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The effect of a high-protein, low glycemic-load diet versus a conventional, high glycemic-load diet on biochemical parameters associated with acne vulgaris: A randomized, investigator-masked, controlled trial


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No previous study has sought to examine the influence of dietary composition on acne vulgaris. We sought to compare the effect of an experimental low glycemic-load diet with a conventional high glycemic-load diet on clinical and endocrine aspects of acne vulgaris. A total of 43 male patients with acne completed a 12-week, parallel, dietary intervention study with investigator-masked dermatology assessments. Primary outcomes measures were changes in lesion counts, sex hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. At 12 weeks, total lesion counts had decreased more in the experimental group (-21.9 [95% confidence interval, -26.8 to -19.0]) compared with the control group (-13.8 [-19.1 to -8.5], P = .01). The experimental diet also reduced weight (P = .001), reduced the free androgen index (P = .04), and increased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (P = .001) when compared with a high glycemic-load diet. We could not preclude the role of weight loss in the overall treatment effect. This suggests nutrition-related lifestyle factors play a role in acne pathogenesis. However, these preliminary findings should be confirmed by similar studies.
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The effect of a high-protein, low glycemiceload
diet versus a conventional, high glycemiceload
diet on biochemical parameters associated
with acne vulgaris: A randomized,
investigator-masked, controlled trial
Robyn N. Smith, BAppSc (Hons),
Anna Braue, MBBS, MMed,
Henna Ma¨kela¨inen, BAppSc,
and George A. Varigos, MBBS, FACD, PhD
Melbourne and Parkville, Australia; and Turku, Finland
Background: No previous study has sought to examine the influence of dietary composition on acne
Objective: We sought to compare the effect of an experimental low glycemiceload diet with a conven-
tional high glycemiceload diet on clinical and endocrine aspects of acne vulgaris.
Methods: A total of 43 male patients with acne completed a 12-week, parallel, dietary intervention study
with investigator-masked dermatology assessments. Primary outcomes measures were changes in lesion
counts, sex hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin-like
growth factor binding proteins.
Results: At 12 weeks, total lesion counts had decreased more in the experimental group (21.9 [95%
confidence interval, 26.8 to 19.0]) compared with the control group (13.8 [19.1 to 8.5], P= .01). The
experimental diet also reduced weight (P= .001), reduced the free androgen index (P= .04), and increased
insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (P= .001) when compared with a high glycemiceload diet.
Limitations: We could not preclude the role of weight loss in the overall treatment effect.
Conclusion: This suggests nutrition-related lifestyle factors play a role in acne pathogenesis.
However, these preliminary findings should be confirmed by similar studies. ( J Am Acad Dermatol
The pathogenesis of acne is complex, with
strong evidence supporting the involvement
of sebaceous hyperplasia, follicular hyper-
keratinization, bacterial and yeast intrafollicular
colonization, and inflammation.
Although andro-
gens play an essential role in the development of
acne, few studies have demonstrated a direct corre-
lation between acne severity and plasma androgen
From the School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne
Department of Dermatology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Park-
; Department of Dermatology, Royal Children’s Hospital,
; and Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemis-
try, Turku University.
The study was supported by a research grant from Meat and
Livestock Australia.
Disclosure: This study was the responsibility of the investigators.
Meat and Livestock Australia had no role in data collection,
data analysis, data interpretation, or submission for publication.
Ms Smith receives a postgraduate scholarship from MINTRAC
(National Meat Industry Training Council of Australia). Authors
Mann, Braue, Ma
¨inen, and Varigos had no conflicts of
interest to disclose.
Presented at the 15th Congress of the European Academy of
Dermatology and Venereology Meeting in Rhodes, October 5,
2006, and at the Nutrition Society of Australia Meeting in
Melbourne, December 2, 2005.
Accepted for publication January 9, 2007.
Reprint requests: Robyn Smith, BAppSc (Hons), School of Applied
Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne, Victoria,
Australia, 3001.
Published online April 20, 2007.
ª2007 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc.
Variations in the clinical response to andro-
gens suggests that the endocrine control of acne is
Some studies suggest that acne severity
correlates better with sex hormone binding globulin
(SHBG) than circulating testosterone levels.
Elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS),
the major adrenal androgen, has also been shown to
correlate with acne severity in adolescent girls and
with lesion counts in adults.
Other biologic factors,
such as insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I,
may also augment sebum production, one of the 4
proximate causes of acne. Clinically, IGF-I has been
shown to correlate with acne lesion counts in adult
women and significantly higher IGF-I levels have
been described in women with acne compared with
control subjects.
Acne is also a common feature of women with
polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition
characterized by hyperandrogenism and hyperinsu-
Clinical and experimental evidence sug-
gests that insulin resistance and its compensatory
hyperinsulinemia are the underlying disturbance in
PCOS, as insulin resistance generally precedes and
gives rise to hyperandrogenism.
Insulin has been
shown to stimulate ovarian androgen production
through effects on steroidogenic enzymes and by
amplifying gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secre-
Insulin and IGF-I stimulate adrenal androgen
and inhibit hepatic SHBG production,
allowing for an increase in androgen bioavailability.
Furthermore, insulin has been shown to decrease
IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, allowing free IGF-I
concentrations to act on target tissues.
aimed at reducing insulin secretion and/or increase
insulin sensitivity, such as metformin or acarbose,
have been shown to improve clinical symptoms of
acne in patients with PCOS.
Expression of acne during adolescence may also
be affected by endocrine changes, which are closely
related to changes in insulin sensitivity. During
normal puberty and adolescence, there is a transient
decline in insulin sensitivity,
which is accompa-
nied by a reciprocal decrease in levels of SHBG and
According to cross-sectional observa-
tions, acne begins about the same time as the
gradual increase in plasma insulin,
the preadoles-
cent increase in body mass index (BMI),
and the
increase in IGF-I concentrations.
Acne incidence
more closely corresponds to the changing course of
insulin and IGF-I levels than to changes in plasma
androgens. This is because insulin and IGF-I levels
peak during late puberty and gradually decline until
the third decade.
Acne generally resolves by this
time despite circulating androgens remaining
Hyperinsulinemia may provide an important
link between nutrition-related lifestyle factors and
the incidence of acne. Accumulating evidence sug-
gests that low glycemiceload (LGL) diets may play
a dual role in the prevention of hyperinsulinemia
by lowering the postprandial insulin demand and
improving insulin sensitivity.
