C treatments of bullfrog's back meat used in this study reduced the S. aureus count (P < 0.05). However, this decrease was not statistically significant between each UV-C treatment. Due to its effectiveness in log reduction, UV-C light technology can be utilized for this type of bacteria reduction in the precooked shredded bullfrog back meat industry.Practical ApplicationsIn this work, we studied the effect of short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV)-C light to reduce Staphylococcus aureus levels in precooked shredded bullfrog back meat. First, this study contributes knowledge about the use of a nonthermal technology as a pathogen-reduction step in exotic meat. Second, the UV-C is presented as a fast, practical and inexpensive method and does not change the industrial flow. Lastly, the data showed that there was a significant reduction of these bacteria in precooked shredded bullfrog back meat and suggests that it can be effectively applied in the bullfrog meat industry.
... α-Linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3,ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3,EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3,DHA) were the major n-3 PUFA (Ozogul et al. 2007). In addition, frog meat has a high concentration of minerals, especially Zn, K, Cu, Mn and Mg and vitamins such as folic acid and thiamin (Pires et al., 2006;Ozogul et al., 2007;Tokur et al., 2008). ...
... The meat of bullfrogs, the main species reared on frog farms in producer countries around the world, is characterized by high protein and low fat content (TOKUR et al., 2008). The legs are the edible part and the international trade of frog legs has an estimated value of 40 million dollars per year (TURNIPSEED et al., 2012). ...
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Descriptions of nutrient deposition are important to determine the nutritional requirements of animals. The objective of this study was to describe nutrient deposition in the body and legs and the dietary intake of protein and fat of bullfrogs during the fattening phase using Gompertz and logistic models, and to evaluate feed efficiency. A total of 2,375 froglets with an initial weight of 7.03 ± 0.16 g were housed in five fattening pens. The animals were fed a commercial diet containing 40% crude protein. Frogs and their legs were weighed and sampled at intervals of 14 days for the determination of nutrient composition. On the basis of the model selection criteria, the logistic model was the most adequate to describe nutrient deposition in the body and legs of bullfrogs and the dietary intake of protein and fat. With respect to nutrient deposition in the body, the estimated values for nutrient weight at maturity (Wm) and the time when the maximum rate of deposition was attained (t*) were 244.3 g and 106 days, 55.2 g and 113 days, 30.9 g and 124 days, and 8.6 g and 99 days for water, protein, fat and ashes, respectively. For nutrient deposition in the legs, these values were 77.6 g and 111 days, 14.5 g and 104 days, 1.4 g and 86 days, and 3.7 g and 119 days, respectively. The protein efficiency of the bullfrog diet was low (36.76%), whereas the efficiency of fat utilization was high (140.9%), indicating the need to develop an ideal diet for bullfrogs.
... 'This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.' 1) Fleshy fruit: mean nutritional composition of seven species (Rubus sp., Pirus sp., Malus sp., Prunus sp., Vitis sp. and Sambucus sp.; Fidanza andVersilioni 1989, Johnson et al. 1985) 2) Acorns (Quercus sp.; Nieto et al. 2002) 3 Schairer et al. 1998, Tokur et al. 2008 10) Reptiles: nutritional composition of lizards (Cosgrove et al. 2002) 11) Birds: mean nutritional composition of two species (Turdus merula and Columba livia; Fidanza and Versilioni 1989) 12) Mammals: mean nutritional composition of mice and rats (Douglas et al. 1994) 13) Bird eggs (Fidanza and Versilioni 1989) The macronutrient energy ratios (MER) in each diet were calculated using the following coefficients: protein = 14.64 kJ/g; fat = 35.56 kJ/g; non-structural carbohydrates = 14.64 kJ/g (Hewson-Hughes et al. 2011). ...
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Captive experiments have shown that many species regulate their macronutrient (i.e. protein, lipid and carbohydrate) intake by selecting complementary food types, but the relationships between foraging strategies in the wild and nutrient regulation remain poorly understood. Using the pine marten as a model species, we collated available data from the literature to investigate effects of seasonal and geographic variation in diet on dietary macronutrient balance. Our analysis showed that despite a high variety of foods comprising the diet, typical of a generalist predator, the macronutrient energy ratios of pine martens were limited to a range of 50–55% of protein, 38–42% of lipids and 5–10% of carbohydrates. This broad annual stabilisation of macronutrient ratios was achieved by using alternative animal foods to compensate for the high fluctuation of particular prey items, and sourcing non-protein energy (carbohydrates and fats) from plant-derived foods, particularly fruits. Macronutrient balance varied seasonally, with higher carbohydrate intake in summer–autumn, due to opportunistic fruit consumption, and higher protein intake in winter–spring. In terms of their proportional dietary carbohydrate intake the pine marten's nutritional strategy fell between that of true carnivores (e.g. the wolf) and more omnivorous feeders (e.g. the European badger). However, in terms of energy contributed by protein pine martens are equivalent to obligate carnivores such as the wolf and domesticated cat, and different to some omnivorous carnivores such as the domesticated dog and grizzly bears.
... In some regions of Asia (Indonesia) and Africa (Nigeria), frogs are referred to as "jumping chickens," as the taste is perceived to be similar to chicken (Altherr et al., 2011). The frog meat is also appreciated and compared to fish and chickens because of their excellent taste, flavor and texture (Çaklı et al., 2009;Bahar et al., 2008). ...
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Nowadays, there has been the recrudescence of frog meat consumption to cover the deficit in animal protein in Côte d'Ivoire. The study aimed to determine the rate of frog meat consumption and to evaluate their proximate and mineral composition. A survey was performed in seven localities with 1,020 households. The information about, species of frog consumed, consumption patterns, frequency of consumption were collected. Then, 60 samples of smoked frog Hoplobatrachus occipitalis were obtained from three markets were analyzed. Result showed that 563 (55.2%) households consumed frog meat. Frog meat was mainly consumed in smoked form cooked in sauce (37.7%) and fresh form cooked in sauce (32.3%). The crude protein, ash, and fat content expressed in mg/100g dry weight in the samples ranged from 53.7-75.5; 5.7-8.7 and 8.7-10.2 respectively. The gross energy value varies between 300.9 Kcal/g to 380.3 Kcal/g. Among the mineral determined, calcium (27.2-59.9 mg/g) was found to be highest followed by potassium (35.9-37.7 mg/g). The result revealed that H. occipitalis is a good source of protein and dietary mineral and it is therefore considered to be a rich source of essential nutrients for human nutrition and other omnivorous.
