ArticlePDF Available

Effectiveness of Dried Carica papaya Seeds Against Human Intestinal Parasitosis: A Pilot Study



The tropical fruit Carica papaya and its seeds have proven antihelminthic and anti-amoebic activities. To determine the effectiveness of air-dried C. papaya seeds on human intestinal parasitosis, 60 asymptomatic Nigerian children with stool microscopic evidence of intestinal parasites received immediate doses (20 mL) of either an elixir composed with air-dried C. papaya seeds and honey (CPH) or honey alone (placebo) in two randomized treatment groups. Repeat stool microscopic examinations were conducted 7 days postintervention for intestinal parasites. Significantly more subjects given CPH elixir than those given honey had their stools cleared of parasites [23 of 30 (76.7%) vs. five of 30 (16.7%); z = 4.40, P = .0000109]. There were no harmful effects. The stool clearance rate for the various types of parasites encountered was between 71.4% and 100% following CPH elixir treatment compared with 0-15.4% with honey. Thus, air-dried C. papaya seeds are efficacious in treating human intestinal parasites and without significant side effects. Their consumption offers a cheap, natural, harmless, readily available monotherapy and preventive strategy against intestinal parasitosis, especially in tropical communities. Further and large-scale intervention studies to compare C. papaya with standard antiparasitic preparation are desirous.
J Med Food 10 (1) 2007, 194–196
© Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2005.065
Short Communication
Effectiveness of Dried Carica papaya Seeds Against Human Intestinal Parasitosis:
A Pilot Study
John A.O. Okeniyi,
Tinuade A. Ogunlesi,
Oyeku A. Oyelami,
and Lateef A. Adeyemi
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University,
Ile-Ife; and Departments of
Paediatrics and
Microbiology and Parasitology, Wesley Guild Hospital,
Ilesa, Nigeria
ABSTRACT The tropical fruit Carica papaya and its seeds have proven antihelminthic and anti-amoebic activities. To de-
termine the effectiveness of air-dried C. papaya seeds on human intestinal parasitosis, 60 asymptomatic Nigerian children
with stool microscopic evidence of intestinal parasites received immediate doses (20 mL) of either an elixir composed with
air-dried C. papaya seeds and honey (CPH) or honey alone (placebo) in two randomized treatment groups. Repeat stool mi-
croscopic examinations were conducted 7 days postintervention for intestinal parasites. Significantly more subjects given CPH
elixir than those given honey had their stools cleared of parasites [23 of 30 (76.7%) vs. five of 30 (16.7%); z4.40, P
.0000109]. There were no harmful effects. The stool clearance rate for the various types of parasites encountered was between
71.4% and 100% following CPH elixir treatment compared with 0–15.4% with honey. Thus, air-dried C. papaya seeds are
efficacious in treating human intestinal parasites and without significant side effects. Their consumption offers a cheap, nat-
ural, harmless, readily available monotherapy and preventive strategy against intestinal parasitosis, especially in tropical com-
munities. Further and large-scale intervention studies to compare C. papaya with standard antiparasitic preparation are de-
KEY WORDS: amoebiasis ascariasis giardiasis helminths honey ova parasites pawpaw stool
constitutes a significant
global health problem with enormous financial impli-
Unfortunately, for reasons mainly attributable to
poor hygiene,
the burden is more in the tropics and sub-
tropics where, particularly among children,
cause noteworthy morbidity such as anemia, diarrhea and
dysentery, malnutrition, apathy, and underdevelopment as
well as severe acute abdominal and surgical conditions.
As most patients particularly from the tropics and partic-
ularly from Africa are from low socioeconomic groups who
can ill-afford imported and expensive medicines,
the need
for affordable and readily available local alternatives can-
not be overemphasized. Carica papaya, a fruit plant also
called papaya, papaw, pawpaw, mamao, or tree melon, is
found in virtually every tropical and subtropical country.
C. papaya contains proven antihelminthic
chemical agents
such as benzyl isothiocyanate and papain
and has other
antiparasitic properties.
In folk medicine, C. papaya
seeds have been used to treat helminthiasis.
Thus, we eval-
uated the antiparasitic effects of dried C. papaya seeds. It is
hoped that the information obtained will provide guidance
for further research that may ultimately assist in the formu-
lation of necessary preventive and treatment strategies
against intestinal parasitosis, particularly in tropical com-
Between November 1, 2003 and January 30, 2004, in the
Children’s Welfare Clinic of the Wesley Guild Hospital,
Ilesa, Nigeria, consecutive children 2–6 years old with nor-
mal weight and height for age and no health complaints were
screened with light microscopic examination of wet prepa-
rations of freshly passed stools to confirm the presence of
intestinal parasites, their cysts, trophozoites, larvae, or ova.