Dietary glycemic
load may be interpreted as a measure of the blood
glucose and insulin-increasing potential, as it repre-
sents the rate of carbohydrate absorption (indicated
by the glycemic index [GI]) and the quantity of
carbohydrate consumed.
It has recently been pos-
tulated that high intakes of refined, high-GI carbo-
hydrates may be a significant contributor to the high
incidence of acne in Western countries.
the impact of such a dietary change on acne and
hormone levels has not been previously investi-
gated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to
investigate the effect of a LGL diet, compared with
a typical high glycemiceload diet, on acne severity
and metabolic and endocrine variables associated
with insulin resistance.
Study population
Male patients with acne were recruited using
flyers posted at a university and newspaper adver-
tisements. Informed consent was obtained from
participants and guardians (if age \18 years) and
the study was conducted with the approval of our
human ethics committee. This study included only
male participants, age 15 to 25 years, with mild-
moderate facial acne. Eligible participants were re-
quired to have acne for more than 6 months and a
severity grade of greater than 0.25 but less than 2.0
as defined by the Leeds acne grading technique.
Volunteers were excluded if they were taking med-
ications known to affect acne or glucose metabolism.
A washout period of 6 months was required for oral
Abbreviations used:
BMI: body mass index
CV: coefficient of variation
DHEAS: dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
FAI: free androgen index
GI: glycemic index
HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment of
insulin resistance
IGF: insulin-like growth factor
IGFBP: insulin-like growth factor binding
LGL: low glycemic load
PCOS: polycystic ovary syndrome
SHBG: sex hormone binding globulin
248 Smith et al
retinoids or 2 months for oral antibiotics or topical
Study design
It was calculated that 20 participants per group
would provide 80% power (at the 2-sided 5% level)
to detect a difference of 20% in acne lesion counts,
2.7 U/mL in fasting insulin, 5.5 nmol/L in SHBG, and
8.3 ng/mL in IGFBP-1. To compensate for expected
patient withdrawal, 54 patients were enrolled.
Eligible participants were recruited between
June 2003 and June 2004. Approximately 2 to 3
weeks after recruitment, participants attended their
baseline appointment and were randomly assigned
(1:1) to either the LGL or control group (Fig 1).
Randomization was carried out by computer-gen-
erated random numbers and allocation to groups
was performed by a third party.
This study was designed as a parallel dietary
intervention study with investigator-masked derma-
tology assessments. Topical therapy, in the form of
a noncomedogenic cleanser, was standardized for
both groups and facial acne was scored at monthly
visits (weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12) at the academic research
clinic. On all visits, height, weight, percentage body
fat, and hip and waist circumferences were mea-
sured. All patients were weighed in light clothes and
BMI was calculated as: weight (kg)/height (m)
Fig 1. Recruitment to completion of participants in trial.
Smith et al 249
Percentage body fat was measured using a bioelectric
impedance analyzer (TBF-521, Tanita Corp, Arlington
Heights, Ill). At baseline and 12 weeks, a venous
blood sample was taken after an overnight fast.
Dietary intervention
Participants were informed that the study was
comparing the carbohydrate to protein ratio in the
diet and were not informed of the study’s hypothesis.
The LGL diet was low in glycemic load, achieved
through modifications to the amount and type of
carbohydrate. The LGL group members were edu-
cated on how to substitute high-GI foods with foods
higher in protein (eg, lean meat, poultry, or fish) and
lower in GI (eg, whole grain bread, pasta, and fruits).
Some staple foods were supplied and participants
were urged to consume these or similar foods on
a daily basis. Each participant’s dietary directions
were isocalorically matched with their baseline diet
as determined from 7-day weighed/measured food
records. The recommended LGL diet consisted of
25% energy from protein, 45% from low GI carbo-
hydrates, and 30% energy from fats. In contrast, the
control group received carbohydrate-dense staples
and were instructed to eat these or similar foods
daily. The foods provided had moderate to high GI
values and were typical of their normal diet as
evidenced from 7-day weighed/measured food rec-
ords. The control group were not informed about the
GI, but were urged to include carbohydrates as a
regular part of their diet. All participants received
initial education on how to use foods scales and
keep food records. During the study period, nutrient
intakes were calculated from 3-day weighed/
measured food records each month using Australia-
specific dietary analysis software (Foodworks, Xyris
Software, Highgate Hill, Australia). Dietary compli-
ance was monitored by regular telephone inter-
views, assessments of glycemic load per day and
24-hour urine samples (weeks 0 and 12) for an
assessment of urea excretion relative to urinary
Standardized topical cleanser
All patients were provided with a topical cleanser
(Cetaphil gentle skin cleanser, Galderma, Forrests
Hill, Australia) and were advised to use it in place
of their normal wash, soap, or cleanser. The cleanser
provided contained no active agents for acne and its
formulation is identical to that which is currently
available overseas. Participants began using the
topical cleanser 2 weeks before baseline and were
asked to maintain a standard level of use during the
trial. Compliance was determined from self-report
at each visit.
Dermatology assessment
Scaling of the acne was performed by a derma-
tology registrar who was masked to the group
assignment of the participants. The registrar assessed
facial acne occurrence and severity using a modified
lesion count technique (Leeds) form Burke and
To ensure all acne lesions were counted,
located, and graded by size and severity, lesions
were mapped by placing a transparent plastic film
with a laser-printed grid gently against the skin.
Facial anatomic landmarks, such as the ear, chin,
and tip of nose, were used to ensure consistency
between assessments. Each side of the face was
assessed separately. Where necessary, the registrar
palpated the skin to determine the lesion type. All
assessments were performed under fluorescent
background lighting and with a halogen lamp, which
could be easily moved to illuminate both sides of
the patient’s face. To maintain reproducibility of
the above method, one physician performed all the
dermatology assessments. A small group of volun-
teers (n = 4) was counted 1 week apart to evaluate
the reproducibility by the same physician (9.5%
coefficient of variation [CV]).
Biochemical measurements
Code-labelled samples were stored at 808C for
analysis poststudy by an independent laboratory.