... Insect larvae (Zwart 1980) 11. Frogs: mean nutritional composition of Rana clamitans and Rana esculenta (Schairer et al. 1998; Tokur et al. 2008) ...
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Although originally evolved as predators, several species of mammalian carnivores exhibit a great trophic diversity, ranging from hypercarnivory to a high consumption of vegetable food. Habitat characteristics influence food availability and consequently could affect the nutritional composition of the diet of generalist species. By reviewing the available literature, we tested the hypothesis that intraspecific differences in the food habits of badgers (Meles meles) living in different habitats across Europe could affect the percentage of macronutrients (i.e., protein, lipids, and carbohydrates) in their diet. Notwithstanding the different composition of the diet, the percentage of protein and lipids fed by badgers did not vary among temperate forest-pasture mosaics, Mediterranean woodlands, or scrublands and arable lands, suggesting a certain form of regulation of the diet balance. The percentage of carbohydrates was similar in the first two habitats, while it was fivefold higher in arable lands, where cereals were the main food of badgers and were consumed throughout the year. Earthworm consumption by badgers was positively related to the latitude, while the lack of any latitudinal or altitudinal pattern in protein consumption reflected the absence of a gradient in carnivory. A slight inverse latitudinal gradient in lipids consumption probably depended on the use, in southern Europe, of vegetal foods rich in lipids. We hypothesize that in agricultural landscapes dominated by crop cultivations, the decline of animal prey (i.e., earthworms, insects, and vertebrates) due to habitat loss forced badgers to increase the percentage of protein in their diet by over-eating cereals, with the consequence of a disproportionate increase in carbohydrate consumption. KeywordsNutritional balance–Latitudinal gradient–Agricultural habitat–Carnivory–Food intake
... Consequently, frogs are traded world-wide and the major frogs' legs importing countries include France, the United States, Belgium, and Luxembourg (Ali et al. 2015;Tokur et al. 2008). The frog meat is appreciated for its exquisite flavour, taste and texture and also is a source of protein of high biological value (Çaklı et al. 2009;Bahar et al. 2008;Blé et al. 2016). ...
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Exotic meats were a protein source for human diet for many years. However, the massive capture caused the overexploitation and placed many reptiles and amphibious on the verge of extinction. Therefore, the captive rearing, the control during slaughtering and processing has been proposed as an alternative to the capture of wild animals. The present chapter shows the nutritional composition of this kind of meat, characterized by low levels of fat, high contents of protein, essential amino acids, fatty acids (especially long-chain n- 3) and minerals indicating that their consumption may be beneficial for human health. However, very little data is available on the nutritional value of these meats. To concluded, exotic meat is an interesting alternative to be considered as a component of the human diet. In addition, the farming of exotic species could be important in the economy of some regions or countries. Keywords: Crocodile - Snake and lizards - Frog - Turtle.
... It is also present in a variety of lowland habitats, including intermittent freshwater marshes and seasonally flooded agricultural land [22]. This frog has potential as an experimental species in many scientific research fields [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. The rice field frog is also considered to be an edible frog species owing to its nutritious meat and it has considerable economic value [31,32], as it has been widely adopted for breeding programs throughout Thailand [33]. ...
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... While Indonesia and Vietnam are the greatest suppliers for the wild-free-fishery frogs, Taiwan, Equator, Mexico, and China are the main exporters for farmed frogs. The annual production on Turkey has been estimated in 8 10 5 kg [7,8]. During 2000 and 2009, the EU imported a total amount of 46 10 6 kg of frog legs, primarily from Asia [5]. ...
... The rice field frog, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, is a frog native to Thailand and is widely distributed throughout the wetlands from south-central China to the Thai-Malay Peninsula (Diesmos et al. 2004). This frog is an economically important food species and has the potential to be an experimental species in many fields of research (Pariyanonth et al. 1985;Tokur et al. 2008). As an experimental animal, H. rugulosus also plays a key role in many fields, such as biodiversity and geographic variation (Khonsue and Thirakhupt 2001;Schmalz and Zug 2002;Bain and Truong 2004;Hasan et al. 2012) and the taxonomic study of phylogenetic relationships (Pansook et al. 2012) and cryptic species complexes (Yu et al. 2015). ...
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Sex differentiation during gonadal development is diversified among anuran amphibian species. In this study, the anuran experimental species Hoplobatrachus rugulosus was examined. The pattern of gonadal sex differentiation was observed by morphological and histological approaches. The gonad was observed morphologically at Gosner stage 33, while distinct testis and ovary were evident from 3-4 weeks after metamorphosis ended. Histological analysis showed that genital ridge formation began at stage 25 and ovarian differentiation began at stage 36. The developing ovary appeared with numerous primary oogonia, which developed into oocytes, while the medulla regressed to form an ovarian cavity. During metamorphosis, only an ovary was observed. Testicular differentiation seemed to begin later, during the first week after metamorphosis, and occurred via an intersex condition. The intersex gonads contained developing testicular tissue with both normal and atretic oocytes. The fully developed testis was first identified at 6 weeks after metamorphosis. Comparing the times of gonadal differentiation and somatic development revealed that the ovary exhibited a basic rate of differentiation while the testis exhibited a retarded one. These results establish that males of this species develop later than do females, and the testis develops through an intersex gonad, as is evident from its seminiferous cord formation, the presence of testis-ova, and atretic oocytes in the tissue. Thus, the pattern of gonadal sex differentiation in H. rugulosus is an undifferentiated type, in which only female gonads are observed during metamorphosis and intersex and male gonads are observed later. These results are crucial for further research on the sexual development of anurans.
... The worldwide expansion of frog culture has encouraged nutritionists to work on development of nutritionally adequate and costeffective feeds for its commercial farming (Tokur, G€ urb€ uz & € Ozyurt, 2008). The bullfrog Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana has been identified as an economically valuable amphibian. ...
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Whole bodies of Xenopus laevis ( n = 19) were analysed for chemical composition and morphometrics. The nutrient profile (macronutrients, amino acids, fatty acids and minerals) was evaluated by sex; interactions among variables with body weights and lengths, and comparisons made with different species of marine and fresh water fish. Significant differences were found in morphometric measurements, water content, several minerals and fatty acids between sexes of X. laevis . Amino acid profiles differed in methionine, proline and cysteine, which could underlie different metabolic pathways in frogs when compared to fish. In addition, fatty acid profiles revealed more monounsaturated and n − 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in frogs than in fish, more similar to values reported for terrestrial than aquatic vertebrates. Important interactions were also found between body measurements and fat, calcium, and phosphorus, as well as between essential and non-essential amino acids. The results indicate that frogs might have particular biochemical pathways for several nutrients, dependent on sex and linked to body weight, which ultimately could reflect specific nutrient needs.