Manuscript received 17 October 2005. Revision accepted 10 January 2006.
Address reprint requests to Dr. John A.O. Okeniyi at his present address: Department of
Paediatrics and Child Health, Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa. P.M.B. 5011, Ilesa, Osun
State, Nigeria, E-mail:
Following informed parental consents, a total of 60 children
with seven different species of intestinal parasites were re-
cruited into this study.
C. papaya seeds and natural honey were harvested from
an apiary of one of the investigators (O.A.O). The seeds
were air-dried and then machine-blended. An elixir of the
air-dried C. papaya seeds and honey (CPH) was prepared
by mixing 500 g of the blend with honey to make a total
preparation volume of 1,000 mL, i.e., 0.2 g of dried C. pa-
paya seeds/mL. Each subject received immediately received
an oral dose of either 20 mL (equivalent to 4 g of dried,
blended C. papaya seeds) of the CPH elixir or honey alone
in two randomized treatment groups. Thus, honey served not
only as the means of administration of the C. papaya seeds
but also as the placebo/control. All the subjects were ad-
vised to abstain from honey and C. papaya during the study
period. The children then had repeat stool microscopic ex-
amination 7 days later conducted by the same laboratory sci-
entist (L.A.A), who was blinded to each subject’s treatment.
Histories of gastrointestinal symptoms and other possible
side effects were further documented. Data were analyzed
using with the computer program for epidemiologists (PEPI)
version 3.01.
Means and standard deviations were com-
pared using Student’s ttest and proportions by the z-scores
at 95% confidence interval (CI). Values of P.05 were
considered statistically significant.
Sixty children (41 boys and 19 girls) between 3 and 6
years of age (mean, 4.6 1.1 years) with stool microscopic
evidence of intestinal parasites were recruited, with 30
(50.0%) each treated with CPH elixir or honey. Table 1 de-
tails the types of intestinal parasites and the comparison of
stool clearance in both treatment groups. The most preva-
lent intestinal parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides, Enta-
moeba histolytica, Necator americanus, and Strongyloides
stercoralis, found in 26 (43.3%), 14 (23.3%), nine (15.0%),
and eight (13.3%) of the 60 children, respectively. Only two
(3.3%) children (one in each treatment group) had Taenia
saginata. Fifty-one (85.0%) of the children had single par-
asites only, while nine (15.0%) had polyparasitism; in ad-
dition to A. lumbricoides, six (10.0%) had E. histolytica, and
the remaining three (5.0%) had N. americanus. Among the
children with multiple parasites, five received CPH elixir,
and four had honey treatment.
CPH elixir demonstrated a high stool clearance efficacy
against A. lumbricoides (84.6%) and S. stercoralis (100%)
with statistically significant differences compared with
honey. Although CPH demonstrated 100% efficacy against
Trichuris trichuria, Giardia lamblia, and T. saginata, com-
pared with honey, the efficacy in each instance did not reach
the accepted level of statistical significance. Also, despite a
high stool clearance rate for E. histolytica (71.4%) and N.
americanus (80.0%), these were not statistically significant
relative to honey. Overall, the stools of 23 of 30 (76.67%)
subjects given the CPH elixir compared with five of 30
(16.67%) given honey alone were cleared of parasites (stan-
dard error 0.1029; 95% CI 0.3649; 0.8351, z4.40;
There were no significant adverse effects, though two of
30 (6.7%) children given the CPH elixir had transient com-
plaints on the day the treatments were given. One had nau-
sea, while the other had an episode of loose stools. None of
the children who received honey alone had complaints. The
difference in the proportion of children with complaints in
either treatment group was not statistically significant (stan-
dard error 0.0456; 95% CI 0.0559, 0.1893; z0.72;
Our high stool parasite clearance rates of between 71.4%
and 100% are an affirmation of the effectiveness of C. pa-
paya seeds against intestinal parasites.