Baseline and 12-week samples for each participant
were included in the same assay run to avoid
interassay variability. Serum insulin was measured
using a commercially available microparticle
Table I. Baseline characteristics of the participants
by dietary group for the per protocol population
(n = 23)
(n = 20) P
Age, y 18.2 60.5 18.5 60.5 .66
Body mass index,
22.9 60.6 22.5 60.7 .34
Weight, kg 73.5 62.5 73.3 63.3 .90
circumference, cm
79.2 61.7 79.0 62.2 .81
Total count average 40.6 65.0 34.9 64.3 .40
Inflammatory count
31.9 63.9 28.4 63.6 .72
count average
8.8 62.2 6.5 61.6 .62
Fasting glucose,
4.76 60.07 4.47 60.09 .02
Fasting insulin, U/mL 7.37 60.66 7.35 60.74 .99
Testosterone, nmol/L 20.97 61.19 20.36 61.48 .75
SHBG, nmol/L 25.39 61.27 24.75 61.92 .78
LGL, Low glycemic load; SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin.
250 Smith et al
enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, Tokyo,
Japan) (intra-assay CV 4.0%). Capillary blood glu-
cose was measured using a glucose analyzer
(2011, HemoCue, A
¨ngelholm, Sweden) (intra-assay
CV 1.6%). The homeostasis model assessment of
insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as a surro-
gate measure of insulin sensitivity, calculated as:
fasting glucose (mmol/L) 3insulin (U/mL)/22.5.
SHBG concentrations were assayed with a commer-
cially available radioimmunoassay (Orion Diagnos-
tica, Espoo, Finland) (intra-assay CV 2.5%). Total
testosterone was measured using solid-phase radio-
immunoassay (Diagnostic Products, Los Angeles,
Calif) (intra-assay CV 2.7%). The free androgen
index (FAI) was calculated as: testosterone con-
centration (nmol/L) 3100/SHBG concentration
(nmol/L). IGF-I (intra-assay CV 2.9%) and DHEAS
(intra-assay CV 8.1%) were measured using semi-
automated technology (Immulite, Diagnostic Pro-
ducts). IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 were assayed with a
noncommercial radioimmunoassay as previously
An automated analyzer (Olympus,
Melville, NY) was used to measure total cholesterol,
high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride
levels (intra-assay CV were 1%-2% for all tests). Low-
density lipoprotein cholesterol was calculated by the
formula of Friedewald et al.
Statistical analysis
All statistical analyses were performed for the per
protocol population using software (SPSS 11.0 for
Windows, SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill) and significance
was set at Pless than .05. Baseline variables were
analyzed for between group significance using
Mann-Whitney U test or 1-way analysis of variance,
depending on whether the data was normally dis-
tributed. General linear regression models were
used to test for overall treatment differences, with
adjustments made for potential cofounders, includ-
ing age, ethnicity, and baseline data. Secondary
analyses of acne end points and hormone variables
were performed adjusting for changes in BMI. All
covariates were individually entered into the models
to determine whether there was an interaction
between the covariate and the treatment. Bivariate
linear regression analysis was also conducted, pool-
ing data from both groups, to explore relationships
between endocrine variables and the change in
lesion counts.
In all, 43 patients completed the study per proto-
col (Fig 1). Seven participants did not complete the
study (5 in control and two in LGL groups) and 4
were removed from data set (two were noncompli-
ant; two began medications known to affect acne,
an exclusion criterion). Baseline characteristics are
shown in Table I.
Diet composition
Table II lists the diet composition of the LGL and
control groups before randomization and during the
trial. No significant group differences were observed
Table II. Dietary composition of the low glycemic load and control diets before randomization and during
the trial period
Trial period
Before randomization
(n = 43)
(n = 23)
(n = 20) P
Energy, kJ/d 10,585 9320*10,620 .06
Dietary glycemic index
57 43*56 \.001
Dietary glycemic load
178 101*174 \.001
Carbohydrate, % total kJ 49 44*50 \.001
Protein, % total kJ 17 23*17 \.001
Total fat, % total kJ 32 31 32 \.74
Fat subgroups, % total kJ
Saturated 13.2 9.0*12.6 \.001
Polyunsaturated 4.5 6.8*4.8 \.001
Monounsaturated 11.7 12.4 11.9 \.51
Cholesterol, mg/d 296 309 304 \.93
Dietary fiber, g/d 25.3 36.9*26.2 \.001
Pvalue corresponds with 1-way analysis of variance or Mann-Whitney.
LGL, Low glycemic load.
*Significantly different from baseline (P\.05).
Calculated as the weighted average glycemic index of all carbohydrate-containing foods in the diet.
Calculated as the food’s carbohydrate amount (grams) 3the respective glycemic index value and divided by 100, then totalled for all foods
each day.
Smith et al 251
in any of the dietary variables at baseline. During the
trial period, dietary glycemic load was significantly
lower in the LGL group compared with the control
group and this was achieved by a reduction in
carbohydrate intake and by means of low-GI foods
(as indicated by a reduction in the calculated dietary
GI) (Table II). Protein intake increased in the LGL
compared with the control group (P\.001), indi-
cating that some carbohydrates were replaced with
foods higher in protein. This was substantiated by
a 15.4% increase in urinary urea/creatinine ratio at
12 weeks for the LGL group compared with a 12.3%
decrease for the control group (P= .009), indicating
good dietary compliance. Although the LGL group
received isocaloric dietary advice, energy intake
decreased relative to their baseline diet (P= .02).
Compliance with topical nonacne cleanser
There was no discontinuation of the topical non-
acne therapy among the study completers.
Study outcomes
Table III shows the mean change in lesion counts
and anthropometric measures at 12 weeks according
to dietary group. After adjusting for age, ethnicity,
and baseline counts, the reduction in total lesion
counts was significantly greater in the LGL group
compared with the control group (P= .01). Similar
results were observed for the mean decrease in
inflammatory counts (P= .02). Figure 3 shows
examples of acne improvement in the LGL group.