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The edible water frog Pelophylax epeiroticus, distributed mainly in Northwest Greece and utilized commercially as food, was investigated in lake Pamvotida (Ioannina). The objective was to assess aspects of population structure (sex ratio, morphometric characteristics, allometric relationships) and proximate composition of the Epirus water frog (Pelophylax epeiroticus). Commercial samples (31 females and 54 males) were obtained and sex ratio, morphometric characteristics, allometric relationships and proximate composition were assessed. A significantly lower abundance of females was indicated (31 females and 54 males). Body length range was higher in females (females 3.4 mm, males 2.6 mm), whereas total weight range was higher in males (females 45.08 gr, males 48.35 gr). Differences in allometric relationships were indicated between sexes. The high protein (15.93 ± 3.32) and low lipid (0.25 ± 0.13) contents indicated that P. epeiroticus is an excellent food source of high nutritional value. A tree classification algorithm indicated that the principal contributing component for sex classification was dry matter, followed by a proportion of edible flesh and protein content. A predicted future increase in demand for wild-caught individuals requires the use of a suitable management plan, coupled with the development of farming practices aiming to assure the sustainable exploitation of this important resource and alleviate the pressure on its populations.
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Frog farming systems do not use their byproducts, representing health risks and environmental pollution. The present study aimed to evaluate the proximate composition, amino acid, and fatty acid profile of American Bullfrog byproducts (whole frogs (WF), legs (LF), and skin (SF)) and their technological functionality. Results showed that WF, LF, and SF protein content was 47.6, 88.4, and 91.1% dry base (d.b.), correspondingly. Fat content resulted in 34.6, 3.2, and 4.2% (d.b.), respectively. Moreover, byproducts contain all the essential amino acids (23.8-46.6%), and the unsaturated fatty acids predominated the saturated fats. Samples showed water and oil absorption capacities of 1.8-2.6% and 1.8-4.0%, respectively, while oil and water emulsion capacities were 76.7-98.3% and 36.1-85.6%, correspondingly. Additionally, SF presented a gelling capacity in a 5% concentration. These results showed that frogs' byproducts have adequate nutritional and functional capacities, compared to other vegetable and animal flours used in the industry.
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ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT A study was conducted to evaluate the carbohydrate, lipid, ash, protein, moisture and fiber contents of samples of African bullfrog (Pyxicephalus adspersus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from ARAC chemical compositions of both species, some of which were statistically significant, were observed in the study. The range of mean values of carbohydrate (0.54 ± 0.01 – 4.54 ± 2.13%), ash (4.02 ± 0.51 (71.86 ± 0.51 with values reported in pr important source of animal protein, providing approximately some 10 human consumption. Animals with lipid content < 5% are classified to have low contents of P. adspersus and O. niloticus recorded in this study were all below 5%, and therefore falls within the low Copyright©2016, Daniel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Att distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Marsh frog has a very good meat composition and is consumed as a delicacy in countries as France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and many others. The aim of this study is to estimate chemical composition of wild and cultured water frogs. Results show that the average protein value of frog meat is relatively high, 18.52 and 22.95 g/100 g meat, respectively for wild and cultured frog. Fat content is low 0.74 and 0.93 g/100 g meat, respectively from wild and cultured frogs. Colour parameters of wild and cultured frog meat is similar (L* value = 53.83 – 50.13, a* value = 4.81 – 3.38 and b* value = 3.91 – 3.84). The content of most of amino acid is higher in meat of cultured frog then in wild frog (P<0.05) except non essentials amino acid serine, cysteine and alanine. The differences are reflection of higher protein content and higher sum of amino acids in meat of cultured frogs. Amino acid content of meat protein however shows higher values of leucine and proline in cultured, compare to wild frog. It was found that meats of both wild and cultured frog had high amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acids (C18:2, C18:4, C20:5 and C22:6), with favourable ratio of Ω-3 to Ω-6 fatty acids. In meat of cultured frog dominated Ω-3 unsaturated fatty acid, while in wild frog meat are more Ω-6 fatty acids. Content of Important minerals like Fe, Mg, and P is higher in cultured than wild frog. Observed small differences in composition in wild and cultured frog meat reflected some difference of feeding. The results showed that cultured frogs have as valuable chemical composition as the wild frogs and other sea foods. Key words: chemical composition, wild frog, cultured frog, Rana ridibunda, frog meat, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals
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This study investigates the changes in fatty acid profile of gamma irradiated frog legs (Rana esculenta) during cold (2 °C) storage period. Instead of freezing the frog legs for a prolonged shelf life, gamma irradiated fresh frog legs can be used for consumer satisfaction, because consumers prefer fresh frog legs and are willing to pay more than for frozen in the European market. Frog legs were irradiated at doses of 0, 4, and 5 kGy using 6°Co sources. The main fatty acids of non-irradiated and irradiated frog legs (4 and 5 kGy) were palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1ω9), linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), and eicosatrienoic acid (C20: 3ω3, ETE). Low doses (4 and 5 kGy) of irradiation treatment had no effect on fatty acid components of frog legs compared to the non-irradiated ones (p>0.05). The fatty acid composition of frog meat was characterized by its high linoleic acid content (17.1 - 21.4 %). At the initial stage of the storage, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels of frog legs remained unchanged with low doses of irradiation (p
Chapter
Besides animals that have been domesticated and farmed for mass production of meat for consumption, there are a large number of quite diverse animal species that can be considered as ‘non-traditional’sources of meat, which are reviewed in this chapter. The available literature indicates that non-traditional meats are typically of high nutritional value and have several health promoting attributes. The diverse species source of non-traditional meats also brings an increased choice of sensory properties and potential range of affordability. All non-traditional meat animals are hunted in the wild for their meat and some of these animals are now being farmed to various extents. Although there are a number of health risks associated with meat obtained from feral animals, as they live in uncontrolled environments, sport hunting is widely popular, and the hunting and consumption of feral meat is a necessity for sustenance for many people in a lot of countries. World population increases and improved quality of life are placing increased demand on high protein products such as meat, and there is increasingly resource limitation on mass production of common farmed meat producing animals, as well as ensuing environmental issues. The available literature indicates that there is considerable potential for increased utilization of non-traditional meats, that will likely promote upscale development of farming non-traditional animals to meet demand for meat in the future, which with appropriate farming and processing practice controls, can mitigate the health risks that are associated with feral derived meat. However, there is also the consideration of the religious beliefs of different cultures, and also consumer perception in relation to meat consumption, that need to be given consideration, and that will influence market development.
