Outbreak of norovirus in Vastra Gotland associated with recreational activities at two lakes during August 2004
University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, SwedenInfectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 1.5). 02/2007; 39(4):323-31. DOI: 10.1080/00365540601053006
A large community outbreak of norovirus (NV) gastrointestinal infection occurred in Västra Götaland County, Sweden in August 2004, following attendance at recreational lakes. A frequency age-matched case control study was undertaken of persons who had attended these lakes to identify risk factors. 163 cases and 329 controls were included. Analysis indicates that having water in the mouth while swimming (OR=4.7; 95% CI 1.1-20.2), attendance at the main swimming area at Delsjön Lake (OR=25.5; 95% CI 2.5-263.8), taking water home from a fresh water spring near Delsjön lake (OR=17.3; 95% CI 2.7-110.7) and swimming less than 20 m from shore (OR=13.4; 95% CI 2.0-90.2) were significant risk factors. The probable vehicle was local contamination of the lake water (especially at the main swimming area). The source of contamination could not be determined.
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ABSTRACT: Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in all age groups. They efficiently circulate in both clinical and environmental contexts. In this study, real-time RT-PCR methods based on TaqMan probe technology were used to enumerate human noroviruses (genogroups I and II) in clinical samples, and in estuarine, seawater and sewage water samples, with the aim of obtaining quantitative information on the level of viral contamination. This was achieved through a quantitative analysis of the highly conserved region between ORF1 and ORF2, using genogroup-specific assays. RNA standards used to construct calibration curves for the two genogroups were generated by in vitro transcription from recombinant pCR4TOPO vectors containing a partial sequence coding for RdRp polymerase. Sewages were found to contain from 6.8×102 to 6.7×104 genome copies (GC) per millilitre; seawater samples contained from 7.6×101 to 2.4×103 per 10l. As for clinical samples, the concentrations of NoVs per gram of stool varied, ranging from 6.1×103 to 1.4×108. Real-time PCR is an easy to use, sensitive and specific tool able to generate quantitative data, and could prove useful in both environmental and clinical settings.
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ABSTRACT: Room temperature vulcanization (RTV) silicone rubber is one of the new materials for outdoor insulators especially for high-contaminated areas. Before applying the material in a tropical region like Indonesia it is important to investigate the effects of the tropical climate on the properties of the materials. We have investigated the aging of RTV silicone rubber with various filler contents in Bandung for 120 weeks. There were two groups of samples. The first group was directly exposed to weather while the other one was laid under a shielding which prevented direct exposure of UV radiation, pollution and rain. During the aging we measured the hydrophobicity (contact angle), permittivity, tan δ, and loss of weight. The investigation results indicated that samples exposed to outside climate directly showed better hydrophobicity, but greater changes of permittivity, tan δ and weight were observed. Water absorption played an important role in the change of permittivity and tan δ. The removal of water by drying was able to restore the permittivity and tan δ almost to the original values. RTV with higher filler content showed higher ability to resist the surface degradation. Analysis of the residual weight may be used to calculate expected lifetime of the material in service under tropical condition
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