Mapping of a Gene for Alopecia with Mental Retardation Syndrome (APMR3) on Chromosome 18q11.2-q12.2

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States
Annals of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 2.21). 10/2007; 71(Pt 5):570-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00362.x
Source: PubMed


Alopecia with mental retardation syndrome (APMR) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by total or partial absence of hair from the scalp and other parts of the body and associated with mental retardation. Previously, we have reported the mapping of two alopecia and mental retardation genes (APMR1 and APMR2) on human chromosome 3. In the present study, after excluding both of these loci through linkage analysis, a whole genome scan was performed by genotyping 396 polymorphic microsatellite markers located on 22 autosomes and the X and Y chromosomes. A disease locus was mapped to a 10.9 cM region, flanked by markers D18S866 and D18S811, on chromosome 18q11.2-q12.2. A maximum two-point LOD score of 3.03 at theta= 0.0 was obtained with marker D18S1102. Multipoint linkage analysis resulted in maximum LOD scores of 4.03 with several markers in the candidate region. According to the Rutgers combined linkage-physical map of the human genome (build 36) this region covers 12.17 Mb. DNA sequence analysis of nine candidate genes including DSC3, DSC1, DSG1, DSG4, DSG3, ZNF397, ZNF271, ZNF24 and ZNF396 did not reveal any sequence variants in the affected individuals of the family presented here.

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Available from: Ghazanfar Ali, Nov 04, 2014
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    • "To further identify critical residues within the ZF1 and ZF2 region, we further mutated the serine, threonine or tyrosine residues within this region (Figure 5A), since these residues were potential targets for posttranslational modifications or interaction with importins that would contribute to nuclear transport[25,33,34]. However, we tested cellular localization of the mutants and found that none of the mutations affected the nuclear localization of ZNF24 (Figure 5B). "
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    ABSTRACT: ZNF24 is a member of the SCAN domain family of Krüppel-like zinc finger (ZF) transcription factors, which plays a critical role in cell proliferation and differentiation. However, how ZNF24 enters the nucleus in order to exert its function remains unclear since its nuclear localization signal(s) (NLS) has not been identified. Here, we generated a series of GFP-tagged deletion and point mutants and assessed their subcellular localization. Our results delimit the NLS to ZF1-2. Deletion of ZF1-2 caused cytoplasmic accumulation of ZNF24. Fusion of the ZF1-2 to green fluorescent protein (GFP) targeted GFP to the nucleus, demonstrating that the ZF1-2 is both necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization. ZNF24 containing histidine to leucine mutations that disrupt the structure of ZF1 or/and ZF2 retains appropriate nuclear localization, indicating that neither the tertiary structure of the zinc fingers nor specific DNA binding are necessary for nuclear localization. K286A and R290A mutation led to partial cytoplasmic accumulation. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that ZNF24 interacted with importin-β and this interaction required the ZF motifs. The β-Catenin (CTNNB1) luciferase assays showed that the ZNF24 mutants defective in nuclear localization could not promote CTNNB1promoter activation as the wild-type ZNF24 did. Taken together, these results suggest that consecutive ZF1-2 is critical for the regulation of ZNF24 nuclear localization and its transactivation function.
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive hypotrichosis is a rare form of human genetic disorder characterized by sparse to absent hair on scalp and rest of the body of affected individuals. Over the past few years at least five autosomal recessive forms of hypotrichosis loci have been mapped on different human chromosomes. In the present study, we report localization of another novel autosomal recessive hypotrichosis locus on human chromosome 10q11.23-22.3 in a four generation consanguineous Pakistani family. All the four patients in the family showed typical features of hereditary hypotrichosis including sparse hair on the scalp and rest of the body. Human genome scan using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers mapped the disease locus to a large region on chromosome 10. This novel locus maps to 29.81 cM (28.5 Mb) region, flanked by markers D10S538 and D10S2327 on chromosome 10q11.23-22.3. A maximum multipoint LOD score of 3.26 was obtained with several markers in this region. DNA sequence analysis of exons and splice-junction sites of four putative candidate genes (P4HA1, ZNF365, ZMYND17, MYST4), located in the linkage interval, were sequenced but were negative for functional sequence variants.
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