The LGL group also showed significantly greater
reductions in weight (P\.001), BMI (P= .001), body
Table IV. Mean change in hormone concentrations and plasma lipids for the per protocol population
at 12 weeks according to dietary group
Adjusted means*(95% CI)
LGL (n = 23) Control (n = 20) P
Fasting insulin, U/mL
0.90 (2.59, 0.79) 1.96 (0.15, 3.77) .03
Log(HOMA-IR) 0.05 (0.13, 0.03) 0.09 (0.01, 0.18) .02
Testosterone, nmol/L 1.32 (2.75, 0.12) 1.20 (2.74, 0.34) .91
SHBG, nmol/L 0.27 (1.56, 2.09) 2.71 (4.67, 0.74)
FAI, nmol/L 8.73 (17.34, 0.12)
4.51 (4.74, 13.75) .04
DHEAS, mol/L 0.68 (1.30, 0.06)
0.12 (0.79, 0.55) .22
IGF-I, nmol/L 2.93 (6.21, 0.35) 2.79 (6.31, 0.73) .95
Log(IGFBP-1), ng/mL
0.14 (0.05, 0.22)
0.09 (0.18, 0.03) .001
IGFBP-3, mg/mL 0.11 (0.10, 0.32) 0.16 (0.06, 0.38) .75
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 0.42 (0.63, 0.21)
0.05 (0.27, 0.17) .02
LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 0.32 (0.51, 0.13)
0.04 (0.25, 0.16) .06
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 0.04 (0.10, 0.10) 0.05 (0.11, 0.01) .92
Log(triglycerides), mmol/L 0.06 (0.13, 0.08) 0.03 (0.05, 0.10) .10
CI, Confidence interval; DHEAS, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate; FAI, free androgen index; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR,
homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IGFBP, IGF binding protein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein;
LGL, low glycemic load; SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin.
*Means are adjusted for differences in baseline values, age, and ethnicity.
n = 42 As a result of an outlier of more than 3 SD from the mean.
Significant difference from baseline to 12 weeks (P\.05).
Analysis was performed on log-transformed variable as the data was log-normally distributed.
Table III. Mean change in outcome variables for the per protocol population at 12 weeks according
to dietary group
Adjusted means (95% CI)*
Variable LGL group (n = 23) Control group (n = 20) P
Total lesion counts 21.9 (26.8, 19.0) 13.8 (19.1, 8.5) .01
Inflammatory lesion counts 16.0 (20.3, 11.8) 8.4 (13.0, 3.8) .02
Weight, kg 2.9 (4.0, 1.7) 0.4 (0.8, 1.7) \.001
BMI, kg/m
0.89 (1.25, 0.54) 0.02 (0.41, 0.36) .002
Percentage body fat (%) 2.2 (3.0, 1.4) 0.5 (1.3, 0.4) .006
Waist circumference, cm 2.2 (3.6, 0.9) 0.2 (1.6, 1.2) .04
BMI, Body mass index; CI, confidence interval; LGL, low glycemic load.
*Means are adjusted for differences in baseline values, age and ethnicity.
252 Smith et al
fat percentage (P= .006), and waist circumference
(P= .04) when compared with the control group.
Statistical adjustment of the mean change in acne
scores for changes in BMI altered the outcome for
total lesion counts (21.6 [95% confidence interval
28.9 to 14.4] vs 14.1 [21.9 to 6.2], P= .07), but
not inflammatory counts (16.0 [95% confidence
interval 20.6 to 11.4] vs 8.5 [13.4 to 3.5], P=
.04). However, we found no significant interaction
effect of dietary treatment and the change in BMI on
acne end points.
Table IV shows the mean change in hormonal
variables and plasma lipids at 12 weeks according
to dietary group. The mean change in fasting insulin
levels (P= .03) and log-transformed HOMA-IR (P=
.02) was significantly different between groups with
the LGL group showing a trend for improved insulin
sensitivity and the control group showing a trend for
increasing insulin resistance. SHBG levels decreased
in the control group compared with the LGL group
(P= .031). The effect of dietary treatment on FAI
(P= .041) was marginally significant, with the LGL
group showing a decrease in testosterone bioavail-
ability compared with the control group. IGFBP-
1 increased significantly in the LGL group relative
to baseline (P= .001) and this was significantly
different from the mean change in the control group.
Statistical adjustment for changes in BMI was found
to affect the results for HOMA-IR (0.04 for the LGL
group vs 0.08 for the control group, P= .08), SHBG
(0.04 for the LGL group vs 2.35 for the control
group, P= .13), and FAI (8.8 for the LGL group vs
4.6 for the control group, P= .07), but not IGFBP-
1 (0.14 for the control group vs 0.09 for the control
group, P= .003).
Hormonal variables as predictors
of acne improvement
Fig 2 depicts the results from bivariate linear
regression analysis. A positive relationship was ob-
served between the change in total lesion counts and
the change in insulin sensitivity as determined by
HOMA-IR (r= 0.38, P= .01). A change in SHBG levels
was also shown to correlate negatively with a change
in lesion counts (r=0.38, P= .01). In contrast,
a change in FAI was not significantly associated with
the change in lesion counts (r= 0.10, P= .50).
This pilot study investigated the independent
effects of an experimental LGL diet versus a conven-
tional high glycemiceload diet, combined with a
standardized noncomedogenic cleanser. Although
both groups showed improvements in acne, the
LGL group showed significantly greater reductions
in the clinical and endocrine assessments of acne.
In addition, participants in the LGL group showed
reductions in weight and measures of adiposity,
despite receiving dietary advice that was isocalori-
cally matched with diets at baseline. In contrast,
participants on the conventional, high glycemic
loadediet showed no change in weight or body
This study found a positive effect of a LGL diet on
insulin sensitivity when compared with a conven-
tional high glycemic loadediet. The improvement in
insulin sensitivity may be attributable not only to the
decrease in glycemic load,
but also to the decrease
in total energy intake and subsequent body weight
It has been hypothesized that a decrease in
insulin may mediate a reduction in underlying path-
ological aspects of acne.
In accordance with this
hypothesis, we observed a moderate relationship
Fig 2. Relationships between acne improvement and
hormone variables homeostasis model assessment of insu-
lin resistance (A) and sex hormone binding globulin (B).
Smith et al 253
between the change in insulin sensitivity and the
change in acne lesion counts. This suggests that the
therapeutic effect may be a factor of the change in
insulin sensitivity, or simply that improved insulin
sensitivity is another manifestation of a LGL diet.
An association between acne and mild peripheral
insulin resistance has been previously described in
healthy eumenorrheic women.
The authors found
that patients with acne exhibited significant hyper-
insulinemia during an oral glucose tolerance test
compared with age-matched control subjects. This
relationship was also found to be independent of
obesity, as BMI was similar in both groups.