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ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT A study was conducted to evaluate the carbohydrate, lipid, ash, protein, moisture and fiber contents of samples of African bullfrog (Pyxicephalus adspersus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from ARAC chemical compositions of both species, some of which were statistically significant, were observed in the study. The range of mean values of carbohydrate (0.54 ± 0.01 – 4.54 ± 2.13%), ash (4.02 ± 0.51 (71.86 ± 0.51 with values reported in pr important source of animal protein, providing approximately some 10 human consumption. Animals with lipid content < 5% are classified to have low contents of P. adspersus and O. niloticus recorded in this study were all below 5%, and therefore falls within the low Copyright©2016, Daniel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Att distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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The requirement of moving prey for eliciting feeding behaviour is typical of anurans, and is one of the major dif culties of rearing frogs. This diff culty can potentially be solved by using mechanical devices to move the food, or by mixing inert food with live prey. This study investigated consumption of pelleted food by adult common frogs, Rana temporaria, when moved by a mechanical stirrer or by y larvae. The mechanical device did not produce higher consumption than inert pellets alone. Fly larvae signii cantly increased consumption of food pellets, whether these were mixed together, or the larvae were isolated below the pellets by a exible membrane. Consumption was similar whether the membrane was sealed or perforated, so that movement of the pellets, rather than the scent of the y larvae, was the stimulus that increased pellet consumption. Frogs did not apparently learn to feed on pellets, with no increase in consumption through the experiment of either control inert pellets or of pellets moved by y larvae. Consumption (of dry mass) of pellets was similar to that of live crickets by frogs in the same conditions. Frogs consumed signii cantly more xenopus pellets (produced for aquatic Xenopus toads) than trout pellets from an equal mixture, both by number and mass. The two types of pellet had similar nutritional composition but differed in texture, smell, size and mass, and colour; xenopus pellets being larger (82 mg and 50 mg, respectively) and darker. Any combination of these differences could have caused the difference in consumption, with colour being most likely, darker pellets presenting greater contrast against the white background of the feeding dishes. The difference in consumption shows that optimisation of pellet characteristics, such as the incorporation of a dark dye, could be important in large-scale frog culture.
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There has been an increasing interest in fish by-products during the past years. Today it is seen as a potential resource instead of a waste. Much research is being done in order to explore the possible uses of different by-products.Today overexploitation of fish resources is a large problem, only about 50-60% of the catch is used for human consumption. Globally more than 91 million tons of fish and shellfish are caught each year. Some of the by-products are utilised today, but huge amounts are wasted. Annual discard from the world fisheries were (FAO) estimated to be approximately 20 million tonnes (25%) per year. Therefore it is a great potential for the fishing industry to utilise more of what is landed. This includes "waste" or by-products or what should really be called rest raw materials. In 2001 a total of 232 000 metric tons of by-products were created by the Norwegian cod fisheries alone, of this 125 000 tons were dumped while 107 000 were utilised. Only 36 000 tons of the by-products were used for human consumption which amounts to about 15,5% of the total The rest is used for the production of fishmeal, silage and animal feed. In Iceland fisheries are the single most important industry. The total catch is about 2 million tons, accounting for 62% of the value of exported products and around 49% of the foreign earnings each year. Increasing the proportion of the catch used for human consumption and other value added products (pharmaceuticals, feed ingredients etc.) would increase the profitability and reduce the amount of waste. Marine by-products contains valuable protein and lipid fractions as well as vitamins and minerals. To get a profitable utilisation of rest-raw material from the fish industry the final products demands a market interest. Knowledge about quality and composition is a necessity. There are major on-going research on searching of bioactive compounds in marine organisms and development of new technology for utilisation of this so we can assume that the future will bring more value out of what is today considered a waste. In order to evaluate possible applications for the products and conservation techniques of the rest-raw material, it is important that the raw material is characterised based on its chemical composition and enzymatic activity. The quality of the raw material at the processing site will determine the manufacturing possibilities. The handling onboard is very important. Marine by-products are extremely reactive and will be degraded by microbial spoilage, enzymatic reactions and oxidation if the conservation and handling is not satisfactory.
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The objective was to evaluate amino acid composition of silages produced from three raw mate-rials. Commercial marine fish waste, commercial freshwater fish waste, and tilapia filleting residue were used to produce fish silage by acid digestion (20 ml/kg formic acid and 20 ml/kg sulfuric acid) and anaerobic fermentation (50 g/kg Lactobacillus plantarum, 150 g/kg sugar cane molasses). Pro-tein content and amino acid composition were determined for raw materials and silage. Marine fish waste had higher crude protein content (776.7 g/kg) compared to freshwater fish waste (496.2 g/kg) and tilapia filleting residue (429.9 g/kg). All silages lacked up to three amino acids for each product according to FAO standards for essential amino acids. However, considering as the limiting factor only the amino acids below the 30% minimum requirement for fish in general, all products were satisfactory with respect to essential amino acids. Therefore, the results suggest that all products investigated are appropriate for use in balanced fish diets.
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Protein quality of shrimp waste meal (SWM) was assessed in a balanced experiment with rats. Thirty rats were randomly divided into 5 equal treatment groups of 6 rats, kept in individual perforated perspex cages and fed 4 different 10% protein diets consisting of (1) fish meal (FM), (2) SWM, (3) SWM + lysine + methionine, (4) SWM + methionine and (5) a nitrogen-free basal diet. SWM was made up of (g kg−1): 394.0 crude protein, 123.0 crude fibre, 26.8 fat, 140.0 ash, 98.2 chitin, with 10.58 MJ/kg metabolizable energy. Protein efficiency ratio, net protein retention and net protein utilization were best (P < 0.05) for rats on the FM diet, while amino acid supplementation improved these parameters for SWM. SWM reduced (P < 0.05) the relative weights of lungs, liver and intestine. Rats fed the SWM diet had lower (P < 0.05) plasma urea, protein and albumin, and supplementation of these diets with amino acids did not significantly improve these traits. Plasma Na+, K+, Cl− and HCO3− were increased (P < 0.05) in rats fed SWM. Plasma enzymes (GOT, GPT, GGT) increased (P < 0.05) with amino acid supplementation of SWM diets. The results showed that the protein quality of SWM is inferior to that of FM, but that supplemental methionine and lysine in SWM diets improved the quality of the protein.