A. lumbricoides,
the most prevalent intestinal helminth (a nematode), was ef-
fectively cleared. Probably because of the limited sample
population, our findings lacked statistical significance de-
spite demonstrable and absolute parasite clearance of cer-
tain other helminths, including a cestode, T. saginata. Our
1. T
Clearance Statistical values
Parasite (number of children CPH elixir Honey-alone z
with parasite) group group score 95% CI P
A. lumbricoides (n26)
11/13 (84.6%)
2/13 (15.4%) 3.14 0.3376, 1.0464 .002
E. histolytica (n14 5/7 (71.4%) 1/7 (14.3%) 1.62 0.0047, 1.1373 .106
N. americanus (n9)
4/5 (80.0%) 1/4 (25.0%) 0.98 0.2255, 1.3255 .330
S. stercoralis (n8) 4/4 (100%) 0/4 (0%) 2.12 0.0075, 1.2500 .034
T. trichuria (n6) 3/3 (100%) 0/3 (0%) 1.63 0.6667, 1.3333 .102
G. lamblia (n4) 2/2 (100%) 1/2 (50.0%) 0.00 0.6930, 1.6930 1.000
T. saginata (n2) 1/1 (100%) 0/1 (0%) 0.00 0.0000, 2.0000 1.000
Number (%) of children with stools cleared on parasite/total number of children with the same parasite.
Some children had multiple parasites.
observation of over 70% effectiveness against E. histolytica
was also watered-down by the lack of statistical significance
compared with the honey placebo. Papaya had previously
been documented as having anti-amoebic properties.
had earlier reported a case of hypersensitiv-
ity reaction to papaya. However, it was gratifying to note
the absence of untoward effects in both treatment groups.
This was indeed our expectation ab initio considering the
facts that C. papaya and its seeds are edible
and widely
consumed by both humans and animals in the tropics,
though the seeds are less favored because of less palata-
bility. This was why we opted to use honey, a natural
sweetener, as vehicle for our elixir. The transient nausea
and loose stools observed among two of our subjects may
be unrelated to our elixir in view of the fact that all our
subjects had intestinal parasitosis, which may present with
these features.
The mechanisms of action of C. papaya are not fully elu-
though it clearly has antihelminthic activity
other immunomodulatory activities.
Though intestinal par-
asite clearance by honey, our placebo in this study, was un-
expected, it is still noteworthy. Could there be a possible
antihelminthic property to honey? Our observations are at
best inconclusive in view of the low clearance rate. This
finding may be a spurious occurrence or possibly a demon-
stration of minimal antihelminthic properties to honey. Also,
could the honey have had synergistic or inhibitory effects
on the therapeutic properties of the C. papaya seeds? Fur-
ther large-scale human studies are required to provide a con-
clusive clarification.
It is conceivable that C. papaya, which thrives effort-
can be much more readily available and affordable
still if commercial and subsistence farming of the papaya
plant was encouraged in tropical communities. Also, future
studies may revolutionize preventive or therapeutic care
against intestinal parasites by determining the minimal
amounts of C. papaya seeds or its active ingredients required
to be consumed. There is that old English adage that “an ap-
ple a day keeps the doctor away.” Could a papaya a day also
do the same? Especially judging from its luxuriant growth
in the tropics and its richness in -carotene, the main pre-
cursor of vitamin A,
a vitamin reputed to be a magic bul-
let in childhood survival.
We conclude that C. papaya
seeds could be beneficial in the treatment and plausibly pre-
vention of intestinal parasites, more so being readily avail-
able, harmless, and cheap. We therefore recommend their
consumption for not only for their nutritive but their medi-
cinal value.
We wish to thank our numerous subjects and their par-
ents for their cooperation.
1. Patel SS, Kazura JW, Hotez PJ, King CH, Blanton R: Helminthic
diseases. In: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 17
ed., International
Edition (Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB, eds), W.B.
Saunders, Philadelphia, 2004, pp. 1155–1174.
2. Hendrickse RG: Parasitic diseases. In: Paediatrics in the Tropics
(Hendrickse RG, Barr DGD, Matthews TS, eds.), Blackwell Sci-
entific Publications, Oxford, 1991, pp. 695–764.
3. Fagbenro-Beyioku AF, Oyerinde JPO: Parasitic intestinal infec-
tions of children in Lagos. Nigerian J Paediatr 1987;14:89–95.
4. Ene-Obong HN, Irogbu CU, Uwaegbute AC: Perceived causes
and management of diarrhoea in young children by market women
in Enugu State, Nigeria. J Health Popul Nutr 2000;18:97–102.
5. Oyedeji GA: Socio-economic and cultural background of hospi-
talised children in Ilesa. Nigerian J Paediatr 1985;12:111–117.
6. Duke JA: Carica papaya.
duke_energy/Carica_papaya.html (accessed September 21, 2005).
