Article

The Effects of Massage on Intra Muscular Temperature in the Vastus Lateralis in Humans

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Abstract

The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of different durations of massage, and ultrasound treatment, on the temperature of the vastus lateralis muscle in males. Deep effleurage massage of the vastus lateralis was performed on seven healthy males (mean +/- SD; age; 28 +/- 4 years, height 1.84 +/- 0.05 m, body mass 85.7 +/- 12 kg) for 5, 10 and 15 min periods. A 5-min period of ultrasound at 45 KHz was also completed by all subjects. Intra muscular temperature (at 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 cm) and thigh skin temperature were assessed pre and post treatment. Heart rate was monitored continuously throughout all conditions. Pre treatment intra muscular temperature increased as depth of measurement increased (p = 0.00002). Changes in muscle temperature at 1.5 and 2.5 cm were significantly greater following massage than ultrasound (p < 0.002). No significant differences between massage treatments and ultrasound were noted when intra muscular temperature was measured at 3.5 cm (p > 0.05). Massage also significantly increased both heart rate and thigh skin temperature compared to ultrasound (p < 0.005). Increases in intra muscular temperature, heart rate and thigh skin temperature were the same irrespective of massage duration. These data suggest that massage and ultrasound have only limited effects on deep muscle temperature. As a result such approaches may not be suitable as a preparation strategy for exercise.

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... Therapeutic massage is believed to increase muscle mass blood flow and muscle tissue temperature [1], thereby enhancing performance [2]. It is also reduces cells adhesion and increase muscles flexibility [3,4] which could help to decrease injury risk factors [5]. ...
... Longworth [18] reported an increase in pores and skin temperature during a six-minute back again massage, but skin heat returned to baseline level after ten minutes. Later, Drust, Atkinson, Gregson, French and Binningsley [1] reported an increase in skin and intramuscular temperature (2. 5 cm) of the Vastus lateralis muscle irrespective of the massage period (5-10 and 12-15 minutes of Effleurage). Although it was revealed that massage boosts skin [18] and intramuscular temperature [1], such effects upon skin and intramuscular temp might not be relevant to muscle blood circulation. ...
... Later, Drust, Atkinson, Gregson, French and Binningsley [1] reported an increase in skin and intramuscular temperature (2. 5 cm) of the Vastus lateralis muscle irrespective of the massage period (5-10 and 12-15 minutes of Effleurage). Although it was revealed that massage boosts skin [18] and intramuscular temperature [1], such effects upon skin and intramuscular temp might not be relevant to muscle blood circulation. ...
Article
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Many coaches, athletes, and sports medicine professionals hold the perception, based on observations and encounters, that massage can provide several benefits to the body. These include improved blood flow, reduced muscle pressure and neurological excitability, and increased sense of well being. Massage can produce mechanical pressure, which is expected to increase muscle mass, compliance, resulting in increased collection of joint motion, decreased unaggressive stiffness, and decreased energetic stiffness, known as biomechanical mechanisms. Mechanised pressure might help to enhance blood circulation by increasing the arteriolar pressure, and accumulating muscle tissue temperature from rubbing. Regarding the massage technique, mechanical pressure on the muscle is likely to increase or decrease nerve organs excitability as measured by H-reflex, which is known as neurological mechanisms. This is seen in parasympathetic activity (as assessed by heart rate, blood pressure, and heart rate variability) and junk levels (as simply measured by cortisol levels following therapeutic massage, causing a relaxation response), known as physiological mechanisms. A reduction in anxiety and an improvement in mood condition also cause relaxation, which is referred to as psychological mechanisms after the massage. Post-exercise, therapeutic massage has been recognized to lessen the severity of muscle soreness, but massage does not have any effects on muscle practical loss. Nevertheless, regarding the belief that massage therapy has benefits for sports athletes, there are no clear effects of different types of massage (Petrissage, Effleurage, Friction) or the appropriate timing of massage (pre-exercise and post-exercise) on performance, recovery from injury, or as a personal injury prevention method. Explanations are lacking because the mechanisms of each massage technique have not been broadly investigated. Therefore, this article investigates the possible mechanisms of massage and provides a discourse on the limited evidence of therapeutic massage on performance, recovery, and muscle injury prevention. The main purpose of this article is to examine mechanisms of massage and its benefits in performance, muscle recovery, and injury prevention. This study may help coaches, sport and health professionals, and researchers to understand massage mechanisms and benefits for performance, muscle recovery, and injury prevention.
... The relationship between massage and an increase in surface temperature has been confirmed by previous research. Several studies have shown that massage via the rubbing of the skin and the subcutaneous tissues increases the local skin and intramuscular temperature and leads to hyperaemia [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. It has been reported that even a 6-minute massage of the back significantly increased the area's temperature, which returned to pre-massage levels after 10 minutes [11]. ...
... Several studies have shown that massage via the rubbing of the skin and the subcutaneous tissues increases the local skin and intramuscular temperature and leads to hyperaemia [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. It has been reported that even a 6-minute massage of the back significantly increased the area's temperature, which returned to pre-massage levels after 10 minutes [11]. ...
... First, the positive effects of massage on skin temperature seem to subside relatively quickly [10]. Second, the increase in intramuscular temperature does not seem to exceed 2.5 points in muscle depth, meaning that it does not significantly affect the main vessels of the muscle [11]. ...
Chapter
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Participation in sports, in addition to its positive effects, leads to injuries caused by contact with the opponent or the high loads that develop on the musculoskeletal structures during the sports activities. Sports injuries mainly include (a) acute injuries such as muscle strains and ligament sprains, tendon injuries, dislocations and subluxations, fractures, and skin injuries but also (b) overuse injuries such as tendinopathies and painful myofascial syndromes. Many therapeutic techniques are used to treat these injuries, such as therapeutic exercise, various electrotherapy procedures and soft tissue techniques. Soft tissue techniques aim to promote health and well-being through their mechanical effects on the body’s soft tissues such as friction, compression, tissues sliding and myofascial release. Sports soft-tissue procedures are applied either directly with the hands of therapists such as classical massage or with the use of special equipment such as tools made of stainless steel (ERGON instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization), elastic ischemic bandages (Kinetic flossing technique) and cups (cupping therapy). The following chapter analyzes the therapeutic effects of the above therapeutic interventions by presenting recent scientific evidence that supports their effects on the soft tissue’s dysfunctions of the human body and various pathological conditions.
... Technological advances allowed investigation of changes occurring at the physiological level ( Table 2). For instance, cutaneous temperature attesting changes in peripheral blood circulation was frequently collected (Drust et al., 2003;Hinds et al., 2004;Mori et al., 2004). It thus became possible to evaluate muscle temperature (Drust et al., 2003;Hinds et al., 2004), speed of blood circulation (Tiidus and Shoemaker, 1995;Hinds et al., 2004;Mori et al., 2004;Wiltshire et al., 2010), and blood pressure (Hinds et al., 2004;Arroyo-Morales et al., 2008;Wiltshire et al., 2010; Table 2). ...
... For instance, cutaneous temperature attesting changes in peripheral blood circulation was frequently collected (Drust et al., 2003;Hinds et al., 2004;Mori et al., 2004). It thus became possible to evaluate muscle temperature (Drust et al., 2003;Hinds et al., 2004), speed of blood circulation (Tiidus and Shoemaker, 1995;Hinds et al., 2004;Mori et al., 2004;Wiltshire et al., 2010), and blood pressure (Hinds et al., 2004;Arroyo-Morales et al., 2008;Wiltshire et al., 2010; Table 2). Some researchers also investigated the repercussions of MM on the activation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems through monitoring of heart rate variability (Hemmings et al., 2000;Drust et al., 2003;Robertson et al., 2004;Arroyo-Morales et al., 2008;Wiltshire et al., 2010;Pinar et al., 2012; Table 2). ...
... It thus became possible to evaluate muscle temperature (Drust et al., 2003;Hinds et al., 2004), speed of blood circulation (Tiidus and Shoemaker, 1995;Hinds et al., 2004;Mori et al., 2004;Wiltshire et al., 2010), and blood pressure (Hinds et al., 2004;Arroyo-Morales et al., 2008;Wiltshire et al., 2010; Table 2). Some researchers also investigated the repercussions of MM on the activation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems through monitoring of heart rate variability (Hemmings et al., 2000;Drust et al., 2003;Robertson et al., 2004;Arroyo-Morales et al., 2008;Wiltshire et al., 2010;Pinar et al., 2012; Table 2). More invasive procedures, such as biopsies and blood sampling, enable measures of changes in cortisol levels, markers of inflammation and metabolic products (Kaada and Torsteinb, 1989;Smith et al., 1994;Leivadi et al., 1999;Hemmings et al., 2000;Hilbert et al., 2003;Hinds et al., 2004;Robertson et al., 2004;Zainuddin et al., 2005;Ogai et al., 2008;Cupido, 2010;Rapaport et al., 2010;Wiltshire et al., 2010;Crane et al., 2012;Pinar et al., 2012;Iwamoto et al., 2016;Kargarfard et al., 2016;White et al., 2020; Table 2). ...
Article
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Manual massage and foam rolling are commonly used by athletes for warm-up and recovery, as well as by healthy individuals for well-being. Manual massage is an ancient practice requiring the intervention of an experienced physiotherapist, while foam rolling is a more recent self-administered technique. These two topics have been largely studied in isolation from each other. In the present review, we first provide a deep quantitative literature analysis to gather the beneficial effects of each technique through an integrative account, as well as their psychometric and neurophysiological evaluations. We then conceptually consider the motor control strategies induced by each type of massage. During manual massage, the person remains passive, lying on the massage table, and receives unanticipated manual pressure by the physiotherapist, hence resulting in a retroactive mode of action control with an ongoing central integration of proprioceptive feedback. In contrast, while performing foam rolling, the person directly exerts pressures through voluntary actions to manipulate the massaging tool, therefore through a predominant proactive mode of action control, where operations of forward and inverse modeling do not require sensory feedback. While these opposite modes of action do not seem to offer any compromise, we then discuss whether technological advances and collaborative robots might reconcile proactive and retroactive modes of action control during a massage, and offer new massage perspectives through a stochastic sensorimotor user experience. This transition faculty, from one mode of control to the other, might definitely represent an innovative conceptual approach in terms of human-machine interactions.