Our results suggest that the improvement in
insulin sensitivity may be linked to reductions in
androgenicity. We observed a reduction in testoster-
one bioavailability and DHEAS concentrations in the
LGL group and this may help to explain the lessening
of acne severity. The observed reduction in free
testosterone was probably related to the dual effect
of insulin on androgen production in testicular
and the hepatic production of SHBG.
Plasma concentrations of DHEAS, the major adrenal
androgen, also decreased in the LGL group, possibly
owing to insulin’s effect on the expression of adrenal
steroidogenic enzymes.
In contrast, the control
group showed a decline in insulin sensitivity and
SHBG concentrations. Why acne improved in the
control group despite no significant change in an-
drogen levels remains unanswered, but the possible
direct effect of the topical cleansing agent should
be considered.
As SHBG correlates inversely with
insulin, it was not surprising to find that acne also
correlated with the change in SHBG. Our results also
corroborate previous evidence that SHBG may be
a marker of acne.
However, we observed no
relationship between acne severity and free testos-
terone levels, an association that has been demon-
strated in some
but not all studies.
Normal sebaceous gland growth is also influ-
enced by factors other than androgens, such as
Therefore, increased expression of IGF-I or
Fig 3. Photographs of acne improvement in low glycemic load group. Patient A at baseline
(A) and 12 weeks (B). Patient B at baseline (C) and 12 weeks (D).
254 Smith et al
a reduction in the level of its carrier proteins could
influence acne. In the current study, IGFBP-1 levels
increased significantly in the LGL group compared
with the control group and we speculate that this is
a compensatory adaptation to the improvement in
insulin sensitivity and the reduction in basal insulin.
Insulin is the principle determinant of plasma
IGFBP-1 levels and low basal IGFBP-1 levels have
been observed in insulin-resistant individuals, pos-
sibly as a result of increased portal insulin over-
Therefore, it is possible that the LGL diet
may also induce changes to the IGF system that may
be clinically relevant to events involved in acne
There are some limitations regarding the study
design and intervention that should be addressed.
Firstly, as participants in the LGL group lost weight,
we cannot preclude the change in BMI to the overall
treatment effect. When we statistically adjusted the
data for changes in BMI, the effect of the LGL diet on
several clinical and endocrine parameters was lost.
However, this does not necessarily imply that acne is
influenced by weight loss per se. Weight loss trials,
involving women with PCOS, have consistently
shown increased SHBG levels
and decreased
However, low-fat dietary interventions in
nonobese women have shown no change in SHBG
levels after weight loss.
Currently, there is a
paucity of evidence to indicate that acne is more
prevalent or severe in overweight adolescents. One
study revealed a relationship between weight and
acne in men age 20 to 40 years, but this was not true
for young males aged 15 to 19 years.
Although we
cannot determine an aspecific effect of weight loss
on acne, one could speculate that a reduction in
hyperinsulinemia, either through weight loss or
dietary composition, may reduce precipitating fac-
tors involved in acne. Another limitation of this study
was the use of a fasting index to quantitatively
estimate hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance.
Although this index correlates with the euglycemic
clamp technique and has proven to be useful in large
studies, its applicability to small intervention trials
remains uncertain.
Furthermore, this test reflects
insulin action in a basal state, whereas in life much of
insulin action is postprandial. Therefore, it is possi-
ble that this index may provide an underestimation
or overestimation of the relationship between acne
and the extent of hyperinsulinemia.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to
demonstrate a therapeutic effect of dietary interven-
tion on acne. The results of this study open the
prospect that nutrition-related lifestyle factors may
affect the pathogenesis of acne. After 12 weeks, a
LGL diet was shown to reduce weight, acne severity,
and hormonal aspects of acne (eg, testosterone
bioavailability, IGFBP-1, and HOMA-IR) when com-
pared with a conventional high glycemiceload diet.
Although we could not determine an aspecific effect
of diet from that of weight loss, the finding that
insulin sensitivity correlated with acne suggests that
both may be involved. Therefore, these results
should be considered preliminary and larger-scale
studies are needed to confirm the effect of dietary
intervention on acne.
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... The etiopathogenesis of acne is recognized to involve four components: increased sebum secretion, aberrant follicular keratinization, bacterial proliferation, and inflammation. Additionally, food, genetic factors, and oxidative stress might affect the progression of acne [33][34][35][36]. The components of acne's pathogenicity are agreed upon by clinicians, however, the sequence of events leading to its development is contested. ...
Acne vulgaris is a skin condition characterized by the inflammation or hyperactivity of sebaceous glands on the skin, which results in the creation of comedones, lesions, nodules, and perifollicular hyperkeratinization. Increased sebum production, follicular blockage, and bacterial colonization may contribute to the disease etiology. Environmental factors, hormonal imbalance, and genetic predisposition can alter the severity of the disease. Its mental and monetary effects can be problematic for the society. In this study, we examined the role of isotretinoin in the treatment of acne vulgaris based on evidence from prior research. This review literature study compiled publications on the treatment of acne vulgaris from 1985 to 2022 based on PubMed and Google Scholar publications. Additional bioinformatics analyses were accompanied by GeneCards, STRING model, and DrugBank databases. These complementary analyses were designed to obtain a better perspective of personalized medicine which is highly required for dose-precise administrations of acne vulgaris treatment. Isotretinoin has been recognized as an effective treatment for acne vulgaris, particularly in cases that have been resistant to previous medications or have resulted in scarring, according to gathered data. Oral isotretinoin inhibits the proliferation of Propionibacterium acne, a critical factor in the development of acne lesions; also, it has been shown to be effective in reducing the number of Propionibacterium-resistant patients and regulating sebum production and reducing sebaceous gland size more effectively than other treatment options resulting in general improvements in skin clarity and acne severity and reduce inflammatory in 90% of patients. In addition to its efficacy, the majority of patients have shown that oral isotretinoin is well tolerated. This review highlights the use of oral retinoids, particularly isotretinoin, as an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for acne vulgaris. It has been proven that oral isotretinoin is useful for achieving long-lasting remission in patients with severe or resistant instances. Despite the fact that oral isotretinoin is related to a number of potential harmful effects, skin dryness was the most common side effect reported by patients that can be managed with the aid of suitable monitoring and drug administration against specific genes identified by genotyping of the susceptible variants of genes involved in TGFβ signaling pathway.
