Prevalence of anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Turkish blood donors
Department of Parasitology, Erciyes University, Medical Faculty, Kayseri-Turkey. Ethiopian medical journal
Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Most of these infections are asymptomatic or benign, but may cause severe or fatal consequences in immunodeficient patients, transplant recipients, and in the fetus. Transmission may occur by eating uncooked meat, contaminated vegetables, blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and across the placenta from the mother to the fetus. IgG antibodies to T. gondii may persist in the serum at high titers for years. In the present study, our aim was to determine prevalence of anti- T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in Turkish blood donors.
A total samples from 385 healthy blood donors from Kayseri, Turkey were examined for anti- T. gondii antibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
The seroprevalence of the anti- T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was 19.5%, 2.33% respectively by IFAT and 20.25%, 2.33% by ELISA.
It is suggested that all blood donors should be screened for toxoplasmosis before transfusion
Available from: Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed
- "symptoms such as encephalitis are only evident during immune suppression (Pusch et al. 2009). The infection in humans can be acquired by ingesting of tissue cysts in raw or undercooked infected meat; ingesting of food or water contaminated with sporulated oocysts shed in the feces of an infected cat, blood transfusion, organ transplantation and congenitally, across the placenta from the mother to the fetus (Yazar et al. 2006). Once inside the host, T. gondii tachyzoites, a form of the parasite with high levels of metabolic activity, cross the placental or intestinal epithelium using paracellular transmigration and enter circulating cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells. "
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ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), an intracellular
parasite, establishes a chronic infection by forming cysts
preferentially in the brain. TNF-a plays an important role
in controlling the infection caused by this protozoan. Thus,
the blockade of TNF-a could cause reactivation of latent
toxoplasmosis infection as well as increase the risk of acute
toxoplasmosis. This study evaluated the effect of etanercept,
a TNF-a antagonist in reactivation of latent toxoplasmosis
compared to the therapeutic effect of
sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine in combination on the
progress of the disease. A total of 40 laboratory-bred Swiss
albino mice were infected with Me49 strain of T. gondii
and divided into four groups: infected control group;
treated group with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine; treated
group with etanercept and treated group with both etanercept
and sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. The mean
number and size of tissue cysts in brain smears of mice of
each group were determined and also, serum levels of
TNF-a were assessed in different study groups by an
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed
that the mean TNF-a level was significantly different in the
treated groups compared to that in infected control group.
The highest level of TNF-a was found in the infected
controls. After treatment with etanercept alone or combined
with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine, it was significantly
decreased. In this study, reactivation of latent
toxoplasmosis was observed by a significant increase in the
mean number and sizes of Toxoplasma tissue cysts in
brains of mice with established chronic toxoplasmosis after
treatment with etanercept alone or combined with conventional
treatment compared to both untreated chronically
infected controls and infected mice treated with sulfadiazine
and pyrimethamine. It was concluded that etanercept,
a TNF-a antagonist may play a role in reactivation of latent
toxoplasmosis. So, serological screening for toxoplasmosis
might offer a valuable aid for patients treated with this
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ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the seroprevalence of and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in 260 blood donors seen at blood banks in Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. Blood donors were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for T. gondii infection. A blood sample was taken to document their T. gondii antibody status using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 155 (59.6%) of 260 blood donors were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between T. gondii seropositivity and eating meat by-products (luncheon/shawerma) (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 80.82 [95% CI 18.62-350.81], P < 0.0001) or being non-educated (adjusted OR 32.25 [95% CI 7.46-139.44], P < 0.0001). These findings highlight that T. gondii is prevalent among blood donors in Egypt.
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ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii infection is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical pictures in man, changing from asymptomatic infection to severe central nervous system disease. It has been well documented that toxoplasmosis is of crucial importance especially for pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. In addition to the risks of gestation complications and congenital infections, it has been suggested that toxoplasmosis has some unfavorable effects on reproductive capacity in both men and women. The data obtained from limited studies performed in animal models as well as in infertile couples, have supported the relationship between toxoplasma and infertility. The hypothesis concerning infertility mechanisms due to T.gondii in females include development of endometritis and fetal rejection due to local release of T.gondii from latently located cysts in endometrial tissue on stimulation during plansenta formation; impaired folliculogenesis in ovaries and uterine atrophy and reproductive failure due to hypothalamic dysfunction as a result of chronic toxoplasmosis. The aim of this retrospective study was the comparative evaluation of toxoplasma seropositivity rates of fertile and infertile female spouses who were admitted to an in vitro fertilization (IVF) center in Ankara, between 2004-2009 period, from different geographical regions of Turkey. A total of 1314 women (mean age: 31.8 ± 5.6 years) were included to the study. In the study group, 376 (28.6%) were positive for T.gondii IgG, 5 (0.4%) were positive for IgG + IgM and 1 (%0.07) was positive only for IgM antibodies, while total toxoplasma seropositivity was 29.1% (382/1314). Of the 1117 evaluated couples, women with well-defined cause of infertility due to male factors have been grouped as fertile (n= 495) and the others were accepted as infertile (n= 622). Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was found in 145 (29.3%) of fertile and in 179 (28.8%) of infertile women and the difference between the seropositivity rates was not statistically significant (p= 0.851). Comparison of seropositive and seronegative women in view of demographic characteristics revealed that seropositivity rate increased with age (mean ages were 33.0 ± 5.3 and 31.4 ± 5.6, respectively; p< 0.001); the rate was significantly higher in housewives than women with different occupations (31.4% and 25.7%, respectively; p= 0.003) and higher in women who inhabited in Mediterranean region than in Central Anatolia region (46.4% and 27.2%, respectively; p= 0.019). There were no statistically significant correlation between the seropositivity rates and abortion history and cause of infertility (p> 0.05). In conclusion, these data did not indicate a relationship between toxoplasmosis and female infertility, however advanced molecular, serological and clinical studies are needed for the confirmation of this hypothesis.
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