... Drugą kategorię stanowią efekty fi zjologiczne: zwiększenie przepływu krwi w skórze i mięśniach, normalizacja funkcji układu wegetatywnego i zwiększenie wydzielania niektórych hormonów, np. endorfi n lub kortyzolu, jak również obniżenie ciśnienia tętniczego krwi [3][4][5][6][7][8]. Kolejna kategoria to efekty neurologiczne takie jak normalizacja pobudliwości ośrodków regulujących napięcie spoczynkowe mięśni czy obniżenie poziomu bólu [9,10]. ...
... Tym samym można przyjąć, że czynnik mechaniczny w formie masażu, działając przez odkształcanie włókien kolagenowych, powoduje zmiany w komórkach otoczonych przez te włókna. of certain hormones, e.g. endorphins and cortisol, as well as lowering blood pressure [3][4][5][6][7][8]. Another category is the neurological effects, such as normalization of excitability of the centres regulating the muscle tone or reduction of the level of pain [9,10]. ...
Article
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Massage as a mechanical factor acting on the human body has long been used in the prophylaxis, treatment and restoration of functions when they were disturbed. Its effects on the body have not been explicitly confirmed and require further research. Mechanotransduction may be a potential mechanism of massage action. It is understood as a process in which the mechanical element is converted intracellularly into various types of electrical and chemical signals. Massage action consists primarily of the deformation of the connective tissue which is a component of various anatomical structures. During deformation of these structures, there comes to tension within the limits of their elasticity and thus to the transfer of pulling force via the integrins on the fibres forming the cell cytoskeleton inducing complex cellular reactions. They can be characterized by rapid changes occurring in tissues on hormonal basis or be of long-lasting nature consisting of the expression of growth factors initiating tissue structural adaptation to the changed external conditions.
... Another potential explanation may be that muscle stiffness decreased as a result of increased intramuscular temperature (Eriksson Crommert et al., 2015;Mori et al., 2004;Portillo-Soto et al., 2014). A previous study has shown that a short massage intervention of 10 min led to an increase in intramuscular temperature of the vastus lateralis muscle by 3 K at 1.5 cm depth (Drust et al., 2003). Drust et al. (2003) explain this change mainly by the mechanical manipulation of the tissue. ...
... A previous study has shown that a short massage intervention of 10 min led to an increase in intramuscular temperature of the vastus lateralis muscle by 3 K at 1.5 cm depth (Drust et al., 2003). Drust et al. (2003) explain this change mainly by the mechanical manipulation of the tissue. Foam roller devices also apply pressure and friction to the underlying tissue and should have the potential to achieve similar results. ...
Article
Free access until Oct 29, 2019: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1ZiJD_5NOMFgt There is increasing evidence that subjects who are exposed to long sitting periods suffer from musculoskeletal discomfort and back pain. The underlying mechanism and effective prevention strategies are still largely unknown. In this study, muscle stiffness of the back was measured in 59 office workers who followed their usual desk work regime for 4.5 h in a sitting posture. The sitting period was either followed by an 8-min roller massage intervention or a controlled standing task. Results showed that muscle stiffness increased significantly after the 4.5 h sitting period. When the sitting period was followed by roller massage, the stiffness values dropped slightly below baseline stiffness. In contrast, the stiffness values remained increased when the sitting period was followed by controlled standing. This study indicates that short-duration tissue manipulation can be an effective active break between prolonged sitting periods to prevent musculoskeletal issues, such as musculoskeletal discomfort and back pain.
... 112 Stretching has been shown to increase flexibility. 113 Research has shown that massage can increase muscle blood flow, 114 muscle temperature, 115 and muscle flexibility, and reduce tissue adhesion. 116,117 The benefits of such preexercise activities might help to reduce injury risk factors. ...
... No published studies have reported the effects of pre-exercise massage on the severity of muscle damage. Massage can increase muscle temperature 115 and blood flow 114 , which might help to increase muscle compliance and reduce muscle stiffness. Nevertheless, the only research on the effects of massage on passive stiffness did not support this claim. ...
Article
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Eccentric exercise is part of regular rehabilitation and sports training. Unaccustomed eccentric exercise causes muscle damage that presents as delayed soreness, strength and range of motion loss, swelling, and increased passive stiffness. These symptoms reduce the ability to exercise and might be harmful if further exercise is continued. Several interventions such as warm-up, stretching, massage, acupuncture, anti-inflammatory drugs, and estrogen supplements have been researched in order to find interventions that successfully alleviate the severity of muscle damage. The results are controversial due mainly to the variety of exercise-induced muscle damage protocols, the types of intervention protocols, and the doses of application. From a practical point of view prevention strategies are preferred by practitioners because they reduce time lost from training, reduce the cost of treatment, and reduce the risk of further injury. For that reason, this article emphasizes the mechanism of initial events and the factors involving the severity of muscle damage. Research on the prevention of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage is reviewed and discussed. Appropriate preventative strategies for muscle damage from eccentric exercise are suggested.
... Third, it is possible that muscle stiffness decreased as a result of increased intramuscular temperature. Indeed, 5 minutes of massage of the vastus lateralis has been shown to increase intramuscular temperature by 2°C at 1.5 cm depth (Drust et al., 2003). As ex vivo studies suggested that muscle shear elastic modulus is dependant on muscle temperature, with a decrease rate of about −2%°C −1 (Sapin-de Brosses et al., 2010), this could account for, at least in part, the reduction in muscle stiffness observed in the present study. ...
... Although possible, we postulate that this cannot be the main explanation for the findings in the present study. This is because there was no relationship between the depth of the measurement (i.e., ROI), which influences the rate of increased temperature (Drust et al., 2003), and the amount of decrease in muscle stiffness (r = 0.13). ...
Article
Using ultrasound shear wave elastography, the aims of this study were: (a) to evaluate the effect of massage on stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and (b) to determine whether this effect (if any) persists over a short period of rest. A 7-min massage protocol was performed unilaterally on MG in 18 healthy volunteers. Measurements of muscle shear elastic modulus (stiffness) were performed bilaterally (control and massaged leg) in a moderately stretched position at three time points: before massage (baseline), directly after massage (follow-up 1), and following 3 min of rest (follow-up 2). Directly after massage, participants rated pain experienced during the massage. MG shear elastic modulus of the massaged leg decreased significantly at follow-up 1 (-5.2 ± 8.8%, P = 0.019, d = -0.66). There was no difference between follow-up 2 and baseline for the massaged leg (P = 0.83) indicating that muscle stiffness returned to baseline values. Shear elastic modulus was not different between time points in the control leg. There was no association between perceived pain during the massage and stiffness reduction (r = 0.035; P = 0.89). This is the first study to provide evidence that massage reduces muscle stiffness. However, this effect is short lived and returns to baseline values quickly after cessation of the massage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... Schleip et al. [6] advanced that energy input to the fascia through mechanical pressure or heat promoted the return of viscoelastic and thixotropic properties [3]. Past experiments measured the local skin temperature, using an infrared thermometer, a skin thermistor or thermographic cameras [24,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. While manual massage and FR yielded comparable acute positive effects on the range of motion [24,32,33], both techniques appeared to have a different effect on skin temperature. ...
... This may however be restricted to the skin and superficial layers of the muscles, and therefore might not indicate a general increase in muscle temperature comparable to that produced during warmup. A pioneer experiment underlined temperature increases in quadriceps muscles at a depth of 2.5 cm from the skin, but not at 3.5 cm [26]. Hinds et al. [27] failed to replicate these observations, thus supporting that manual massages had negligible effect on muscle temperature. ...
Article
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Background Self-myofascial release is an emerging technique in strength and conditioning. Yet, there is no consensus regarding optimal practice guidelines. Here, we investigated the acute effects of various foam rolling interventions targeting quadriceps muscles, with or without sliding pressures. Methods We conducted a blinded randomized control pilot trial in 42 healthy weightlifting athletes over 4 weeks. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the four intervention (120 s massage routine) groups: foam rolling, roller massager, foam rolling with axial sliding pressures, foam rolling with transverse sliding pressures. Knee range of motion, skin temperature and subjective scores of the perceived heat, range of motion, muscle pain and relaxation were the dependent variables. Measurements were carried on before, after and up to 15 min (follow-up) after the massage intervention. Results The range of motion increased immediately after the various foam rolling interventions (+ 10.72%, 95% CI 9.51 to 11.95, p < 0.001), but progressively returned back to the pre-intervention baseline along within the 15 min post-intervention. Foam rolling was the most effective intervention to increase skin temperature from thermographic measures (+ 14.06%, 95% CI 10.97 to 17.10, p < 0.001), while the increase in perceived heat was comparable in all experimental groups (107%, 95% CI 91.08 to 122.61, p < 0.001). Conclusions Subjective indexes of heat, range of motion, muscle pain and relaxation improved immediately after the intervention, but also gradually returned to the pre-intervention baseline. Overall, combining foam rolling with sliding pressures did not yield additional benefits from objective measures.
... For instance, it has been demonstrated that SMR performed with a foam roller enables the improvement of joint range of motion (Halperin et al., 2014;McKechnie et al., 2007;Schleip, 2003;Sullivan et al., 2013). In the same way, Drust et al. (2003) reported that SMR could also increase the temperature of the muscle and then reduce the viscosity of muscle tissue. Additionally, Hotfiel et al. (2017) demonstrated that SMR increased the blood flow and perfusion which may influence muscle temperature and thus enhance flexibility. ...
... Additionally, Hotfiel et al. (2017) demonstrated that SMR increased the blood flow and perfusion which may influence muscle temperature and thus enhance flexibility. Although these variables have not been considered in the present study, it can be hypothesized that SMR improved flexibility partially by increasing the muscle blood flow and temperature (Drust et al., 2003). Meanwhile the increase in the range of motion may be explained by mechanical pressure which can overload the mechanical receptor in myofascia with some potentially pain-relieving effects (Bialosky et al., 2009;Voogt et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Self-myofascial release (SMR) is a popular method to potentially increase the compliance and extensibility of the fascia and reduce muscle stiffness. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of posterior muscle chain SMR on flexibility, vertical jump performance and balance ability. Eighteen young participants volunteered to take part in this crossover design study. They performed two self-massage sessions in randomized order separated by at least one week. One session consisted of posterior muscle chain SMR whereas the other one was performed on the upper limbs as a control intervention (CON). Flexibility was measured with the Toe Touch Test (TTT), Weight-Bearing Lunge Test (WBLT), and Straight Leg Raise Test (SLR). Jump performance was evaluated during a squat jump, a counter movement jump and a stiffness jump. Dynamic balance ability was assessed through the Star Excursion Balance Test. All these variables were measured before and after each intervention. A significant increase in flexibility (+3.5 ± 1.8 cm, +1.6 ± 1.0°, and +7.7 ± 4.0° for the TTT, WLBT, and SLR, respectively, p < 0.003) and balance performance (4.8 ± 3.9 cm, p < 0.003) was observed following SMR intervention compared to CON. Conversely, jumping performance was unchanged in both groups. SMR improves joint flexibility and dynamic balance ability.