... Our results also showed that subjects aged 10-25 years were more susceptible to acne vulgaris (Table S3). Our results are in agreement with those of Smith et al. 31 who reported a higher incidence in men aged between 18 and 25 years. ...
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Backgrounds: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of the pilosebaceous unit affecting most teenagers and numerous adults throughout the world. The present study was designed to assess the association of the presence or absence of GSTM1, GSTT1, and single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1695 in GSTP1 and rs1042522 in TP53 gene with acne vulgaris. Methods: The cross-sectional case-control study was conducted at the Institute of Zoology from May 2020 to March 2021 and included acne vulgaris patients (N = 100) and controls (N = 100) enrolled in Dera Ghazi Khan district, Pakistan. Multiplex and tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reactions were applied to investigate the genotype in analyzed genes. The association of rs1695 and rs1042522 with acne vulgaris was studied either individually or in various combinations with GATM1 and T1. Results: A significant association of absence of GSTT1 and mutant genotype at rs1695 (GG) and at rs1042522 (CC) in GSTP1 and TP53, respectively, was found to be associated with acne vulgaris in enrolled subjects. Subjects aged 10-25 years and smokers were more susceptible to acne vulgaris. Conclusion: Our results suggest that genotypes of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and TP53 are involved in protection against oxidative stress and may influence disease progression in acne vulgaris.
... To add, epidemiological studies and clinical trials on other inflammatory conditions such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) have linked higher carbohydrate intake to low-grade chronic inflammation [12]. When effect of low glycemic load diets on patients with acne vulgaris were compared, it demonstrated significant lesion reduction suggesting role of high carbohydrate and sugar intake in acne pathogenesis [21]. Therefore, the Paleolithic and Anti-Inflammatory diets may lower levels of systemic inflammation in HS patients by reducing the production of TNF-α cytokines triggered by oxidative stress responses. ...
Introduction: Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory skin condition characterized by the formation of pus-discharging abscesses under the skin in axillary, inguinal, gluteal, and perianal body sites. Modifiable risk factors such as obesity and smoking have been associated with exacerbation of HS severity. Despite this, research on the clinical application of lifestyle medicine for the improvement of HS symptoms remains scarce. The goal of this review was to evaluate benefits of lifestyle medicine in improving HS symptoms. Methods: A total of 8 articles that examined the associations of smoking cessation, diet modification and weight-loss with HS improvement were investigated. These publications came from cohort studies and intervention trials and were appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Results: HS patients following a brewer’s yeast free diet reported significant decrease in HS abscesses and a severe immune reaction to the substance. The Paleolithic and Anti-Inflammatory diet alongside the reduction of foods high in carbohydrates, sugars, and dairy were also associated with improved HS symptoms. Zinc gluconate supplementation demonstrated improved inflammatory nodules and decreased boil count in patients. No correlation between HS and weight-loss or smoking cessation were observed. Discussion: Based on the results, eating patterns resembling the Paleolithic and Anti-Inflammatory diets may lower levels of systemic inflammation in HS patients by reducing the production of TNF- α cytokines present in HS lesions. Increased levels of antioxidants paired with fewer levels of pro-oxidant properties present in both diets are suggested to help improve the course of the disease in some patients. Conclusion: Further intervention trials and cohort studies must be conducted investigating the effects of smoking cessation, weight-loss and diet in HS severity to determine the integration of lifestyle medicine pillars in clinical practice. No correlations between smoking cessation and weight-loss with HS were established due to limited clinical evidence. Intervention trials beyond exclusionary diets need to be conducted to elucidate the role of nutrition in HS exacerbation and alleviation.
... One prospective cohort study (10) found an association between high-glycemic-index foods and longer acne duration, whereas two randomized controlled trials (11), (12) associated low-glycemicindex diet with reduced acne risk. ...
Background: In day to day life, person consumes an incompatible diet and faulty food habits which leads to most of the diseases. Yuvanapidaka (Acne vulgaris) is one of the common skin disease which is affected by faulty dietary intake.Aims and Objective: To conduct a survey study on faulty dietary habits in Acne vulgaris patients and to find out cause-effect relationship between them.Materials and Methods: Total 210 patients having signs and symptoms of Acne vulgaris were selected from NIA O.P.D., I.P.D., various camps in Jaipur & certain junk food outlets. Patients were screened on the basis of specially prepared questionnaires.Results: On survey study, 100% patients were consuming Junk food & dairy products & incompatible diet. Maximum no. of patients was taking high glycemic index diets which play an important role in aggravation of acne.Conclusion: Maximum prevalence of faulty dietary habits was found in patients. So it was concluded that dairy products, incompatible diets, high glycemic index diet, junk foods which is responsible for formation of acne vulgaris.Â
Akne Vulgaris (AV), birçok yaş grubunda görülmesine rağmen daha çok adölesan dönemindeki artışıyla dikkati çekmiştir. AV’ın inflamasyon, stres, travma, beslenme, püstül, kistik gibi birçok multifaktöriyel sebebi bulunmaktadır. AV’ın temelinde sebum üretiminin fazla olması, pilosebase foliküllerinin kronik inflamasyonu bulunmaktadır. Bu derlemenin amacı beslenmenin AV üzerinde beslenmenin etkisini çalışmaktır. Beden kütle indeksi (BKİ) ile AV arasında doğrudan ilişki gözlemlenememiştir fakat obezitenin yüksek insülin seviyesine etkisi nedeniyle AV’ı dolaylı şekilde tetikleyebilir. Düşük Glisemik İndeks (GI) değeri olan besin alımının AV’a sahip bireylerin lezyon miktar ve şiddetinde azalma olduğu görülmüştür. AV ve çikolata arasındaki ilişkiye bakıldığında ise daha fazla çalışmaya ihtiyaç duyulduğu görülmektedir. AV şikâyet düzeyi yüksek olan bireylerin sütten kısıtlı beslenmesi sonucunda AV şiddetinde azalması gözlemlenmiştir. Elzem yağ asitlerinden ise omega-3 (n- 3)’ten zengin beslenmenin AV şiddet düzeyini azalttığı bulunmuştur. AV hastası bireyde A vitamininin tüketimlerinin hastalığın tedavisinde destekleyici olabileceği bildirilmiştir. AV üzerinde beslenmenin etkisinin olduğu düşünülmektedir ancak yeni çalışmalara ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır.