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The value of wildlife has been widely ignored or under-rated in the past by the international community. At most, wildlife was considered from the limited aesthetic and touristic aspects. This situation has changed somewhat. In the majority of the veterinary profession, which is largely livestock-oriented, wildlife is increasingly considered in terms of wild animal production and occupies just as relevant a position as domestic animal production. Some economists are now trying to quantify the informal nature of a large portion of the wildlife sector. The importance of wildlife to local communities is now globally recognised in community-based or participatory natural resources management programmes. The authors highlight not only the economic importance of wildlife (which amounts to billions of United States dollars world-wide), through consumptive and non-consumptive uses, but also the present and potential nutritional value, the ecological role as well as the socio-cultural significance of wildlife for human societies of both the developed and the developing worlds. Also addressed in this chapter is a discussion on one of the main threats to wildlife conservation which consists of the reduction or even retrieval of the different values wildlife can offer.
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Chapter
Consumption of edible frogs can be traced back to cavemen. These excellent-tasting animals have commanded an intense interest by man down through the centuries. The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is so highly esteemed that it has been introduced into Mexico, South America, several Asian countries, the Pacific islands, and Europe. There exist over 20 other large species of frogs equal to the American bullfrog in quality (Culley, 1984).
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Fish processing creates a large amount of waste of high nutrient content which, if not properly processed for use in human or animal nutrition, is likely to be deposited in the environment creating pollution problems. Waste parts from rainbow trout processing for smoking, consisting of heads, bones, tails and intestines, were used as feed ingredients for gilthead bream diets. Heads, bones and tails had similar compositions, their weighed mean indicating about 700 g kg-1 moisture, 150 g kg-1 protein and 110 g kg-1 fat. Intestines contained higher lipid (350 g kg-1) and lower moisture (560 g kg-1) and protein content (80 g kg-1). Seasonal changes in composition indicated significant differences. Three experimental diets were formulated having the same proximate composition on a dry weight basis. The control diet (A) contained fish meal as the main protein source and fish oil as the oil supplement. In diet B part of the protein and most of lipid was provided by trout waste and in diet C most of the lipid was provided by trout intestines. Gilthead bream fingerlings of 4 g initial weight were fed to apparent satiation for 72 days, at a temperature of 20°C, to an average final weight of 19 g. All diets were fed in a dry form. The experiment was performed in duplicate. Growth and feed utilization data were high and similar among groups. The body composition of the resulting fish did not show any difference among dietary treatments. Differences in liver lipid and fatty acid content were found between all dietary treatments. The growth and body composition data from this preliminary experiment indicated that trout waste could be used successfully as a dietary ingredient of sea bream diets.
Article
Discarding of by-catch and generation of by-products from capture fisheries has long been recognized as wasteful, but greater effort is needed to make use of these resources in aquaculture as its growth throughout the world requires increased production of feeds to support the cultured organisms. Protein resources, primarily fish meal, will probably be a constraint to further development of the aquaculture industry. Fisheries by-catch or by-product meals theoretically have good potential to reduce dependence on fish meal, although research in this subject is limited. A digestibility study with sub-adult red drum and a feeding trial were conducted with juveniles to evaluate the use of various by-product ingredients in aquafeeds. A shrimp by-catch meal (SBM) from shrimp trawling in the Gulf of Mexico, a shrimp processing waste meal (SWM) from aquacultured Litopenaeus vannamei, two underutilized fish meals [Pacific whiting meal without soluble (PW) and Pacific whiting meal with soluble (PWS)], and a fish-processing waste [red salmon head meal (RSHM)] from Alaska were included in the diets. The digestibility study employed chromic oxide as a marker and stripping for fecal collection. No differences (P>0.05) in organic matter, crude protein, energy and total phosphorus digestibility were observed among fish fed Special Select™ menhaden fish meal, SBM, PW or PWS, while digestibility of these nutrients and energy from RSHM was significantly lower. During the 6-week feeding trial, no significant differences were observed among fish fed diets in which 25% of the protein from menhaden fish meal was replaced with RSHM or 50% was replaced by SBM in 40% crude protein diets. Fish fed diets in which 50% or 100% of protein from menhaden fish meal was replaced with PWS, PW and SWM showed significantly (P
Article
The essential amino acid index (EAAI) could be used in screening potential protein sources. However, when formulating diets, EAAI should be supported with feeding trials and digestibility tests to determine the extent of incorporation of these protein sources in Penaeus monodon diets. Using whole P. monodon juvenile as the reference protein, local fish meals were found to be good protein sources with an EAAI of 0.92 to 0.95, in addition to white and Peruvian fish meals, shrimp meal, squid meal and soybean meal (EAAI of 0.96, 0.94, 0.98, 0.96 and 0.87, respectively). The amino acid pattern (A/E ratio) of the protozoeal, juvenile and adult stage of P. monodon showed increasing arginine and decreasing phenylalanine with growth stage.
Technical Report
Nutrition is the process by which an organism takes in and assimilates food. Nutrition involves the ingestion, digestion, absorption, and transport of various nutrients throughout the body where the nutrients in foods are converted into body tissues and activities. Nutrition also includes the removal of excess nutrients and other waste products. Nutrition is a complex but inexact biological science because of the natural variability between individuals of a given species. Extensive research has been conducted on the nutrition and feeding of catfish, and consequently, their nutrient requirements and feeding characteristics are well documented. These data have served as a basis for the formulation of efficient, economical diets and for the development of feeding strategies — both of which have been instrumental to the success of the catfish industry. Today’s catfish producer feeds a nutritionally complete diet that provides all known nutrients at required levels and the energy necessary for their utilization in water-stable, readily digestible form. It is essential to supply all nutrients via the diet because the contribution of microbially synthesized nutrients in the intestine of catfish is minimal. Additionally, the quantity of nutrients supplied from natural food organisms found in pond waters is relatively small in comparison to total nutrient requirements, except perhaps for early life stages such as fry or fingerlings. Although the nutrient requirements of catfish are well known, there are many factors that affect specific nutrient requirements. These include genetics, sex, feed intake, energy density of the diet, nutrient balance and nutrient interaction in the diet, digestibility, presence of toxins or mold in the diet, expected level of performance, desired carcass composition, and environmental factors. A short summary of catfish nutrition and feeding are presented in the following sections. Topics include digestion, energy, nutrients, nonnutritive dietary components, feeds, feed manufacture, and feeding.