... Physiotherapy such as massage has also thought to increase tissue blood circulation, thereby decreasing hypertonicity and enhancing recovery from muscle disorder [6]. Drust et al. demonstrated that there was an increase in skin and intramuscular temperature following physiotherapy, but it was not enough to increase deep intramuscular regions [7]. ...
Article
Current therapeutic methods for suppressing muscle spasticity are intensive functional training, surgery, or pharmacological interventions. However, these methods have not been fully supported by confirmed efficacy due to the aggravation of the muscle spasticity in some patients. In this study, a combined system was developed to treat with a low-level laser and to monitor the region of the treatment using an optical spectroscopic probe that measures oxygen saturation and deoxygenation during low-level laser therapy (LLLT). The evaluation of the wavelength dependence for LLLT was performed using a Monte Carlo simulation and the results showed that the greatest amount of heat generation was seen in the deep tissue at λ = 830 nm. In the oxy- and deoxygenation measurements during and after the treatment, oxygen-Hb concentration was significantly increased in the laser-irradiated group when compared to the control group. These findings suggest that LLLT using λ = 830 nm may be of benefit in accelerating recovery of muscle spasticity. The combined system that we have developed can monitor the physiological condition of muscle spasticity during the laser treatment in real time and may also be applied to various myotonia conditions such as muscle fatigue, back-pain treatment/monitoring, and ulcer due to paralysis.
... Also the mechanical pressure may stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system, causing changes in hormones, heart rate and blood pressure (89). There is a small amount of scientific literature reporting increased skin and muscle temperature (2.5 cm deep) after massage treatment (25,49). However, this increase does not appear to translate into increased blood flow. ...
... Although conflicting evidence has been reported in the literature, 20 muscle temperature is known to affect the stiffness of biological tissues in vitro. 36 Notwithstanding, even if massage can also elevate muscle temperature, 37 active muscle contractions are probably more efficient at metabolically heating the muscle, which could at least partly explain the greater effects observed after cycling compared with foam rolling. 33 Interestingly, the fact that larger and longer lasting ROM increments were observed following the mixed warm-up may also suggest different potential mechanisms affecting the stretching sensation after foam rolling. ...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of active and/or passive warm-up tasks on the hamstring muscles stiffness through elastography and passive torque measurements. On separate occasions, fourteen males randomly completed four warm-up protocols comprising Control, Cycling, Foam-rolling or Cycling plus Foam-rolling (Mixed). The stiffness of the hamstring muscles was assessed through shear wave elastography, along with the passive torque-angle relationship and maximal range of motion (ROM) before, 5-min, and 30-min after each experimental condition. At 5-min, Cycling and Mixed decreased shear modulus (-10.3 ± 5.9% and -7.7 ± 8.4%, respectively; P ≤ 0.0003, ES ≥ 0.24) and passive torque (-7.17 ± 8.6% and -6.2 ± 7.5%, respectively; P ≤ 0.051, ES ≥ 0.28), and increased ROM (+2.9 ± 2.9% and +3.2 ± 3.5%, respectively; P ≤ 0.001, ES ≥ 0.30). 30 min following Mixed, shear modulus (P = 0.001, ES = 0.21) and passive torque (P ≤ 0.068, ES ≥ 0.2) were still slightly decreased, while ROM increased (P = 0.046, ES = 0.24). Foam-rolling induced “small” immediate short-term decreases in shear modulus (-5.4 ± 5.7% at 5-min; P = 0.05, ES = 0.21), without meaningful changes in passive torque or ROM at any time point (P ≥ 0.12, ES ≤ 0.23). These results suggest that the combined warm-up elicited no acute superior effects on muscle stiffness compared to cycling, providing evidence for the key role of active warm-up to reduce muscle stiffness. The time between warm-up and competition should be considered when optimising the effects on muscle stiffness.
... A limitation to the study is that the mechanisms through which Astym therapy affected muscle performance is unknown. From a review of the literature, we may speculate that pain modulation [40,41], neuromuscular facilitation [42][43][44], increased blood flow [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52], and increases of intracellular calcium within muscle tissue [53][54][55][56][57][58] are possible mechanisms by which Astym therapy may acutely increase muscle performance. It is also unknown if Astym therapy worked directly on the injured structure or simply enhanced the performance of the non-injured muscles that contributed to isometric squat performance. ...
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Background Astym ® therapy is a manual therapy intervention used to stimulate tissue healing, decrease pain, improve mobility, and improve muscle performance associated with musculoskeletal pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine if Astym therapy administered to the lower extremity would result in an immediate change of maximal force output during a unilateral isometric squat test among individuals with a lower extremity injury. Methods Forty-five subjects (14 males; 31females) between 18 and 65 years of age were randomized into 3 treatment groups: 1) Control group – received no treatment 2) Placebo group – received a sham Astym treatment 3) Astym therapy group– received Astym therapy to the lower extremity. A baseline measure of maximal force output (pre-test) during a unilateral isometric squat was performed. The subjects then received the designated treatment intervention. Immediately following the treatment intervention, maximal force output (post-test) was retested using identical testing procedures by an investigator who was blinded to the treatment intervention received by the subjects. The percent change of maximal force output from pre-test to post-test measures was compared using a one-way analysis of variance. A Tukey’s post-hoc analysis determined the statistical differences between the groups. Results The treatment intervention had a significant effect on the percent change of maximal force output [F(2,42) = 7.91, p = 0.001]. Tukey’s post hoc analysis demonstrated that the percent change of maximal force output was significantly greater in the Astym group (15 ± 18 % change of Newtons) compared to the placebo (−6 ± 11 % change of Newtons; p = 0.0001) and control (−1 ± 17 % change of Newtons; p = 0.0014) groups. No significant difference (p = 0.68) was noted between the control and placebo groups. Conclusions Astym therapy to the involved lower extremity increased maximum force output during an isometric squat test immediately following treatment. The results of this study suggest that Astym therapy can immediately improve muscle performance (maximal force output) for patients presenting with muscular weakness caused by a lower extremity musculoskeletal injury.
... Strikingly, although steady-state hind limb perfusion and capillary density were not significantly affected, oxygen probe experiments demonstrated an increase in oxygen concentration during the time in which biphasic ferrogel-driven cyclic mechanical compressions were being generated in the muscle. Massage has previously been shown to temporarily increase intramuscular temperature, which may lead to enhanced nutrient transport throughout the injured tissue (41), and a similar phenomenon could have occurred here. More likely, enhanced intramuscular convection driven by tissue compressions may have led to increased oxygen levels and expedited removal of metabolic byproducts that inhibit regeneration. ...
Article
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Severe skeletal muscle injuries are common and can lead to extensive fibrosis, scarring, and loss of function. Clinically, no therapeutic intervention exists that allows for a full functional restoration. As a result, both drug and cellular therapies are being widely investigated for treatment of muscle injury. Because muscle is known to respond to mechanical loading, we investigated instead whether a material system capable of massage-like compressions could promote regeneration. Magnetic actuation of biphasic ferrogel scaffolds implanted at the site of muscle injury resulted in uniform cyclic compressions that led to reduced fibrous capsule formation around the implant, as well as reduced fibrosis and inflammation in the injured muscle. In contrast, no significant effect of ferrogel actuation on muscle vascularization or perfusion was found. Strikingly, ferrogel-driven mechanical compressions led to enhanced muscle regeneration and a ∼threefold increase in maximum contractile force of the treated muscle at 2 wk compared with no-treatment controls. Although this study focuses on the repair of severely injured skeletal muscle, magnetically stimulated bioagent-free ferrogels may find broad utility in the field of regenerative medicine.
... There are several potential mechanisms of massage, with biomechanical , physiological, neurological and psychological effects discussed throughout the literature. Massage has been suggested to increase the elasticity of muscles and tendons, resulting in improved range of motion [37] Assumed physiological effects include higher skin and muscle temperature [16], improved muscle perfusion [65], changes in hormones such as a reduction in cortisol [29] and an increase in parasympathetic activity [15]. It has been shown that massage after exercise can alleviate delayed onset muscle soreness by reducing the neutrophil emigration associated with inflammation [59]. ...
... However, this possibility has not been supported in recent research (17). Purported physiological responses to massage include increased skin and muscle temperature (8), reduction in stress hormone levels (2), and increased parasympathetic activity (7). Although these responses have implications for performance in general, more specifically they may indicate a reduced physiological stress response. ...
... Several techniques in Thai traditional massage are consisted of gentle thumbing and rhythmic palming to energize, stimulate and stretch the muscles (Eungpinichpong, 2004). With these practices, athletes also use massage in an effort to warm-up for training or competition (Callaghan, 1993;Drust et al., 2003;Hemmings, 2001). However, the effects of Thai traditional massage for sport preparation are unclear or subjective. ...
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Background: The practice of Thai traditional massage has not been reported as a part of sport preparation to increase athletic performance. Objective: To investigate the effects of the Thai massage program on vertical jump (VJ) performance in male collegiate volleyball players. Results: Applications of Thai massage program in the other day, for three days, increase VJ performance significantly different from control group. Conclusion: Continuous applications of Thai massage program on lower limbs is able to increase VJ. Hence, this massage program could improve the athletic performance and used as preparing for training or competition.
... Gentle mechanical pressure provided by massage can change neural excitability as characterized by a reduced amplitude of H-reflex 2) . It was also found to increase parasympathetic activity 3) , reduce stress hormonal levels 4) , increase muscle compliance and range of joint motion 5) , decrease passive stiffness 6) and active stiffness 5) , increase the arteriolar pressure and muscle temperature by rubbing, which helps to increase blood flow 7) , and decrease anxiety and improve in mood state after massage-facilitated relaxation 8) . These benefits of the massage were suggested to help athletes to enhance physical performance and reduce the risk of injury during competition 1) . ...
