A review and rationale for studying the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic in women of reproductive age

ArticleinToxicology and Applied Pharmacology 222(3):344-50 · September 2007with1 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2007.02.016 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Drinking water arsenic has been shown to be associated with a host of adverse health outcomes at exposure levels >300 microg of As/L. However, the results are not consistent at exposures below this level. We have reviewed selected articles that examine the effects of drinking water arsenic on cardiovascular outcomes and present a rationale for studying these effects on women of reproductive age, and also over the course of pregnancy when they would potentially be more susceptible to adverse cardiovascular and reproductive outcomes. It is only recently that reproductive effects have been linked to drinking water arsenic. However, there is a paucity of information about the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic on women of reproductive age. Under the cardiovascular challenge of pregnancy, we hypothesize that women with a slightly elevated exposure to drinking water arsenic may exhibit adverse cardiovascular outcomes at higher rates than in the general population. Studying sensitive clinical and sub-clinical indicators of disease in susceptible sub-populations may yield important information about the potentially enormous burden of disease related to low-level drinking water arsenic exposure.
    • "Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License contaminant of groundwater in certain parts of the world (Kwok, 2007; Chowdhury et al., 2000; Hughes et al., 2011) as a result of its leaching into aquifers from surrounding arsenic-rich geological formation (World Health Organization (WHO), 2001). Anthropogenically, it majorly finds its way into the environment as a result of metal smelting operations (Ng, 2005). "
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2016
    • "In recent years, exposure to high levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) through consumption of contaminated drinking water, concentrations above 10 g/L and frequently greater than 50 g/L, has been associated with the development of a number of chronic human health effects (Kwok, 2007; Tseng, 2008; Zheng et al., 2014). Yet, few data are available to evaluate the impact of more widespread low-moderate levels of drinking water iAs contamination, those less than 10 g/L (van Halem et al., 2009), in particular among women of reproductive age. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a pilot study of associations between drinking water contaminated by inorganic arsenic (iAs), mostly <10μg/L, and self-reported chronic diseases in 297 pregnant women. Adjusted for confounding variables, we identified a positive association between iAs and heart disease (OR=1.63, 95%CI 0.81-3.04, p=0.094), which was stronger for women living at their current residence ≥10 years (OR=2.47, 95%CI 0.87-10.43, p=0.058). Confounder-adjusted associations were also suggested for iAs with kidney disease (OR=1.32, 95%CI 0.77-2.21, p=0.265) and with high blood pressure (OR=1.36, 95%CI 0.68-2.39, p=0.300). A post hoc power analysis indicated the need for a larger study with more statistical power.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
    • "Several studies have associated high-level of arsenic exposure from drinking water with elevated risk of vascular diseases, including peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and carotid atherosclerosis [6] . Epidemiological studies reported increased incidence of hypertension in arsenic-exposed populations789. Further, evidences showed that arsenic induced hypertension in rats [10,11] and mice [12] in AngII signaling. Further, since AngII-induced signal transduction could involve activation of Nox, we examined if the modulation could be associated with alteration in vascular redox homeostasis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The groundwater pollutant arsenic can cause various cardiovascular disorders. Angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, plays an important role in vascular dysfunction by promoting changes in endothelial function, vascular reactivity, tissue remodeling and oxidative stress. We investigated whether modulation of angiotensin II signaling and redox homeostasis could be a mechanism contributing to arsenic-induced vascular disorder. Rats were exposed to arsenic at 25, 50 and 100ppm of sodium arsenite through drinking water consecutively for 90days. Blood pressure was recorded weekly. On the 91st day, the rats were sacrificed for blood collection and isolation of thoracic aorta. Angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II levels were assessed in plasma. Aortic reactivity to angiotensin II was assessed in organ-bath system. Western blot of AT1 receptors and G protein (Gαq/11), ELISA of signal transducers of MAP kinase pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed in aorta. Arsenic caused concentration-dependent increase in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure from the 10th, 8th and 7th week onwards, respectively. Arsenic caused concentration-dependent enhancement of the angiotensin II-induced aortic contractile response. Arsenic also caused concentration-dependent increase in the plasma levels of angiotensin II and angiotensin converting enzyme and the expression of aortic AT1 receptor and Gαq/11 proteins. Arsenic increased aortic protein kinase C activity and the concentrations of protein tyrosine kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Further, arsenic increased aortic mRNA expression of Nox2, Nox4 and p22phox, NADPH oxidase activity and ROS generation. The results suggest that arsenic-mediated enhancement of angiotensin II signaling could be an important mechanism in the arsenic-induced vascular disorder, where ROS could augment the angiotensin II signaling through activation of MAP kinase pathway. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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