Article
A simple HPLC method for the analysis of thiamin (as thiochrome) and riboflavin in both raw and cooked potato is described. The potato extract, after a minimum clean up, is injected onto a C18 reverse phase column and the vitamins are separated isocratically with water:methanol. The use of fluorescence detection, which is highly specific and sensitive, minimises the number of interfering peaks.Recoveries of both vitamins, when taken through the method or added to potato samples before extraction, are consistently better than 90%. The results for thiamin in the potato are slightly higher than those obtained by the AOAC (1980) chemical method, whereas the reverse is true for riboflavin. The method may have application to other food matrices and is more rapid than the AOAC (1980) chemical method.
Article
Shrimp's waste (dried head or shell) was found of high protein content and high level of minerals especially Ca, P, Na and Zn. The amino acids profile of the dried shrimp's shell proved to be of higher values than the shrimp's head. Glutamic acid was the abundant amino acid in both dried samples. The saturated: unsaturated fatty acids ratio was 1 : 1.63 for the dried shrimp's head and 1 : 1.51 for the dried shrimp's shell. The dried shrimp's shell and head appeared to be free from aflatoxines (B1, B2, G1 & G2) concentrations. Also the two dried samples proved their safety from the bacteriological point of view. Two suggested potato croquettes recipes containing either 5% dried shrimps head or 5% shrimp's shell, preferred by the panalysts, were found to contain high values of macro elements and rare values of micro elements. The EAA : TAA ratio of these two suggested recipes were 1 : 1.95 and 1 : 2.29 for the recipes containing dried shrimp's head and shell, respectively. Their in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) ranged from 60.44 to 67.68%. The total saturated fatty acids were found lower than the total unsaturated fatty acids in the two suggested recipes. Potato croquettes recipes containing either 5% dried shrimp's shell or head were found of acceptable overall quality (aroma, taste, appearance, texture and color) to the panalists.
Article
There is an increasing problem with bacterial disease associated with stress in farmed frogs. In general, little is known about the immune system in farmed tropical ranid species and, in particular, about its functional ability. As part of a study on the non-specific immune system, immunostimulation by β-glucan was evaluated in preventing bacterial disease in cultured ranid frogs. Fifty frogs were grown to a mean weight of 40 g and separated into three experimental groups. These were exposed to a motile aeromonad bacterial challenge alone (Au), bacterial challenge with β-glucan (Au + glucan) or saline only (controls) to serve as controls. There were four replicate tanks containing five frogs per tank in each experimental group. After bacterial challenge, all the animals were observed twice daily, and the number of mortalities per tank was recorded. The liver was sampled in order to recover bacteria, and any colonies grown were identified. The survival of the β-glucan-treated frogs was significantly higher than that of the bacterial challenge group alone.
Article
The changes in the fatty acids of frog leg meat during frozen storage were studied with column and gas-liquid chromatography. The major component of the lipids, the phospholipids constituted 90% of total lipids. 16:0, 18:0, 22:0 and 18:2 polyunsaturated fatty acid were the major fatty acids of the frog legs meat lipids. Short chain fatty acids were noticed to the extent of 10%. During frozen storage the proportion of phospholipids decreased, while that of neutral lipids increased. Since the total lipid content was constant, phospholipases were presumably responsible for this change. Alterations in the fatty acid composition of the neutral lipids during storage were consistent with such a hypothesis.
Article
Crude protein, total lipid, water, cholesterol, and amino acid com-position of the roe of eighteen Pacific marine species were determined and compared with those of muscle from the same marine species. Crude protein and total lipid were higher in roe than in muscle, while water was lower. Cholesterol in roe was generally tenfold higher than that of muscle but only around one-fourth that of hen egg yolk. Glutamic acid, leucine, and aspartic acid were generally found to be the major components of roe. Leucine and proline content were significantly greater in roe than in muscle. On the whole, roe was well balanced with the essential amino acid and had a good E/NE ratio and may be considered a food source of high-quality protein.
Article
The depletion of ascorbic acid derivatives in fish feed during the feed processing (extrusion cooking and drying) was studied at five extrusion cooking temperatures and at 85°C for 2 h dryer processing temperature. Three ascorbic acid derivatives were used: L-ascorbyl-2-mono-phosphate Mg (APM), L-ascorbic acid sodium (AAS) and L-ascorbic acid palmitic acid ester (AAP). Samples were collected after drying and ascorbic acid derivatives losses evaluated. APM was found to be quiet stable with an average retention of 88%, but AAS and AAP were unstable and the depletion was very high.
Article
Fish processing creates a large amount of waste of high nutrient content which, if not properly processed for use in human or animal nutrition, is likely to be deposited in the environment creating pollution problems. Waste parts from rainbow trout processing for smoking, consisting of heads, bones, tails and intestines, were used as feed ingredients for gilthead bream diets. Heads, bones and tails had similar compositions, their weighed mean indicating about 700 g kg−1 moisture, 150 g kg−1 protein and 110 g kg−1 fat. Intestines contained higher lipid (350 g kg−1) and lower moisture (560 g kg−1) and protein content (80 g kg−1). Seasonal changes in composition indicated significant differences. Three experimental diets were formulated having the same proximate composition on a dry weight basis. The control diet (A) contained fish meal as the main protein source and fish oil as the oil supplement. In diet B part of the protein and most of lipid was provided by trout waste and in diet C most of the lipid was provided by trout intestines. Gilthead bream fingerlings of 4 g initial weight were fed to apparent satiation for 72 days, at a temperature of 20 °C, to an average final weight of 19 g. All diets were fed in a dry form. The experiment was performed in duplicate. Growth and feed utilization data were high and similar among groups. The body composition of the resulting fish did not show any difference among dietary treatments. Differences in liver lipid and fatty acid content were found between all dietary treatments. The growth and body composition data from this preliminary experiment indicated that trout waste could be used successfully as a dietary ingredient of sea bream diets.
Article
This study examined three potential oil resources, crude and refined canola oil and refined soybean oil as replacements for added dietary fish oil in diets for juvenile red seabream. These oil resources were evaluated for their potential to replace added fish oil (40 g kg−1) in fishmeal based (600 g kg−1) diets, with 100 g kg−1 of total lipids. Each of the three plant oils was used to replace 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of the added dietary fish oil. Each of the three plant oils showed potential as a replacement for dietary fish oil, although a significant reduction in growth and feed utilisation was observed with the complete (100%) replacement of added fish oil by crude canola oil. No other significant effects of oil type or inclusion level on growth were apparent. A negative control (no added fish oil or plant oil, 60 g kg−1 of total lipid) yielded poorer growth than all treatments except the diet containing 40 g kg−1 of added crude canola oil (100% replacement). This observation confirmed that the added oils were utilized by the fish. A positive control diet containing 80 g kg−1 of added fish oil (140 g kg−1 total dietary lipid) sustained the best growth in the study, confirming that the 13 experimental diets were energy limiting as planned. Notably, few effects of the alternative oils were seen on the proximate composition of the fish. However, the influence of the alternative oils on the tissue fatty acid composition was considerable, irrespective of plant oil type or processing grade. Particularly notable was the overall increase in the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the tissues of the fish fed the plant oil diets, with these trends becoming more apparent with the greater levels of fish oil replacement. Minimal reductions in the levels of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acid were observed from any of the plant oil treatments. Sensory assessment, by an Australian taste panel, of the fish fed the fish oil reference, or the 100% replacement by refined canola or refined soybean diets showed a preference in order of canola oil > soybean oil > fish oil fed fish. Clearly, both canola and soybean oils have considerable potential as replacements of fish oils in diets for this species.