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[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Thai massage on physical fitness in soccer players. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-four soccer players were randomly assigned to receive either rest (the control group) or three 30-minute sessions of Thai massage over a period of 10 days. Seven physical fitness tests consisting of sit and reach, hand grip strength, 40 yards technical agility, 50-meter sprint, sit-ups, push-ups, and VO2, max were measured before and after Thai massage or rest. [Results] All the physical fitness tests were significantly improved after a single session of Thai massage, whereas only the sit and reach, and the sit-ups tests were improved in the control group. [Conclusion] Thai massage could provide an improvement in physical performance in soccer players.
... 5 Alternatively, dry-heating methods such as hot-pads, diathermy, massage and high ambient temperatures have been administered with varied success. For example, Drust et al. (2003) observed comparatively low heat transfer to muscle (0.033 ºC•min -1 ) using massage, with no temperature change in muscle treated with ultra-sound. Whereas exposure to a very hot and humid environment (45 ºC, 70% relative humidity) has increased core (0.033 ºC•min -1 ) and muscle (0.083 ºC•min -1 ) temperature at comparable rates to hot water immersion (Gray and Nimmo 2001). ...
Chapter
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Exercise in hot conditions alters the physiological response to the ensuing exercise bout and may hasten the onset of fatigue. Regardless of the environment, often preexercise procedures are employed in order to ensure the commencement of exercise in an optimally prepared state to perform. Two such pre-exercise procedures often proposed as being of benefit involve warming up and pre-cooling, respectively. While both have been shown to have ergogenic benefits, they are somewhat contradictory in nature. It is well documented that optimal muscular function of the contractile fibres occurs with an increased muscle temperature. Accordingly, the practice of a warm up prior to exercise commencement is endemic to most sports and athletes and is often based on the premise of increasing muscle temperature. In contrast, it is equally well documented that reducing body temperature by cooling the periphery of the body, including the musculature, is also ergogenic for exercise performance. Accordingly, the practice of pre-cooling is regularly used by athletes from a range of sports and environments. This contradiction between increasing and decreasing respective body temperatures to improve exercise performance raises interesting questions regarding the mechanisms behind the regulation of exercise in the heat. Consequently, the underlying physiological mechanisms to both warm up and pre-cooling procedures are seemingly related to thermoregulatory control. As such, this chapter will review the respective literature on both warm up and pre-cooling in relation to exercise in the heat. Included in this synthesis of relevant literature will be the physiological and performance responses to these respective pre-exercise interventions in the heat. Additionally, a comparison of the respective roles and interaction of both procedures will be discussed and finally, recommendations for the integration of both practices will be provided.
... Massage therapy involves the practice of kneading/pressing,/rubbing a part of the body to improve its function. This is done with pressure to the affected areas such as muscle, joint, tendon, or ligament [39]. Commonly this therapy is involved in osteology practice. ...
Article
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Any kind of discomfort or disease is a very disastrous and unpleasant thing in human life. Good health and fitness are prime and fundamental requirements for performing any physical or mental activity or enjoyment in life. Good health is mandatory for all routine work. A healthy life is related to overall human pleasure, happiness, and wellbeing. It contributes to wealth, prosperity, and progress since a healthy population is more productive and efficient. Being healthy is a complete state of physical or mental wellbeing, but it is social and spiritual stability and balance of mind. A healthy person can carry his duties and responsibilities promptly, efficiently, and effectively. If anybody has a healthy lifestyle with physical or mental fitness, he is a great wealthy person in the universe. Therefore, it is always believed that "health is wealth." But this journey of being healthy is not that simple. There are various challenges and obstacles to being healthy. It is challenging to be healthy and disease-free. Constant, regular, and disciplined monitoring of health is essential for achieving a disease-free life. Lack of time and exercise, sedentary lifestyle, stressful profession, unhealthy eating habits, and chair syndrome are main contributing problems for being healthy presently. The ongoing Covid 19 pandemic has increased it tremendously among almost all people. Many people lost their jobs. Daily waged laborers are mostly affected. This problem has a direct impact on their bread and butter. These all conditions are also associated with one or the other mental or physical issues. The daily activity is reduced and eventually leading to weight gain among the people. In addition, depression, anxiety, worries, and psychological stress are increased. People are first time experiencing this situation in their life. It is essential to be physically, mentally, and spiritually strong during this terrible phase. Because of this, the present review is planned to make the people cautious about their health and help them understand the importance of alternative medicine, including yoga, Pranayama, Meditation and some therapies for maintaining a healthy lifestyle, mental and physical fitness, and overall balance of mind.
... Several techniques in Thai traditional massage are consisted of gentle thumbing and rhythmic palming to energize, stimulate and stretch the muscles (Eungpinichpong, 2004). With these practices, athletes also use massage in an effort to warm-up for training or competition (Callaghan, 1993;Drust et al., 2003;Hemmings, 2001). However, the effects of Thai traditional massage for sport preparation are unclear or subjective. ...
Article
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Background: The practice of Thai traditional massage has not been reported as a part of sport preparation to increase athletic performance. Objective: To investigate the effects of the Thai massage program on vertical jump (VJ) performance in male collegiate volleyball players. Results: Applications of Thai massage program in the other day, for three days, increase VJ performance significantly different from control group. Conclusion: Continuous applications of Thai massage program on lower limbs is able to increase VJ. Hence, this massage program could improve the athletic performance and used as preparing for training or competition.
... For instance, reduced joint flexibility and loss of muscle strength are observed consequences of DOMS (11). Therapists frequently administer massage to athletes to aid recovery, warmup for training or competition, and relieve muscle soreness (6,8,14,22). However, a skilled massage therapist may not always be available. ...
Article
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Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). Participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours (h) later, at which participants 1) received ten minutes (min) of massage of the trapezius muscle or 2) performed ten min of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 x 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, one treatment was randomly applied to one shoulder while the contralateral shoulder served as passive control. Two hours later the contralateral resting shoulder received the other treatment. Participants rated intensity of soreness (scale 0-10) and a blinded examiner took measures of pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper trapezius immediately before treatment and 0, 10, 20 and 60 min after treatment 48 h post eccentric exercise. Immediately prior to treatment intensity of soreness was 5.0 (SD 2.2) and PPT was 138 (SD 78) kPa. In response to treatment, a significant treatment by time interaction was found for intensity of soreness (P<0.001) and PPT (P<0.05). Compared with control, both active exercise and massage significantly reduced intensity of soreness and increased PPT (i.e. reduced pain sensitivity). For both types of treatment the greatest effect on perceived soreness occurred immediately after treatment, while the effect on PPT peaked 20 min after treatment. In conclusion, active exercise using elastic resistance provides similar acute relief of muscle soreness as compared with massage. Coaches, therapists and athletes can use either active warm-up or massage to reduce DOMS acutely, e.g. before competition or strenuous work, but should be aware that the effect is temporary, i.e. the greatest effects occurs during the first 20 min after treatment and diminishes within an hour.
... Several techniques in Thai massage are consisted of gentle thumbing and rhythmic palming to energize, stimulate and stretch the muscles (Eungpinichpong, 2004). With these practices, athletes also use massage in an effort to warm-up for training or competition (Callaghan, 1993;Drust et al., 2003;Hemmings, 2001). However, the effects of Thai massage for sport preparation are unclear or subjective. ...
Conference Paper
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Sport massage can enhance athletic physical performance. There are similar between sport massage and Thai Massage, but not evidence research the increase performance before competition. The purpose of this research was to study effects of Thai massage program on vertical jump performance in Thailand female collegiate volleyball players. Twelve Thailand female collegiate volleyball players, age between 18-22 years, were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (N = 6) and control groups (N=6). All subjects were measured vertical jump performance. Thai massage program was applied to the experimental group for 30 minutes and the control group sat still for 30 minutes. Then, all subjects were measured vertical jump performance for post-test. The mean differences (MD) of the pre and post-test data were calculated and statistically analyzed by using ANOVA at the level of .05. The vertical jump performance were significantly higher in the experimental than control group (p <.05). The results of this present study indicated that performing the Thai massage program for 30 minutes has an effect on vertical jump. In addition, the continuous applications of Thai massage program increase jump performance significantly different from sat still. Thai Massage was presented as an alternative method to increase vertical jump performance in a sport preparation.
... However, this possibility has not been supported in recent research (17). Purported physiological responses to massage include increased skin and muscle temperature (8), reduction in stress hormone levels (2), and increased parasympathetic activity (7). Although these responses have implications for performance in general, more specifically they may indicate a reduced physiological stress response. ...
... However, this possibility has not been supported in recent research (17). Purported physiological responses to massage include increased skin and muscle temperature (8), reduction in stress hormone levels (2), and increased parasympathetic activity (7). Although these responses have implications for performance in general, more specifically they may indicate a reduced physiological stress response. ...
... Along with static stretching, massage is also widely used by the athletes. Massage is believed to enhance blood supply to the muscles and to increase muscle temperature 19 , therefore improving performance 9 . In addition to the aforementioned effects, massage is also believed to reduce the risk of injuries by increasing flexibility and reducing rigidity [20][21][22] . ...
Article
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Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of static stretching and the application of massage on flexibility and jump performance. Methods: Thirty-five athletes studying Physical Education at University (mean age 23.6±1.3 years, mean height 177.8±6.3 cm and mean weight 72.2±6.7 kg) performed one of three different warmup protocols on non-consecutive days. Protocols included static stretching [SS], combined static stretching and massage [SSM], and neither stretching nor massage [CONT]. The athletes performed flexibility, countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) tests. Results: SS and SSM protocols demonstrated 12% (p<0.05) and 16% (p<0.05) respectively greater flexibility than the CONT protocol. SJ and CMJ performances were significantly decreased 10.4% (p<0.05) and 5.5% (p<0.05) respectively after the SS protocol. There was no significant difference between SSM and CONT protocol in terms of SJ and CMJ performance. Conclusion: This research indicates that whereas static stretching increases the flexibility it decreases the jumping performance of the athletes. On the other hand, the application of massage immediately following static stretching increases flexibility but does not reduce jumping performance. Considering the known negative acute effects of static stretching on performance, the application of massage is thought to be beneficial in alleviating such effects. Keywords: Warm-Up, Stretching, Massage, Flexibility, Jumping
... The effect of soft tissue techniques on skin temperature rise is an important parameter, as it is directly associated with increased blood circulation and metabolism in the underlying tissues. The aforementioned thermal adaptations of the skin following IASTM have been fully elucidated by physiological adaptations induced by soft tissue compression and friction and enhanced microcirculation in the treated area 5) . However, while there is some evidence that classical hand massage is associated with skin temperature rise, research on the thermal adjustments after IASTM treatment is limited, with only one study showing that IASTM can significantly increase the calf skin temperature in healthy participants 6) . ...
