Article

Comparison of bioactivity between GSM 900 MHz and DCS 1800 MHz mobile telephony radiation

Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, University of Athens. Athens. Greece.
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.19). 02/2007; 26(1):33-44. DOI: 10.1080/15368370701205644
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of studies find that pulsed Radio Frequency (RF), electromagnetic radiation of both systems of digital mobile telephony, established and commonly used in Europe during the last years, GSM 900 MHz (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) and DCS 1800 MHz (Digital Cellular System), exert intense biological action on different organisms and cells (Hardell et al., 2006; Hyland, 2000; Kundi, 2004; Panagopoulos et al., 2004, 2007). The two types of cellular telephony radiation use different carrier frequencies and give different frequency spectra, but they usually also differ in intensity, as GSM 900 MHz antennas operate at about double the power output than the corresponding DCS 1800 MHz ones. In our present experiments, we used a model biological system, the reproductive capacity of Drosophila melanogaster, to compare the biological activity between the two systems of cellular mobile telephony radiation. Both types of radiation were found to decrease significantly and non thermally the insect's reproductive capacity, but GSM 900 MHz seems to be even more bioactive than DCS 1800 MHz. The difference seems to be dependent mostly on field intensity and less on carrier frequency.

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    • "The daily " exposures " of the SE groups were continuous during 6 min, since preliminary experiments had already shown that there is no statistically important difference in reproductive capacity between SE groups of different shamexposure patterns (data not shown). Each group consisted of nine male and nine female newly eclosed insects, as described before [9] [32] [33]. The mean power density measured for the 6-min speaking emission with the mobile phone antenna being in contact with the glass wall was 0.35 ± 0.07 mW/cm 2 . "
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study we used a 6-min daily exposure of dipteran flies, Drosophila melanogaster, to GSM-900MHz (Global System for Mobile Telecommunications) mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR), to compare the effects between the continuous and four different intermittent exposures of 6min total duration, and also to test whether intermittent exposure provides any cumulative effects on the insect's reproductive capacity as well as on the induction of apoptotic cell death. According to our previous experiments, a 6-min continuous exposure per day for 5 days to GSM-900MHz and DCS-1800MHz (Digital Cellular System) mobile phone radiation, brought about a large decrease in the insect's reproductive capacity, as defined by the number of F(1) pupae. This decrease was found to be non-thermal and correlated with an increased percentage of induced fragmented DNA in the egg chambers' cells at early- and mid-oogenesis. In the present experiments we show that intermittent exposure also decreases the reproductive capacity and alters the actin-cytoskeleton network of the egg chambers, another known aspect of cell death that was not investigated in previous experiments, and that the effect is also due to DNA fragmentation. Intermittent exposures with 10-min intervals between exposure sessions proved to be almost equally effective as continuous exposure of the same total duration, whereas longer intervals between the exposures seemed to allow the organism the time required to recover and partly overcome the above-mentioned effects of the GSM exposure.
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    • "Thus one interpretation of this study and those on house sparrows is that the electromagnetic fields may discourage some bird species from breeding there or alternatively might encourage other species to build their nests in the areas with higher RF EMF fields. It may be noted in this regard that there is some evidence that electromagnetic fields may modify the reproductive behaviour of insects (see for examplePanagopoulos et al. 2007) that serve as food sources for various bird populations. Radio telemetry is increasingly used to track species in the wild. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this opinion is to update the SCENIHR opinion of 21 March 2007 in the light of newly available information, and to provide a methodological framework and corresponding guidelines to evaluate available scientific evidence in order to ensure the best possible quality for risk assessment. 1. Update Radio frequency fields (RF fields) It is concluded from three independent lines of evidence (epidemiological, animal and in vitro studies) that exposure to RF fields is unlikely to lead to an increase in cancer in humans. However, as the widespread duration of exposure of humans to RF fields from mobile phones is shorter than the induction time of some cancers, further studies are required to identify whether considerably longer-term (well beyond ten years) human exposure to such phones might pose some cancer risk. Regarding non-carcinogenic outcomes, several studies were performed on subjects reporting subjective symptoms. In the previous opinion, it was concluded that scientific studies had failed to provide support for a relationship between RF exposure and selfreported symptoms. Although an association between RF exposure and single symptoms was indicated in some new studies, taken together, there is a lack of consistency in the findings. Therefore, the conclusion that scientific studies have failed to provide support for an effect of RF fields on self-reported symptoms still holds. Scientific studies have indicated that a nocebo effect (an adverse non-specific effect that is caused by expectation or belief that