Nutraceuticals, nutritional supplements, and the diet industry often provide misleading information, make faulty promises, and may also support profit over consumer safety. Furthermore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplements as a food, not as a drug. As health care providers, we must be aware of current trends in supplements and nutrition programs so that we can screen our patients for contraindications to aesthetic treatments and educate and promote specific supplements/programs that are safe and evidence-based. Oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and increased glycation can accelerate the aging process. The combination of an anti-inflammatory diet and pharmaceutical-grade nutritional supplements can impact the multiple forces involved in skin aging and help balance skin homeostasis. Using specific nutritional interventions and supplements can help repair damaged skin, improve skin health, and reduce skin senescence. Aesthetic providers can enhance healing and clinical results by educating patients and providing high-quality supplements that promote good aesthetic outcomes.
Any rational anesthesia strategy should focus on intraoperative and postoperative pain control. Adverse effects of opioids on the course of the early postoperative period are known. The aim of our study is to determine the correlations of acute postoperative pain with different types of anesthesia. Methods 203 patients who underwent abdominal plastic and bariatric surgery were under our observation; 113 (55.67%) of them are women and 90 (44.33%) are men; Among them, 154 patients underwent abdominoplasty, and 49 underwent bariatric surgery. Standard anesthesia with opioids was administered to 49 (24.14%) patients - group I, multimodal + partial use of opioids - group II: 76 (37.44%), multimodal anesthesia - 78 (38.42%) - group III. Results During anesthesia with opioids, compared to the second and third groups, the pain in the operative area, as well as in the head, throat, waist and ears is significantly higher. During multimodal anesthesia, pain is reliably less in all cases, and pain in the throat was not noted. Correlation analysis showed that opioid anesthesia was significantly correlated with postoperative pain,: Pain in the operated area - r=0.504**, p<0.001; Head pain - r=0.395**, p<0.001; Throat pain - r=0.301**, p<0.001Waist painr=0.320**, <0.001, Muscles pain - r=0.422**, p<0.001 whereas multimodal anesthesia was significantly negatively correlated with all types of postoperative pain. In the second phase, in the opioid anesthesia group, compared to the second group, there is significantly more pain in the lower back and muscles, and in the third group, there was no pain at all. The frequency of patients who did not require medical treatment during the intrahospital stage is not significantly different from each other, and the pain requiring non-opioid treatment is significantly less after multimodal anesthesia - Group I - 28(57.14%), Group II - 25(32.89%), Group III - 2(2.56)(p<0.0001). Pain requires opioid medication - Group I - 20(40.82)Group II – 19(25.00%), (p<0.0001). No patient in this group required opioid treatment. In the ambulatory stage, no patient in the multimodal anesthesia group needed medical treatment, and significantly fewer patients in group II needed non-opioid treatment. Conclusion Multimodal anesthesia reduces perioperative pain and the need for perioperative opioid use. Keywords: Postoperative pain, Multimodal anesthesia, perioperative opioid use.
Early diagnosis of various diseases significantly improves survival. However, more than half of these cases are diagnosed late due to the high demand for colonoscopy - the "gold standard" of screening. Colonoscopy is limited by the outdated design of conventional endoscopes due to the high complexity and cost of use. Magnetic endoscopes are a promising alternative and overcome the cost disadvantages, but their translational phase is difficult to achieve because magnetic manipulations are complex and unintuitive. In this work, we use machine vision to develop an intelligent and autonomous endoscope control that allows non-expert users to efficiently perform in vivo magnetic colonoscopy. We combine the use of robotics, computer vision, and advanced control to offer an intuitive and efficient endoscopic system. Furthermore, we define the characteristics required to achieve autonomy in robotic endoscopy. The paradigm described here can be applied to a variety of applications requiring navigation in an unstructured environment, such as catheters, pancreatic endoscopy, bronchoscopy, and gastroscopy. This work brings alternative endoscopic technologies closer to the translational stage, increasing the availability of early disease treatment. Keywords: endoscope models, portable, capsule, mobile systems, mobile devices, picture completeness, modern technology
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Objective Thyroglossal duct cysts are the most common congenital neck mass in the midline of the neck. Cystic formations develop due to the partial or complete lack of obliteration of the thyroglossal duct. It may lead to transformation to malignancy, although rarely. Our study aims to discuss the outcomes, examination findings, clinical features, and treatment methods of 51 patients operated on for thyroglossal duct cysts to contribute to the literature. Methods The 51 cases that underwent surgery (Sistrunk, Cystectomy, Thyroidectomy) with a preliminary diagnosis of thyroglossal duct cyst in ENT and HNS clinics were evaluated retrospectively. The patient's sociodemographic data, main complaints, examination findings, diagnostic methods, surgical techniques, recurrence and complication rates after treatment, and pathology results were analyzed in this study. Results Of the 51 patients, 35 (69%) were adults, and 16 (31%) were children. The most common reason 40 (78%) for admission was swelling in the midline of the neck, less commonly 8 (16%) swelling under the chin, 4 (8%) of patients with an average follow-up of 28 months (max 32; min 8; SD 3 months) were performed revision operations. Surgical treatment has consisted of the Sistrunk procedure (n = 47; 92%), cystectomy (n = 4; 8%), or thyroidectomy (n = 1; 2%). Papillary thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in 2 (4%) patients, and medullary thyroid carcinoma was in 1 (2%) in our cases. They were no significant differences in gender and age, sociodemographics data. Conclusion Thyroglossal duct cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a swelling in the midline of the neck. The sistrunk operation, a safe surgical procedure with the least recurrence rate and a low risk of complications, is recommended as surgical treatment. Keywords: Thyroglossal duct cyst, Midline neck mass, Sistrunk operation
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Serum was collected at intervals from postmenopausal breast cancer patients to determine the effects of tamoxifen adjuvant therapy and a low-fat dietary intervention, alone and in combination, on sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations and circulating estradiol bioavailability. Serum corticosteroid-binding globulin and follicle-stimulating hormone were also assayed as indicators of patient compliance to tamoxifen therapy. The immunoreactive SHBG concentration was higher (P less than 0.001) in 22 patients who had been treated with tamoxifen for 6-36 weeks when first sampled, compared with 27 who were not receiving tamoxifen therapy. Tamoxifen also produced a reduction in the percentage non-protein-bound estradiol (P less than 0.001) and percentage albumin-bound estradiol (P less than 0.01), the two biologically available fractions, and a corresponding increase in the percentage SHBG-bound estradiol (P less than 0.01). A longitudinal study of 7 patients showed significant reductions in the percentage of albumin-bound estradiol and an increased percentage of SHBG-bound estradiol, after 3-6 months of tamoxifen; after 12-18 months there was also a significant decrease in the non-protein-bound estradiol fraction. We conclude that in postmenopausal breast cancer patients the redistribution of circulating estradiol, with reduced bioavailability, provides an additional mechanism to those demonstrated previously for the therapeutic activity of tamoxifen. Another 12 patients receiving tamoxifen and 8 who were not were followed for 6-12 months on a low-fat diet (fat comprised 20% of the total calories). The dietary intervention had no effect on the serum SHBG concentration or the estradiol distribution. Although tamoxifen increased the serum corticosteroid-binding globulin and partially suppressed the follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations, the responses obtained were less consistent compared with those of the SHBG levels.