Article
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[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the thermal skin responses (thermal buildup and retention rate) to instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) procedures applied on hamstrings at different angles. [Participants and Methods] Thirty university students (age: 20 ± 4 years, weight: 70.61 ± 9.11 kg, height: 168.5 ± 7.5 cm) received three sessions of 10-min Ergon® IASTM treatment on their dominant limbs’ hamstrings at 20°, 60°, and 90° application angles, respectively. The skin temperature was measured with a thermometer immediately before and after treatment, and every minute thereafter until it returned to the baseline value. [Results] IASTM resulted in a significant increase in skin temperature irrespective of the application angle. The thermal retention rate produced by the treatment at a 90° angle was significantly higher than that produced by the 20° application angle (78.9 vs. 64.53 min). No significant differences were observed between the 60° and 90° angle applications (72.5 vs. 78.9 min). [Conclusion] IASTM application at 60° and 90° angles can increase and retain the hamstring’s skin temperature for more than an hour, creating the conditions for potential positive adaptations to local metabolism and muscle tone.
... The participants attended the study by avoiding food, beverages, and strenuous exercises within 1 hour before the start of their session. This was to ensure that their physiological condition remained stable during the sessions (Al-Mandeel and Watson 2010; Drust et al. 2003;Jackson and Pollock 1978). After screening and signing of the informed consent, demographic and anthropometric data were collected. ...
Article
This study investigated the effect of 448 kHz capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency (CRMRF) on the superficial and deep physiological responses of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee(s). Forty-five patients diagnosed with OA in their knee(s) were enrolled into a three-group randomised controlled study, from the waiting list of a local hospital. They received localized treatment with either CRMRF, CRMRF placebo or a control (no treatment) to the knee for 15 minutes. Pre, post, and 20 min follow-up measurements of skin temperature (SKT) and skin blood flow (SBF) were obtained from the knee using the FlexComp Infiniti (SA7550) physiological measurement system. Pre and post-treatment deep blood flow were recorded using Doppler ultrasound. Core temperature, blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate (PR) were concurrently monitored. Group data were compared using the ANOVA model. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05, 0.8 power, and 95% CI. Significant increases and sustenance of SKT and SBF, and significant increases in volume and intensity of deep blood flow were demonstrated with CRMRF over the placebo and control interventions in all comparisons (p< .001). No meaningful changes in blood flow velocity, core temperature, BP, or PR were noted for any condition. The findings were markedly more pronounced than those previously reported in asymptomatic adults. However, the patients had received a higher average dose of CRMRF (mean (SD): 46.87 (4.08) W) compared to the asymptomatic sample (mean (SD): 42.37 (4.64) W); therefore, further research is needed to better understand the differences in physiological responses between patients and asymptomatic people.
... 7,8 It has been stated that the decrease in stiffness may be due to the cross-bridge breakage effect of PM via pressure and stretching, 7 decreasing motor neuron excitability, 26 creating local reflex inhibition, 23 and increasing intramuscular temperature. 27 In addition, the stiffness-reducing effect of the massage was observed to disappear shortly after, 7 and it was claimed that the reason for this was that the cross-bridges separated before gradually reconnect. 28 In the study 29 investigating changes in stiffness after eccentric exercise in untrained males, it has been found that increased stiffness values measured immediately after exercise continues for 5 days. ...
Article
Context: Fast and adequate recovery after exercise and activity is important for increasing performance and preventing injuries. Inadequate recovery usually causes changes in the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of the muscle. Objective: To compare the immediate effect of petrissage massage (PM) and manual lymph drainage (MLD) following submaximal exercise on the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of the rectus femoris muscle in healthy women. Design: Cross-sectional, repeated-measures. Setting: Marmara University. Participants: 18 healthy female students. Intervention(s): Following the submaximal quadriceps strengthening exercise performed in 3 sets of 8 repetitions with intensity of 75% of 1 maximum repetition, participants' right leg received a 5-minute PM (PM group) and the contralateral leg received a 5-minute MLD application (MLD group). Main outcome measures: Skin temperature was measured using P45 thermographic thermal camera (Flir System; ThermaCAM, Danderyd, Sweden), and muscle tone, biomechanical, and viscoelastic features were measured with a myometer (Myoton AS, Tallinn, Estonia) at baseline, immediately postexercise, post-PM/MLD application, and 10 minutes postexercise. Results: In the PM group, the tonus (P = .002) and stiffness (P < .001) values measured after the massage and at the end of the 10-minute resting period were found to be statistically different than those measured right after the exercise (P < .05). Relaxation time and creep values at all measurement times were significantly different (P < .05). In the MLD group, it was observed the tonus (P < .001), stiffness (P = .025), and relaxation time (P < .01) values decreased significantly after the MLD compared with the values measured after the exercise; however, the creep value was found to be significantly different in all measurements (P < .05). Conclusion: PM and MLD reduce passive tissue stiffness and improve the extent of muscle extensibility over time against the muscle tensile strength. PM and MLD are therapeutic methods that can be used to support tissue recovery after exercise and prevent injuries.
... After RM, the isokinetic knee ex- Several researchers have suggested mechanisms for muscle strength production. A study has shown that increased muscle strength is associated with increased muscle temperature [41], and some studies show that the fascia limitation of the muscles is released [42]. In addition, some studies have reported that phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chains is a factor, but additional studies are needed [43]. ...
... [19][20][21][22][23] Importantly, recent technical advances in local blood flow measurement have shed new light on MT efficacy. Changes in skin temperature, heart rate, and intramuscular temperature 24 have been documented after massage to the vastus lateralis. These changes were found to occur to a depth of 2.5 cm. ...
... We deduce that the massage with the warm-up significantly increases the vertical relaxation of the players. This confirms the results of Drust (Drust et al., 2003) and Moraska (Moraska et al., 2005) who showed that one of the first goals of toning massage is to raise muscle temperature to recover the effects of active heating and that it increases skin and intramuscular temperature of the quadriceps up to 2.5 cm deep after a light touch, but this remains much lower during active heating. ...
Article
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The use of sports massage as part of passive warm-up is a practice that has been trivialized by many clubs, which consider that massage is only useful in the context of recovery or rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to check if the massage before warming up further increases the vertical relaxation in basketball players from Zou. 57 players were selected including 13 players from Flambeau Abomey; 15 Lumière players from Abomey and 29 players from Olympic of Bohicon using the simple random method by reasoned choice. Our players are aware of the existence of massage but not as passive warm-up. Without warming up or massage our subjects have on average 43.19 cm of relaxation. After the players warmed up without being massaged we observed an increase in relaxation of an average of 48.96cm and 50.61cm when the players massaged and warmed up. The results of our study reveal that massage before heating further increases the vertical relaxation of basketball players from Zou, Benin.
... Although extensively employed to investigate the effect of MT, none of these methods could identify MT-related increases in blood flow (Tiidus and Shoemaker, 1995;Shoemaker et al., 1997;Hinds et al., 2004). Interestingly, there are reports of locally increased blood flow, which could explain the elevated cutaneous and/or intramuscular temperature at the site of MT application (Drust et al., 2003;Sefton et al., 2010;Portillo-Soto et al., 2014;Monteiro Rodrigues et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Manipulative therapy (MT) is applied to motor organs through a therapist’s hands. Although MT has been utilized in various medical treatments based on its potential role for increasing the blood flow to the local muscle, a quantitative validation of local muscle blood flow in MT remains challenging due to the lack of appropriate bedside evaluation techniques. Therefore, we investigated changes in the local blood flow to the muscle undergoing MT by employing diffuse correlation spectroscopy, a portable and emerging optical measurement technology that non-invasively measures blood flow in deep tissues. This study investigated the changes in blood flow, heart rate, blood pressure, and autonomic nervous activity in the trapezius muscle through MT application in 30 volunteers without neck and shoulder injury. Five minutes of MT significantly increased the median local blood flow relative to that of the pre-MT period ( p < 0.05). The post-MT local blood flow increase was significantly higher in the MT condition than in the control condition, where participants remained still without receiving MT for the same time ( p < 0.05). However, MT did not affect the heart rate, blood pressure, or cardiac autonomic nervous activity. The post-MT increase in muscle blood flow was significantly higher in the participants with muscle stiffness in the neck and shoulder regions than in those without ( p < 0.05). These results suggest that MT could increase the local blood flow to the target skeletal muscle, with minimal effects on systemic circulatory function.
... Therapeutic massage (Tuina) is thought to increase muscle mass, blood flow, and muscle tissue temperature, which may help increase muscle compliance and reduce muscle stiffness. [21,22] In addition, several studies [23,24] have shown that tactile stimulation is beneficial to restore sensorimotor function after stroke. Sen et al [25] demonstrated that mechanical massage improves sensorimotor behavior after stroke, maintains gait, and reduces inflammation and the subacute expression of metabolic muscle factors. ...
Article
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Background: Limb spasms are a common complication of stroke. It not only affects the quality of life of stroke survivors, but also brings an economic burden. Tuina combined with physical therapy is widely used in the rehabilitation of poststroke spasticity. However, there is no supporting evidence for its efficacy and safety. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Tuinas combined with physical therapy in the treatment of spasticity after stroke. Methods: Literature will be collected from the following databases: China Biology Medicine (CBM), Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science; We will include randomized controlled trials of Tuina combined with physical therapy for poststroke spasticity range from the establishment to May 1, 2021. There were no limitations to the publication time, and the language was limited to Chinese and English. The primary outcome was evaluated using the Modified Ashworth scale, and the secondary outcomes were the simplified Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale, Modified Barthel Index, Functional Independence Measurement (FIM), and Visual Analog Scale. RevMan V.5.4.1 software was used for the meta-analysis. The Cochrane Intervention System Evaluation Manual analyzes the risk of bias, and the recommended grading assessment, development and evaluation are used to assess the quality of evidence. Ethics and dissemination: This study will be based on published systematic review studies, no ethical approval is required and the results of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Systematic review registration: INPLASY2021110064.