Article
The efficacy of trout oil (TO), extracted from trout offal from the aquaculture industry, was evaluated in juvenile Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peelii (25.4±0.81 g) diets in an experiment conducted over 60 days at 23.7±0.8 °C. Five isonitrogenous (48% protein), isolipidic (16%) and isoenergetic (21.8 kJ g−1) diets, in which the fish oil fraction was replaced in increments of 25% (0–100%), were used. The best growth and feed efficiency was observed in fish fed diets containing 50–75% TO. The relationship of specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) to the amount of TO in the diets was described in each case by second-order polynomial equations (P<0.05), which were: SGR=–0.44TO2+0.52TO+1.23 (r2=0.90, P<0.05); FCR=0.53TO2–0.64TO+1.21 (r2=0.95, P<0.05); and PER=–0.73TO2+0.90TO+1.54 (r2=0.90, P<0.05). Significant differences in carcass and muscle proximate compositions were noted among the different dietary treatments. Less lipid was found in muscle than in carcass. The fatty acids found in highest amounts in Murray cod, irrespective of the dietary treatment, were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1n-9), linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3). The fatty acid composition of the muscle reflected that of the diets. Both the n-6 fatty acid content and the n-3 to n-6 ratio were significantly (P<0.05) related to growth parameters, the relationships being as follows. Percentage of n-6 in diet (X) to SGR and FCR: SGR=–0.12X2+3.96X–32.51 (r2=0.96) and FCR=0.13X2–4.47X+39.39 (r2=0.98); and n-3:n-6 ratio (Z) to SGR, FCR, PER: SGR=–2.02Z2+5.01Z–1.74 (r2=0.88), FCR=2.31Z2–5.70Z+4.54 (r2=0.93) and PER=–3.12Z2–7.56Z+2.80 (r2=0.88) respectively. It is evident from this study that TO could be used effectively in Murray cod diets, and that an n-3:n-6 ratio of 1.2 results in the best growth performance in Murray cod.
Article
The apparent digestibilities (availabilities) of dry matter, protein, phosphorus and selected minerals in fish and animal by-products were determined using rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Blood meal (ring-dried), feather meal and deboned fish meal had relatively high concentrations of protein, low concentrations of phosphorus and many minerals, and high digestibilities (availabilities) of these nutrients. Other animal by-products, however, had high concentrations of minerals, including phosphorus, which are associated with the bone fraction. Availabilities of manganese and zinc in the diet were reduced by the inclusion of high-ash animal by-products in the diet, whereas availabilities of potassium, sodium and copper were relatively unaffected. Dietary concentrations of bone minerals (calcium, phosphorus) and ash were inversely correlated with availabilities (% of intake) of most minerals except copper in the diet. Also, dietary concentrations of bone minerals correlated inversely with the net absorption (mg g−1 diet) of zinc, manganese and magnesium in the diet. When rainbow trout were fed diets containing incremental concentrations of fish bones, the apparent availabilities of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron decreased as fish bone content in the diet increased. Reducing the bone fraction of high-ash (high-phosphorus) by-product meals is therefore an essential approach to using such ingredients in low-pollution fish feeds.
Article
This study determined the effect of dietary protein and energy levels on growth and feed utilization of the Thai native frog (Rana rugulosa Weigmann), The frogs were fed four isocaloric diets (5300 kcal kg(-1)) with protein levels 30, 35, 40 and 45% in experiment 1 and with four isonitrogenous (37%) diets with gross energy levels of 4500, 4900, 5300 and 5 700 kcal kg(-1) in experiment 2. The frogs were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 12 weeks in three replicate concrete ponds (30 frogs per pond) with an average frog weight of 3.5 and 7.8 g for experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Average weights but not survival rates were significantly different at the end of the study. Feed intake, energy intake and protein efficiency ratio of frogs fed the 30-45% protein diets were not significantly different. Feed conversion ratios of frogs fed the 30% protein diet were significantly higher than for those fed 35, 40 and 45% protein diet. The amount of protein consumed by frogs fed the 30% protein diet was significantly lower than frogs fed the 35, 40 and 45% protein diets, Energy retention in frogs fed the 35% protein diet was significantly higher than other treatments. Protein retention in frogs fed diets with 30 and 35% protein was significantly higher than the frogs fed the 40 and 45% protein diet. The optimum protein level was determined as 36.72%. In experiment 2, frogs were fed with four levels of energy in a diet with a constant protein level of 37%. The average final weight and average daily gain of frogs fed with the 4900 kcal kg(-1) diet were significantly higher than the other treatments.
Article
 Waste from fish-filleting units is used in the production of fish meal or directly used in animal feeds but more frequently is simply discarded. In order to upgrade the by-products of the filleting of hake and monkfish, a systematic study was made of the recovery of proteins by chemical extraction and precipitation with HCl and sodium hexametaphosphate [Na6(PO3)6]. The extraction process was studied to determine the effect of pH, type of alkaline solution used [NaOH or Ca(OH)2], concentration of NaCl, ratio of extracting media to raw material, and temperature on the percentage of protein solubilised. Proteins present in the extract were recovered by precipitation with HCl and the effect of pH on the percentage recovered was examined. The effect of Na6(PO3)6 concentration on the recovery of soluble proteins present in the supernatant after isoelectric precipitation was also studied. The raw material and products were characterised by their approximate chemical composition and amino acid profile.
Article
An improved distillation method is described for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in foods containing oxidized fats. The procedure is compared with other methods in current use for the determination of malonaldehyde. A high correlation of TBA numbers with rancid odor in cooked meats was established.