Several observations suggest that GH stimulates sebaceous gland growth and development. Therefore, we studied the effects of GH and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), alone and with androgen, on sebaceous epithelial cell (sebocyte) growth and differentiation in vitro. The rat preputial cell culture model system was used to judge differentiation (induction of lipid-forming colonies, LFCs) and DNA synthesis. GH increased sebocyte differentiation. At a dose of 10−8 m in the presence of micromolar insulin, GH was 3.8 times more potent than IGF-I (38.1 ± 4.2%, sem, vs. 10 ± 1.5% LFCs) and 6 times more potent than IGF-II (6 ± 0.5% LFCs). IGF-I 10−8 m alone stimulated a similar amount of differentiation as insulin 10−6 m, although it was less effective than insulin in augmenting the effect of GH on differentiation. GH had no effect on sebocyte uptake of 3H-thymidine at doses up to 10−6 m. On the other hand, IGF-I was the most potent stimulus of DNA synthesis (168% of control; P < 0.001 vs. all others). IGF-II 1...
In the pathogenesis of acne, androgen hormones play a crucial role. In the treatment of acne, hormonal therapies provide valuable alternatives to standard modalities in selected women. Although numerous factors contribute to the development of acne, the requirement for androgens is absolute and is one that allows for effective treatments in women through inhibition of androgen expression. The two prerequisites for androgen expression at the level of the pilosebaceous unit are (i) the presence of androgen in the form of either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone; and (ii) functioning androgen receptors. A third component may be the metabolism of androgen precursors to active androgens within pilosebaceous units. Hormonal treatment of hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, androgenetic alopecia) such as that seen in polycystic ovary syndrome, centers on (i) reduction of circulating androgen levels and (ii) androgen receptor blockade. Combination oral contraceptives represent the primary treatment modality for reducing circulating androgens from ovarian and, to a lesser degree, adrenal sources. Newer formulations may also have clinically significant androgen receptor blocking and 5α-reductase inhibiting effects. Newer oral contraceptives have high safety profiles and are used widely internationally for this purpose. Androgen receptor blockers currently in use include spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, and flutamide. Androgen receptor blockers are frequently combined with oral contraceptives to achieve optimal results in selected women. In women with adrenal hyperplasia, low-dose corticosteroids may be added to reduce adrenal androgen precursors. Inhibition of enzymes of androgen metabolism in the pilosebaceous unit remain largely investigational in the treatment of acne, although the benefit of 5a-reductase (type 2) inhibition is established in androgenetic alopecia in men. This article reviews the essentials of hormonal influence in acne pathogenesis, discusses the hormonal therapies most utilized in the treatment of acne, and the pre-treatment evaluation of women in whom hormonal therapies are being considered.
• Female patients with varying grades of acne were examined to determine whether free testosterone levels were a more sensitive indicator of hyperandrogenism than total testosterone values. Of 24 women with acne studied, four were found to have elevated total testosterone levels, whereas 11 had elevated free testosterone levels. Twenty-four age-matched female control subjects without acne, hirsutism, or irregular menstrual cycles all had normal free and total testosterone values. The mean concentration of free testosterone in the patients with acne was 1.035 ng/dL, while in the control subjects it was 0.54 ng/dL. Other than hirsutism in three patients with acne with elevated free testosterone levels, there were no morphologic clues identified to determine which patients with acne are more likely to have abnormal free testosterone levels. The free testosterone level did not correlate with the type, distribution, or severity of the acne present in the patients. (Arch Dermatol 1983;119:799-802)
Concentrations of total and weakly bound plasma estradiol were significantly (P <.01) reduced in 73 healthy postmenopausal women after 10–22 weeks of participation in a low-fat diet intervention program. Nonsignificant reductions in estrone sulfate and sex hormone-binding protein were also observed. The 17% reduction in average estradiol concentration was accompanied by an average reduction of 12 mg/dL in total plasma cholesterol (P <.001), an average weight loss of 3.4 kg (P <.001), and an average reduction in daily dietary fat from 68.5 to 29.5 g. Our review of case-control studies indicates that a 17% reduction in plasma estradiol may explain a noteworthy component of the international variation in breast cancer incidence. We find a need for further studies of (a) disease risk in relation to hormone concentrations and (b) changes in hormone concentrations as a function of the duration of low-fat diet intervention. [J Natl Cancer Inst 82: 129–134, 1990]
Dietary factors are known to modulate concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In the present study we have investigated the possibility that insulin like growth factor-type I (IGF-I) may be an additional regulator of SHBG using cultured human hepatoma cells which secrete SHBG. The inhibitory effect of insulin on SHBG secretion by these cells was confirmed but, in addition, IGF-I was shown to inhibit SHBG secretion by about 40% at a concentration of 100 nmol/l. A similar degree of inhibition was achieved using insulin at a concentration of 10 mumol/l. Insulin, but not IGF-I, was also found to inhibit the secretion of a low molecular weight IGF-binding protein (IBP-I), which is also secreted by hepatoma cells. It is concluded that IGF-I is an additional regulator of SHBG secretion by these cells and that it may be involved in regulating SHBG secretion in vivo in response to dietary factors.