... Although massage is practised widely throughout sporting circles, the effects and mechanism associated with massage are unclear or anecdotal (Boone et al. 1991, Wiktorsson-Möller, et al., 1983; Cafarelli and Flint, 1993; Harmer, 1991; Hemmings, 2001; Tiidus and Shoemaker, 1995). Athletes use massage in an attempt to aid recovery as well as warm-up for training or competition (Boone et al., 1991; Cafarelli and Flint, 1993; Caldwell, 2001; Cash, 1996; Drust et al., 2003; Harmer, 1991; Hemmings, 2001; Tiidus and Shoemaker, 1995; Wiktorsson-Möller et al., 1983). Current recommendations from Sports Medicine Australia (2005) for warming-up prior to activity involve 2-3 minutes of jogging to raise a light sweat prior to stretching. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine if three minutes of petrissage and tapotement forms of massage would influence plantar flexors' flexibility, and muscle power. Nineteen participants were randomly subjected to three conditions (control and two massages) before performing two power tests. Prior to the intervention, subjects completed ankle joint flexibility assessments. The conditions were; (1) control, where subjects lay prone and had a therapist's hands resting, (2) vigorous petrissage, and (3) tapotement applied at a rate of 4Hz; all on the triceps surae. Following completion of the intervention, subjects immediately completed a post- ankle joint flexibility test, followed by a drop-jump and concentric calf raise. The power measures were; concentric peak force, rate of force development, and drop-jump height / contact time. The data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in ankle joint angle on the right leg and a corresponding tendency on the left. No significant change was seen with the power measures. Results suggest that massage can increase plantar flexors' flexibility without a change in power and thus may be an alternative to static stretching during an athletic warm-up. Key pointsThree minutes of petrissage and tapotement forms of massage increased ankle flexibility.Massage did not adversely affect jump power measures.Massage may be an effective alternative to static stretching as a component of a pre-event warm-up.
Article
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Limited dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) has been linked to lower limb injuries. Improving limited ankle ROM may decrease injury rates. Static stretching (SS) is ubiquitously used to improve ROM but can lead to decreases in force and power if performed prior to the activity. Thus, alternatives to improve ROM without performance decrements are needed. To compare the effects of SS and self massage (SM) with a roller massage of the calf muscles on ankle ROM, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force F100 (force produced in the first 100 ms of the MVC), electromyography (EMG of soleus and tibialis anterior) characteristics of the plantar flexors, and a single limb balance test. Fourteen recreationally trained subjects were tested on two separate occasions in a randomized cross-over design. After a warm up, subjects were assessed for passive dorsiflexion ROM, MVC, and a single-limb balance test with eyes closed. The same three measurements were repeated after 10 minutes (min) of rest and prior to the interventions. Following the pre-test, participants randomly performed either SS or SM for 3 sets of 30 seconds (s) with 10s of rest between each set. At one and 10 min post-interventions the participants repeated the three measurements, for a third and fourth cycle of testing. Roller massage increased and SS decreased maximal force output during the post-test measurements, with a significant difference occurring between the two interventions at 10 min post-test (p < 0.05, ES = 1.23, 8.2% difference). Both roller massage (p < 0.05, ES = 0.26, ~4%) and SS (p < 0.05, ES = 0.27, ~5.2%) increased ROM immediately and 10 min after the interventions. No significant effects were found for balance or EMG measures. Both interventions improved ankle ROM, but only the self-massage with a roller massager led to small improvements in MVC force relative to SS at 10 min post-intervention. These results highlight the effectiveness of a roller massager relative to SS. These results could affect the type of warm-up prior to activities that depend on high force and sufficient ankle ROM. 2c.
Article
Introduction: Assessment of muscle mechanical properties may provide clinically valuable information for follow-up of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) through the course of their disease. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of DMD on stiffness of relaxed muscles using elastography (supersonic shear imaging). Methods: Fourteen DMD patients and 13 control subjects were studied. Six muscles were measured at 2 muscle lengths (shortened and stretched): gastrocnemius medialis (GM); tibialis anterior (TA); vastus lateralis (VL); biceps brachii (BB); triceps brachii (TB); and abductor digiti minimi (ADM). Results: Stiffness was significantly higher in DMD patients compared with controls for all the muscles (main effect for population, P < 0.033 in all cases), except for ADM. The effect size was small (d = 0.33 for ADM at both muscle lengths) to large (d = 0.86 for BB/stretched). Conclusions: Supersonic shear imaging is a sensitive non-invasive technique to assess the increase in muscle stiffness associated with DMD.
Article
Introduction: Sleep disturbance is one of the complaints in criticaly illl patients and have an impact on the patient's physical and psychological condition. Research on the effect of massage therapy on sleep quality has been widely studied with various techniques and outcomes. This study aims to review the evidence regarding the location, equipment, dose and timing of massage that can improve sleep quality in critically ill patients.Methods: This research method is a literature review. Literature is searched through electronic database such as EBSCOhost, Scopus, Science Direct, ProQuest, Clinical Key, SpringerLink and Portal Garuda. The keywords used are massage, massages, reflexology,”pemijatan”, “pijat”, sleep, sleep disturbance, sleep deprivation, sleep apnea, sleep quality, quality of sleep, critical area, critical patients, intensive care unit, and ICU. The inclusion criteria of article was an experimental research design that tested the effect of massage on improving sleep quality, full text articles and published from January 2011 to May 2021. Data were analyzed in a narrative manner and grouped according to the searched theme, namely location/area, equipment, dose and timing of massage.Results: Search results found 107 articles, but only 9 articles were eligible to be reviewed. The review indicate that massage has a significant effect on improving sleep quality. The combination of hand and valerian or lavender essential oil is the most appropriate way. Feet are the most numerous and effective area. Massage dose is once a day with repetitions for two consecutive days with a duration of 10-20 minutes and it carried out before bedtime.Suggestion: This result recommend the application of massage to improve the sleep quality of critically ill patients. However, massages which given to critically ill patients must be carried out by certified nurses or expert in massage.
Article
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Objectives: Instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization and massage therapy are manual techniques that claim to increase blood flow to treated areas, yet no data on these techniques are available. This study sought to compare the effects of the Graston Technique(®) (GT) and massage therapy on calf blood flow, using skin temperature measures on the lower leg. Design: Single-blinded prospective, longitudinal, controlled, repeated-measures design. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: Twenty-eight participants (mean age, 23±3 years; 14 men and 14 women; mean calf girth, 39.5±4.31 cm; calf skinfold thickness, 27.9±5.6 cm). Interventions: Each participant received 10-minute treatments (massage or GT) on two separate sessions, with the untreated leg as a control. Outcome measures: Baseline skin temperature of the calf was measured before treatment and again every 5 minutes after treatment for a total of 60 minutes. Differences between the 4 treatment conditions (GT, GT control, massage, and massage control) performed 13 times were evaluated with a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Significance was set a priori at p<0.05. Results: Significant differences with Greenhouse-Geisser corrections were seen between conditions (F(2.4,61.2)=39.252; p<0.001; effect size [ES]=0.602) and time (F(2.1,54.4)=192.8; p<0.001; ES=0.881), but the main effect was not significant (F(2.1,53.5)=2.944; p=0.060; 1-β=0.558). The massage condition (32.05±0.16°C) yielded significantly higher skin temperatures than did massage control (30.53±0.14°C; p<0.001), GT (31.11±0.20°C; p<0.001), and GT control (30.32±0.14°C; p<0.001) conditions. Significant differences in time occurred: The temperatures at 5 minutes (30.21±0.12°C), 10 minutes (31.00±0.30°C), and 15 minutes (31.65±0.12°C) showed significant increases (p<0.001). Peak temperature was achieved at 25 minutes after treatment (31.76±0.12°C). Conclusion: Massage and GT increased skin temperature. A rise in temperature theoretically indicates an increase in blood flow to the area.
Article
Background: The practice of Thai traditional massage has not been reported as a part of sport preparation to increase athletic performance. Objective: To investigate the effects of the Thai massage program on vertical jump (VJ) performance in male collegiate volleyball players. Results: Applications of Thai massage program in the other day, for three days, increase VJ performance significantly different from control group. Conclusion: Continuous applications of Thai massage program on lower limbs is able to increase VJ. Hence, this massage program could improve the athletic performance and used as preparing for training or competition.
Article
Ankle sprain is the most common injury in sport activities. When it's happened, accurate diagnosis need to be taken care off. Failed to do it will resulted in ligaments stretched out, instability and lose balance especially in walking. This study investigated the effect of friction technique on sprained ankle (grade II). Friction is one of the most appropriate techniques in massage for removing adhesion. 24 young athletes with ankle sprain grade II were selected among 100 patients base on MRI test. Patients were divided into two groups. Experimental group received sport massage. Another group is a control group or non training group. Each group consists of 12 patients who suffered from ankle sprain grade II. The massage group received the 15 minutes effleurage and friction massages on their ankles administered by a sport rehabilitation specialist and professional massager. The control group used ankle brace. Effleurage technique have used as warming-up section. Data were analysed by using paired-t test. Findings show that treatment (massage) group has great impact (P-value <0.05) compared to control group. The implications of this study offer this protocol as a most effective treatment for ankle sprain grade II.
Article
Objective: This study aims to investigate the relationship between major signal points (MaSPs) of the lower extremities used in court-type Thai traditional massage (CTTM) and the corresponding underlying anatomical structures, as well as to determine the short-term changes in blood flow and skin temperature of volunteers experiencing CTTM. Methods: MaSPs were identified and marked on cadavers before acrylic color was injected. The underlying structures marked with acrylic colors were observed and the anatomical structures were determined. Then, pressure was applied to each MaSP in human volunteers (lateral side of leg and medial side of leg) and blood flow on right dorsalis pedis artery was measured using duplex ultrasound while skin temperature changes were monitored using an infrared themographic camera. Results: Short-term changes in the blood flow parameters, volume flow and average velocity, compared to baseline (P < 0.05), were observed on MaSP of the lower extremity, ML4. Changes in the peak systolic velocity of the area ML5 were also observed relative to baseline. The skin temperature of two different MaSPs on the lateral side of leg (LL4 and LL5) and four on the medial side of leg (ML2, ML3, ML4 and ML5) was significantly increased (P < 0.05) at 1 min after pressure application. Conclusion: This study established the clear correlation between the location of MaSP, as defined in CTTM, and the underlying anatomical structures. The effect of massage can stimulate skin blood flow because results showed increased skin temperature and blood flow characteristics. While these results were statistically significant, they may not be clinically relevant, as the present study focused on the immediate physiological effect of manipulation, rather than treatment effects. Thus, this study will serve as baseline data for further clinical studies in CTTM.