something is harmful) may play a role in symptom formation. As in the previous opinion, there is no evidence supporting that individuals, including those attributing symptoms to RF exposure, are able to detect RF fields. There is some evidence that RF fields can influence EEG patterns and sleep in humans. However, the health relevance is uncertain and mechanistic explanation is lacking. Further investigation of these effects is needed. Other studies on functions/aspects of the nervous system, such as cognitive functions, sensory functions, structural stability, and cellular responses show no or no consistent effects. Recent studies have not shown effects from RF fields on human or animal reproduction and development. No new data have appeared that indicate any other effects on human health. From the risk assessment perspective it is important to recognise that information on possible effects caused by RF fields in children is limited. Furthermore, there is a lack of information on diseases other than those discussed in this report. Intermediate frequency fields (IF fields) Occupational exposure to IF fields in certain areas is considerably higher than exposure to the general public. However, very little research on IF and health risks in occupational settings or for the general public have been presented since the previous opinion, and no epidemiological studies have appeared. Consequently, the data are still too limited for an appropriate risk assessment. In view of the increasing occupational exposure to IF among workers in e.g. security, shops, and certain industries it is important that research in this area is given priority. Extremely low frequency fields (ELF fields) The few new epidemiological and animal studies that have addressed ELF exposure and cancer do not change the previous assessment that ELF magnetic fields are a possible carcinogen and might contribute to an increase in childhood leukaemia. At present, in vitro studies did not provide a mechanistic explanation of this epidemiological finding. No new studies support a causal relationship between ELF fields and self-reported symptoms. Health Effects of Exposure to EMF 5 New epidemiological studies indicate a possible increase in Alzheimer's disease arising from exposure to ELF. Further epidemiological and laboratory investigations of this observation are needed. Recent animal studies provided an indication for effects on the nervous system at flux densities from 0.10-1.0 mT. However, there are still inconsistencies in the data, and no definite conclusions can be drawn concerning human health effects. Very few recent in vitro studies have investigated effects from ELF fields on diseases other than cancer and those available have very little relevance. There is a need for hypothesis-based in vitro studies to examine specific diseases. It is notable that in vivo and in vitro studies show effects at exposure levels (from 0.10 mT and above) to ELF fields that are considerably higher than the levels encountered in the epidemiological studies (μT-levels) which showed an association between exposure and diseases such as childhood leukaemia and Alzheimer's disease. This warrants further investigation. Static fields Although a fair number of studies have been published since the last opinion, the conclusion drawn there stands: there is still a lack of adequate data for a proper risk assessment of static magnetic fields. More research is necessary, especially to clarify the many mixed and sometimes contradictory results. Short term effects have been observed primarily on sensory functions for acute exposure. However, there is no consistent evidence for sustained adverse health effects from short term exposure up to several teslas. Environmental effects The current database is inadequate for the purposes of the assessment of possible risks due to environmental exposure to RF, IF and ELF. Research recommendations The scientific rationale has identified a number of areas characterised by insufficient and contradictory information regarding possible health associated effects from the various frequency bands of the EMF spectrum. It is recommended that certain knowledge gaps are filled. 2. Methodological Framework The SCENIHR is asked to provide a methodological framework and corresponding guidelines to evaluate available scientific evidence in order to ensure the best possible quality for risk assessment. The subject is covered in detail in chapter 3.8 of the opinion. The present opinion provides a methodological framework and guidelines as: - a general outline of criteria used for making EMF health risk assessment - a description of the work procedure leading to the overall evaluation - a specialised section where characteristics and quality criteria regarding dosimetry and exposure assessment, epidemiology, human laboratory studies, in vivo studies, and in vitro studies are presented.
    Full-text · Book · Jan 2009
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    ABSTRACT: A review on the impact of radiofrequency radiation from wireless telecommunications on wildlife is presented. Electromagnetic radiation is a form of environmental pollution which may hurt wildlife. Phone masts located in their living areas are irradiating continuously some species that could suffer long-term effects, like reduction of their natural defenses, deterioration of their health, problems in reproduction and reduction of their useful territory through habitat deterioration. Electromagnetic radiation can exert an aversive behavioral response in rats, bats and birds such as sparrows. Therefore microwave and radiofrequency pollution constitutes a potential cause for the decline of animal populations and deterioration of health of plants living near phone masts. To measure these effects urgent specific studies are necessary.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Pathophysiology
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