Article
A catfish bioassay for available niacin was developed using liver NAD levels as the response measure. Triplicate groups of fingerling channel catfish were fed 7 different feed ingredients as the sole source of dietary niacin in a basal casein–gelatin diet for 8 weeks. Three other experimental diets containing known amounts of supplemental niacin (6, 9 and 12 mg/kg diet, respectively) were also fed to triplicate groups of fish to establish the levels of NAD in the liver after 8 weeks. A standard linear regression equation of available niacin in diet (y in mg/kg) as a function of liver NAD concentration (x in μmol/g) was derived and used to determine the amount of available niacin in the feed ingredients. Menhaden fish meal (MFM), meat and bone/blood meal (MBM), wheat middlings (WML), cooked corn (CCO), uncooked corn (UCO), cottonseed meal (CSM) and soybean meal (SBM) contained 105.3, 50.5, 153.3, 21.9, 12.8, 22.5 and 20.3 mg/kg of available niacin, respectively. When compared to the total niacin content of each feed ingredient, niacin in animal tissue (MFM, MBM) was totally available to channel catfish. Availability of niacin in cereals and cereal byproducts, WML, CCO and UCO, was about 60, 44 and 28%, respectively. Niacin availability in the two oilseeds, CSM and SBM, was found to be 58 and 57%, respectively. Niacin availability from corn was increased by about 57% when the corn was extrusion-cooked. It was concluded that supplementation of niacin may not be needed or can be lowered in typical commercial catfish feeds because of the relatively high amount of available niacin found in the feed ingredients.
Article
Effects of variation in essential fatty acids in fish feeds on nutritive value of freshwater fish for humans.Several marine fish species are rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This is attributed to the lipid composition of plankton. There is strong evidence suggesting that consumption of fish containing high levels of these fatty acids is favourable for human health and has a particularly beneficial effect in preventing cardiovascular diseases.However, freshwater fish species can also serve as a valuable source of essential fatty acids. Compared with marine fish species, freshwater fish contain, in general, higher levels of CIS PUFA, but also substantial concentrations of EPA and DHA. In addition, the fatty acid composition of freshwater fish species is characterized by high proportions of n-6 PUFA, especially linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Therefore the ratio of total n-3 to n-6 fatty acids is much lower for freshwater fish than for marine fish, ranging from 1 to about 4. However, keeping freshwater fish such as salmonids and common carp on diets containing high amounts of fish oil results in marketable fish with substantial levels of n-3 PUFA.
Article
A trial was conducted to assess the nutrient composition of some novel feed ingredients so as to enhance livestock development and human protein intake. Ten (10) unconventional protein sources which include fish, crayfish, frog, shrimps, crabs, squilla, toads and grasshopper were harvested, processed and analyzed for their proximate and mineral (macro) composition using internationally established procedures. The results showed that the samples had percent crude protein that ranged from 28.14 (crab) to 61.38 (local fish meal). Frog, toad, squilla, crayfish, pellonula and crab respectively recorded appreciable percent ether extract (EE) values of 9.14, 8.74, 7.21, 6.32, 6.26 and 6.02. The gross energy (kcal/g) value was highest for squilla (2.97), followed closely by crayfish (2.87), Pellonula (2.85), mudskipper (2.84) while the others were below 2.0kcal /g. The crab gave the highest percent ash content (39.11) while the local fish meal gave the least value (5.96). Local fishmeal had the highest percentage of calcium (2.56%) followed by Pellonula (1.94%) and Mudskipper (1.89%) while the others had values that were lower than 1%. Percent Phosphorus followed a similar trend as calcium with local fishmeal recording the highest value of 1.92%. The results of this study showed that all the samples possess an appreciable quantities of all the dietary elements tested for, which, more or less could make them partial or complete substitutes for the conventional feed sources.
Article
Improvements in modern commercial aquaculture are linked to the utilization of biotechnological methods and processes. The most visible approach has been the use of growth hormone (GH) and/or insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and II), to accelerate the growth of fish. Previously we have reported that the injection of bovine GH, (bGH) in striped bass hybrids increased the specific growth rate and food conversion efficiency without significant alteration of food consumption rate. In this paper we present the results of experiments in which growth, food consumption, conversion efficiency, ammonia excretion, and amino acid absorption were monitored for individual fish after bGH injection. The specific growth rate was stimulated by 50% without significant change in relative food consumption rate. Food conversion efficiency increased by 51%. Intestinal L-leucine absorption was increased by 25-40% at various concentrations tested. The relative N-retention was stimulated by 20% when computed raw. When a correction factor derived from the elevated amino acid absorption was introduced into the computations. the calculated relative N-retention was increased by 56%. Muscle amino acid profile was appreciably altered. We conclude GH supplementation or over-expression in aquaculture profoundly alters the physiological and nutritional conditions of fish. Nutritional profiles of fish food must be altered relative to these physiological changes in order to maximize growth.
IUPAC Standard Methods for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives, sixth ed An evaluation of indigenous protein sources as potential component in the diet formulation for tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), using essential amino acid index (EAAI)
  • C Paquot
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Utilization of carcass fish wastes in diets of nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Optimum protein and energy levels for the Thai native frog, Rana rugulosa Weigmann
  • A K Soliman
  • Usa Az
  • P Somsueb
  • M Boonyaratpalin
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Water and waste water management in food processing: seafood water and waste water management The value of wildlife
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Utilization of waste materials in frog leg processing industry
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Utilization of catfish processing waste Determination of vitamin A in complete feeds, premixes and vitamin concentrates with HPLC Analytical Methods for Vitamins and Carotenoids in Feed
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  • K Phillipp
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Preliminary investigation on frog meal as an animal protein source for poultry
  • S Thirumalai
  • K Vedanayagam
  • G Rajagopalan
  • R Venkatakrishnan
Thirumalai, S., Vedanayagam, K., Rajagopalan, G., Venkatakrishnan, R., 1977. Preliminary investigation on frog meal as an animal protein source for poultry. Cheiron 6, 2–5.
Utilization of catfish processing waste
  • R T Lovell
Lovell, R.T., 1982. Utilization of catfish processing waste. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin, p. 521.
Nutrient requirements of fish
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Determination of vitamin A in complete feeds, premixes and vitamin concentrates with HPLC Analytical Methods for Vitamins and Carotenoids in Feed
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  • K Phillipp
Manz, U., Phillipp, K., 1988. Determination of vitamin A in complete feeds, premixes and vitamin concentrates with HPLC. In: Keller, H.E. (Ed.), Analytical Methods for Vitamins and Carotenoids in Feed. Hoffmann La Roche, Basel, pp. 5–7.
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Frog marketing with particular reference to EU countries
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