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Dalk (massage) is believed to be one of the oldest forms of medical care, dated thousand years back. The word "massage" is derived from Arabic word "mass" (to touch) or from the Greek word "massein" (to knead). In India, French used the term massage for the first time during 1761-1773. In Unani System of Medicine, various types of massage have been recommended for different purposes. Unani Physicians had also discussed very elaborately the types, methodology, possible mechanism of action and the diseases where Dalk is highly effective. About mechanism of action of massage there are two fundamental concepts i.e. Evacuation of morbid matter (Tanqiya-e Mawad Fasida) and Diversion of morbid humours (Imala-e Mawad Raddiya). In Modern Medicine, more than 250 known types of massage and bodyworks are known, and their use depends on the experience of the therapist and clinically desired advantage. The duration depends upon conditions of massage that may last for 15-90 minutes. Dalk tones flabby and loose muscles to make the body firm, softens hard muscular structure, dissolves morbid gases accumulated in the body, removes cold temperament of the body, relieves pain due to injury, fatigue etc. It is beneficial in debilitated and thin built people and for alignment of body posture, the treatment of various kinds of diseases like musculoskeletal ailments, nervous system abnormalities, respiratory diseases, reduction from anxiety and symptomatic relief.
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The aim of the study is to compare the acute effects of stretching, massage and stretching, hot application and stretching exercises applied on the range of motion of short hamstring muscle group on knee joint. Sixty volunteers were included in the study: age; 21.73 ± 1.5 years, height; 176 ± 5.1 cm, body weight; 73.23 ± 9.86 kg and (Body Mass Index) BMI; 23.38 ± 2.86 kg / m². The volunteers were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 people. The 1st group was stretched by 3*30 seconds with a rest period of only 10 seconds, the 2nd group was 9-12 minutes of classical massage followed by stretching and 3rd group was applied 20 minutes hot-pack afterwards stretching. Measurements of hamstring flexibilites were recorded before and immediately after interventions. Active Knee Extension (AKE) test was used to measure hamstring flexibilty. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of AKE-first measurement averages. Statistically significant differences were found in terms of AKE-end parameters of the groups. When these differences were examined, it was determined that hot-pack before stretching and massage before stretching were positive effects on increasing of stretching performance, and it was found that the effect size of the hot-pack was higher than those of the two interventions. In conclusion, this study showed that only the static stretching and stretching-induced interventions were effective in increasing the hamstring muscle length and range of motion.
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Purpose: We explored the effects of standardized calf massage in ambulant boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using a prospective study design. Materials and Methods: Twenty boys completed two study visits, 1 week apart. At both visits, each leg received a 10-min calf massage (intervention) and a 10-min control rest period (placebo) in randomized order. Muscle length of calf and hamstrings and gastrocnemius stiffness were measured by a blinded assessor before and after intervention and placebo. Measures of gait function (timed 10-m walk/run and spatio-temporal gait parameters); gastrocnemius muscle ultrasound findings; participant perception of leg pain, stiffness and effort of walking and general psychological well-being were also collected. Results: Consistent significant small increases in muscle length of soleus, gastrocnemius and hamstrings were recorded post-massage, and gastrocnemius stiffness decreased. Small changes in gastrocnemius and soleus length only were also recorded following the control rest period. Gait function and general well-being remained stable throughout. Measurement across both study visits suggested that gains in muscle length may be cumulative with repeated massage. Conclusions: Calf massage is safe and associated with benefits to muscle length and stiffness for ambulant boys with DMD. • Implications for Rehabilitation • In a small sample of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, calf massage was found to be safe, well-tolerated and associated with increased muscle length and decreased stiffness. • The use of massage may assist in managing muscle length in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
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1. Skinfold thickness, body circumferences and body density were measured in samples of 308 and ninety-five adult men ranging in age from 18 to 61 years. 2. Using the sample of 308 men, multiple regression equations were calculated to estimate body density using either the quadratic or log form of the sum of skinfolds, in combination with age, waist and forearm circumference. 3. The multiple correlations for the equations exceeded 0.90 with standard errors of approximately ±0.0073 g/ml. 4. The regression equations were cross validated on the second sample of ninety-five men. The correlations between predicted and laboratory-determined body density exceeded 0.90 with standard errors of approximately 0.0077 g/ml. 5. The regression equations were shown to be valid for adult men varying in age and fatness.
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Warm-up generates an increase in body temperature that may benefit overall physical performance. Three basic types of warm-up may be used to prepare for strenuous activity: passive, general, and specific. The best of these is specific warm-up, which not only increases the temperature of the body parts involved in the activity but also provides a rehearsal of the event that is to take place.
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In this paper, I attempt to introduce physical therapists to the most common statistical tests for analysing differences between repeated measurements over time. Using the example of ‘whole-body flexibility’ recorded at six different times of day and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), I discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches for analysing a simple one-factor design. The most important issues in test selection for repeated measures are the exploration of, and correction for, the violation of ‘sphericity’ when employing a univariate general linear model (GLM), as well as the sample size when adopting a multivariate GLM. I summarize current advice on choice of test with the aid of a ‘decision tree’, based on the results of documented statistical simulations which have investigated how the various statistical tests ‘perform’ in certain situations. Lastly, I comment on the most appropriate ways to present and interpret data drawn from serial measurements.
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A study of the effects of a conventional back massage on the autonomic activities of the body is described. Ten normal somatotyped female college students underwent three massage and three control periods. Measurements of arterial blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, body temperature, and pupil diameter were made before, during, and after each period. Subjective observations were also collected. The changes in each of the parameters between massage and control periods were hypothesized to be the consequence of the massage’s effects on the autonomic nervous system. The data were evaluated (and compared with changes expected from the known behavior of the autonomic nervous system) to test the consistency and validity of this hypothesis. The results indicate an increase in sympathetic activity in most of the indexes.
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The influence of muscle temperature (Tm) on maximal muscle strength, power output, jumping, and sprinting performance was evaluated in four male subjects. In one of the subjects the electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from M. vastus lateralis, M. biceps femoris, and M. semitendinosus. Tm ranged from 30.0 degrees C to 39 degrees C. Maximal dynamic strength, power output, jumping, and sprinting performance were positively related to Tm. The changes were in the same order of magnitude for all these parameters (4-6% x degrees C-1) Maximal isometric strength decreased by 2% x degrees C-1 with decreasing Tm. The force-velocity relationship was shifted to the left at subnormal Tm. Thus in short term exercises, such as jumping and sprinting, performance is reduced at low Tm and enhanced at Tm above normal, primarily as a result of a variation in maximal dynamic strength.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the intramuscular temperature response during an ice massage treatment. In addition, the effect of subcutaneous tissue thickness and limb circumference on temperature changes was investigated. Intramuscular temperature was measured by intramuscular thermocouples each minute during ice massage treatments of five, ten and fifteen minutes. It was shown that ice massage produces a significant drop in intramuscular temperature. However, there was no significant difference in temperature change after five minutes of treatment. In addition it was shown that there is a high multiple correlation between logarithmic time, subcutaneous tissue thickness, limb circumference, and intramuscular temperature change.
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This study examined the extent to which 10 minutes of prior exercise (PE) at a workload adjusted to maintain a heart rate (HR) of 140 beats per minute could facilitate the mobilization of the oxygen transport system in a strenuous criterion task (CT). The control treatment involved completion of the CT following 10 minutes of rest on the ergometer. Oxygen uptake was significantly higher following PE at every stage except the second 30-second period of the CT and the 60-second post-CT period. Ventilation was significantly higher following PE at every stage except the last 30 seconds of the CT and the 60-second post-CT period. HR was significantly higher following PE at every stage. Oxygen pulse was significantly higher following PE only during the 30-second pre-CT period and the first 30 seconds of the CT, indicating that the PE facilitated the mobilization of stroke volume (SV) and/or atrioventricular oxygen difference. The similar values for oxygen pulse during the last 90 seconds of the CT indicate that the higher oxygen uptake following PE was a function of higher HR, not higher SV or atrioventricular oxygen difference. (Author/JA)
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An investigation of the effect of a six-minute manual muscle massage on the excitability of the spinal reflex pathway in 20 able-bodied subjects was undertaken. H-reflex recordings were obtained from the right soleus muscle, which was the site being massaged. Skin temperature and antagonist activity were monitored in an attempt to explain the changes observed in a previous study. The experimental paradigm chosen was an A-B-A interrupted-time series design consisting of two pretreatment, two treatment (massage), and two posttreatment conditions. H-reflex amplitudes recorded during both massage conditions (.76 +/- .58 mV, .76 +/- .61 mV) were significantly reduced (F5,90 = 69.04, p less than .01) in comparison to all other (before and after) conditions (2.58 +/- .75 mV, 2.56 +/- .71 mV, 2.82 +/- 1.14 mV, and 2.89 +/- .82 mV, respectively). This decrease could not be explained conclusively by changes in skin temperature, nerve conduction velocity, or antagonist recruitment, thus indicating a decrease in spinal reflex excitability attributed to massage. These findings also support our earlier report, which stated that H-reflex amplitudes are reduced only during the period of tissue manipulation, regardless of the duration of the massage.
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Twelve male cadavers (aged 50-94 yr) were subjected to comprehensive anthropometry, dissection, and weighing of all skeletal muscle. Correlation coefficients of limb girths with total skeletal muscle mass (MM) were high: forearm r = 0.96, mid-thigh r = 0.94, calf r = 0.84, and midarm r = 0.82. These increased when limb girths were corrected (by subtracting pi times the skinfold thickness) to estimate muscle girth. For dimensional consistency, variables in the regression analyses included the product of stature and the square of each corrected girth. For the six unembalmed cadavers, this yielded a three-girth equation for MM (r2 = 0.93; SEE = 1.56 kg), which was then validated using data from the embalmed cadavers. It predicted MM with an SEE of 1.58 kg and r2 = 0.93. Because the values of these SEEs were similar, we pooled the subjects from the two groups to generate the final estimation equation: MM = STAT (0.0553CTG2 + 0.0987FG2 + 0.0331CCG2) - 2445 (SEE = 1.53 kg, r2 = 0.97), where STAT is stature (cm), CTG is thigh circumference corrected for the front thigh skinfold thickness (cm), FG is the uncorrected forearm circumference (cm), and CCG is the calf circumference corrected for the medial calf skinfold thickness (cm). Despite the limitations of the cadaver sample, the proposed equation appears to provide the best estimate of skeletal muscle mass to date, in that it is the only cadaver-validated equation and it gives values that are consistent with all known dissection data.
Article
Percussive vibratory massage has long been purported to offset the negative effects of muscular exercise. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of this type of massage on recovery from repeated submaximal contractions. Twelve male subjects performed repeated, static contractions of the quadriceps at 70% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), with periodic MVCs performed after every fourth one. This pattern continued until the subject could no longer produce the required 70% (Tlim). The entire procedure was repeated three times with rest periods between each series. The rate of fatigue (ROF) was calculated from a regression line fit to the decline of the periodic MVCs. We studied the ROF during static exercise alone, as well as during static exercise following cycling for 30 min at 75% VO2max. In the control conditions, the subjects rested for 5 min between each of the three series of contractions. In the experimental conditions the subjects received 4 min of percussive vibratory massage and 1 min of rest. The results showed that there was no significant difference in ROF in either static or following dynamic exercise between the control and vibrated conditions. Although ROF was the same in all experimental conditions. Tlim occurred sooner following dynamic exercise because the initial MVC was significantly lower than static (p less than .008). We have therefore concluded that short-term recovery from intense muscular activity is not augmented by percussive vibratory massage.
The effect of changing muscle temperature on performance of short term dynamic exercise in man was studied. Four subjects performed 20 s maximal sprint efforts at a constant pedalling rate of 95 crank rev.min-1 on an isokinetic cycle ergometer under four temperature conditions: from rest at room temperature; and following 45 min of leg immersion in water baths at 44; 18; and 12 degrees C. Muscle temperature (Tm) at 3 cm depth was respectively 36.6, 39.3, 31.9 and 29.0 degrees C. After warming the legs in a 44 degrees C water bath there was an increase of approximately 11% in maximal peak force and power (PPmax) compared with normal rest while cooling the legs in 18 and 12 degrees C water baths resulted in reductions of approximately 12% and 21% respectively. Associated with an increased maximal peak power at higher Tm was an increased rate of fatigue. Two subjects performed isokinetic cycling at three different pedalling rates (54, 95 and 140 rev.min-1) demonstrating that the magnitude of the temperature effect was velocity dependent: At the slowest pedalling rate the effect of warming the muscle was to increase PPmax by approximately 2% per degree C but at the highest speed this increased to approximately 10% per degree C.
Article
This study examined the existence of circadian rhythms in rectal temperature (Tr) and selected skin temperatures at rest and during light (82 W) and medium (147 W) exercise on a cycle ergometer. Each intensity was sustained for 5 min and then followed by a graded exercise test to exhaustion. The Tr and skin temperatures were also measured on cessation of exercise and 4 min post-exercise. Fifteen males participated, measurements covering six interspersed times of day. The mean exercise time to exhaustion of 19.83 min was independent of the time of day and caused a constant rise of 0.7 degree C in Tr. Significant rhythms were observed in Tr, Tc (chest), and Ta (arm) under all conditions: findings for Tl (leg) were nonsignificant at maximal exercise and post-exercise (P greater than 0.05). The crest time for Tl had a significant lead over that of Tr and the other skin sites which were in phase concordance, mean difference in crest times being 4.73 h at rest and 4.42 h during submaximal exercise. The results demonstrated constancy with time of day in the thermal load imposed by fixed exercise. This was reinforced when mean skin and mean body temperatures were computed. The general pattern did not apply to the exercised limb, the pre-exercise rhythm disappearing after 10 min exercise. Differential heat conductances according to skin sites are implicated in the phase differences between the leg and the other temperature sites.
Article
Competitive and recreational athletes typically perform warm-up and stretching activities to prepare for more strenuous exercise. These preliminary activities are used to enhance physical performance and to prevent sports-related injuries. Warm-up techniques are primarily used to increase body temperature and are classified in 3 major categories: (a) passive warm-up - increases temperature by some external means; (b) general warm-up - increases temperature by nonspecific body movements; and (c) specific warm-up - increases temperature using similar body parts that will be used in the subsequent, more strenuous activity. The best of these appears to be specific warm-up because this method provides a rehearsal of the activity or event. The intensity and duration of warm-up must be individualised according to the athlete's physical capabilities and in consideration of environmental factors which may alter the temperature response. The majority of the benefits of warm-up are related to temperature-dependent physiological processes. An elevation in body temperature produces an increase in the dissociation of oxygen from haemoglobin and myoglobin, a lowering of the activation energy rates of metabolic chemical reactions, an increase in muscle blood flow, a reduction in muscle viscosity, an increase in the sensitivity of nerve receptors, and an increase in the speed of nervous impulses. Warm-up also appears to reduce the incidence and likelihood of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries. Improving flexibility through stretching is another important preparatory activity that has been advocated to improve physical performance. Maintaining good flexibility also aids in the prevention of injuries to the musculoskeletal system. Flexibility is defined as the range of motion possible around a specific joint or a series of articulations and is usually classified as either static or dynamic. Static flexibility refers to the degree to which a joint can be passively moved to the end-points in the range of motion. Dynamic flexibility refers to the degree which a joint can be moved as a result of a muscle contraction and may therefore not be a good indicator of stiffness or looseness of a joint. There are 3 basic categories of stretching techniques: (a) ballistic--which makes use of repetitive bouncing movements; (b) static--which stretches the muscle to the point of slight muscle discomfort and is held for an extended period; and (c) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation - which uses alternating contractions and stretching of the muscles. Each of these stretching methods is based on the neurophysiological phenomenon involving the stretch reflex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Article
The effects of a 1-h whole body massage on blood parameters were studied in nine healthy male volunteers. The venous blood samples were drawn just before treatment, immediately after, and after 2, 24, and 48 h. The parameters measured were blood leukocyte and erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, red cell indices, the activities of serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and their isoenzymes, and the concentrations of serum sodium, potassium, total protein, haptoglobin, growth hormone, prolactin, cortisol, and plasma corticotropin. Decreases in serum haptoglobin concentrations suggested slight hemolysis. The rises in the activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and its isoenzymes LDH4 and LDH5 and in the concentrations of serum potassium are indicative of increased permeability of the muscle cells. No statistically significant changes were seen for the other parameters. There were large individual variabilities in the hormone concentrations after massage, but some trends could be seen.
Article
Five male subjects performed an endurance task (ET) following 20 min of prior exercise (PE) at work loads corresponding to approximately 30%, 45%, 60% and 75% of VO2 max. There was a 1-min rest interval between the PE and ET. The ET consisted of 10 min of walking at a speed and slope corresponding to 75% of VO2 max after which time the speed was increased by 10 m/min each minute until the subject could no longer continue. Although endurance performance was not significantly influenced by the PE-30 and PE-45, performance following PE-60 and PE-75 was significantly impaired, as was the peak VO2 attained at the end of the ET. Although O2 deficits at the beginning of the ET were reduced by the higher intensities of PE, the plasma lactate levels at the 8th min of the ET were not significantly lower under those conditions since those levels of PE led to some lactate accumulation during the PE itself. VO2 during the last 5 min of the constant load part of the ET was similar in all conditions but PE-75, during which it was higher. It is suggested that although PE might be useful for tasks in which the initial work loads are maximal or supramaximal with respect to VO2, it is of questionable value in endurance tasks that begin at a high but submaximal intensity.
Article
1. The aim of the present study was to examine muscle heat production, oxygen uptake and anaerobic energy turnover throughout repeated intense exercise to test the hypotheses that (i) energy turnover is reduced when intense exercise is repeated and (ii) anaerobic energy production is diminished throughout repeated intense exercise. 2. Five subjects performed three 3 min intense one-legged knee-extensor exercise bouts (EX1, EX2 and EX3) at a power output of 65 +/- 5 W (mean +/- S.E.M.), separated by 6 min rest periods. Muscle, femoral arterial and venous temperatures were measured continuously during exercise for the determination of muscle heat production. In addition, thigh blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood were sampled frequently during exercise for the determination of muscle oxygen uptake. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated as the difference between total energy turnover and aerobic energy turnover. 3. Prior to exercise, the temperature of the quadriceps muscle was passively elevated to 37.02 +/- 0.12 degrees C and it increased 0.97 +/- 0.08 degrees C during EX1, which was higher (P < 0.05) than during EX2 (0.79 +/- 0.05 degrees C) and EX3 (0.77 +/- 0.06 degrees C). In EX1 the rate of muscle heat accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s compared to EX2 and EX3, whereas the rate of heat release to the blood was greater (P < 0.05) throughout EX2 and EX3 compared to EX1. The rate of heat production, determined as the sum of heat accumulation and release, was the same in EX1, EX2 and EX3, and it increased (P < 0.05) from 86 +/- 8 during the first 15 s to 157 +/- 7 J s(-1) during the last 15 s of EX1. 4. Oxygen extraction was higher during the first 60 s of EX2 and EX3 than in EX 1 and thigh oxygen uptake was elevated (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s of EX2 and throughout EX3 compared to EX1. The anaerobic energy production during the first 105 s of EX2 and 150 s of EX3 was lower (P < 0.05) than in EX1. 5. The present study demonstrates that when intense exercise is repeated muscle heat production is not changed, but muscle aerobic energy turnover is elevated and anaerobic energy production is reduced during the first minutes of exercise.
Article
To determine the effects of pre-warming on the human metabolic and thermoregulatory responses to prolonged steady-rate exercise in moderate ambient temperatures and relative humidities [means (SD) 21.7 (2.1)° C and 36.7 (5.4)%, respectively], six healthy men each ran at a steady-rate (70% maximal oxygen uptake) on a treadmill until exhausted after being actively pre-warmed (AH), passively pre-warmed (PH), and rested (Cont). Exercise time to exhaustion was significantly reduced following both AH and PH compared to Cont [AH 47.8 (14.0) min, PH 39.6 (16.0) min, Cont 62.0 (8.8) min; P<0.05]. During exercise there were no significant differences in oxygen uptake, total sweat loss, mean skin temperature (Tsk) and the thermal gradient (T re–Tsk, where T re is rectal temperature) following the three conditions. Serum prolactin, plasma catecholamine and plasma free fatty acid concentrations were also similar between all three trials. In contrast, T re, mean body temperature, heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the initial 25 min of exercise following both AH and PH, compared with Cont (P<0.05). At exhaustion, there were no significant differences in the metabolic and thermoregulatory responses to exercise between the trials. The current findings demonstrate that AH and PH promote a reduction in prolonged submaximal endurance performance under moderate environmental temperatures compared with pre-exercise rest. Such observations appear likely to have been mediated through mechanisms associated with the earlier development of high internal body temperature which resulted in changes in the capacity for heat storage.