7. Siddiqui MA, Haseeb A, Alam MM: Evaluation of nematicidal prop-
erties in some latex bearing plants. Indian J Nematol 1987;17:99–102.
8. Kumar D, Mishra SK, Tripathi HC: Mechanism of anthelmintic
action of benzylisothiocyanate. Fitoterapia 1991;62:403–410.
9. Kermanshai R, Mc Carry BE, Rosenfeld J, Summers PS, Weretil-
nyk EA, Surger GJ: Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole an-
tihelmenthic in papaya seed extracts. Phytochemistry 2001;57:
10. Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Cimanga K, Vlietinck AJ: Anti-
amoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medi-
cinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;61:57–65.
11. Ghosh NK, Babu SPS, Sukul NC: Antifilarial effect of a plant
Carica papaya. Jpn J Trop Med Hyg 1998;26:117–119.
12. Raintree’s Nutrition. Carica papaya. In: Tropical Plant Database. (accessed September 21,
13. Abramson JH, Gahlinger PM: Computer Programs for Epidemi-
ologists: PEPI Version 3.01, USD Inc., Stone Mountain, GA,
14. Ezeoke ACJ: Hypersensitivity to paw-paw (Carica papaya): re-
port of a case. Afr J Med Med Sci 1985;14:121–124.
15. Mojica-Henshaw MP, Francisco AD, De Guzman F, Tigno XT:
Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed ex-
tract. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2003;29:219–229.
16. Sommer A: Vitamin A Deficiency and Its Consequences: A Field
Guide to Detection and Control, 3
ed., World Health Organiza-
tion, Geneva, 1995.
This article has been cited by:
1. Farhan Saeed, Muhammad Umair Arshad, Imran Pasha, Rabia Naz, Rizwana Batool, Ammar Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Adnan
Nasir, Bilal Shafique. 2014. Nutritional and Phyto-Therapeutic Potential of Papaya ( Carica Papaya Linn. ): An Overview.
International Journal of Food Properties 17:7, 1637-1653. [CrossRef]
2. Theeshan Bahorun, Vidushi S. Neergheen-Bhujun, Mayuri Dhunnoo, Okezie I. AruomaPhytomedicines, Functional Foods,
Nutraceuticals, and Their Regulation in Africa 401-417. [CrossRef]
3. Elisa Panzarini, Majdi Dwikat, Stefania Mariano, Cristian Vergallo, Luciana Dini. 2014. Administration Dependent Antioxidant
Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 1-13. [CrossRef]
4. Edda Sciutto, Gladis Fragoso, Marisela Hernández, Gabriela Rosas, José J. Martínez, Agnès Fleury, Jacquelynne Cervantes, Aline
Aluja, Carlos Larralde. 2013. Development of the S3Pvac Vaccine Against Murine Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis: A Historical
Review. Journal of Parasitology 99:4, 693-702. [CrossRef]
5. Yarnell Eric, Abascal Kathy. 2012. Transgenic Herbal Medicines: Exploring Potential Harms and Benefits. Alternative and
Complementary Therapies 18:6, 297-300. [Citation] [Full Text PDF] [Full Text PDF with Links]
6. Jiwan S. SidhuTropical Fruit II: Production, Processing and Quality of Guava, Lychee, and Papaya 591-628. [CrossRef]
7. K. Kovendan, K. Murugan, C. Panneerselvam, N. Aarthi, P. Mahesh Kumar, J. Subramaniam, D. Amerasan, K. Kalimuthu, S.
Vincent. 2012. Antimalarial activity of Carica papaya (Family: Caricaceae) leaf extract against Plasmodium falciparum. Asian Pacific
Journal of Tropical Disease 2, S306-S311. [CrossRef]
8. Deepa Iyer, B.K. Sharma, U.K. Patil. 2011. Effect of ether- and water-soluble fractions of Carica papaya ethanol extract in
experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Pharmaceutical Biology 49:12, 1306-1310. [CrossRef]
9. Nisar Ahmad, Hina Fazal, Muhammad Ayaz, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Ijaz Mohammad, Lubna Fazal. 2011. Dengue fever treatment
with Carica papaya leaves extracts. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 1:4, 330-333. [CrossRef]
10. Ibrahim ADEKUNLE Oreagba, Kazeem ADEOLA Oshikoya, Mercy Amachree. 2011. Herbal medicine use among urban
residents in Lagos, Nigeria. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11:1, 117. [CrossRef]
11. Paula Melariri, William Campbell, Paschal Etusim, Peter Smith. 2011. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided
Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves. Journal of Parasitology Research 2011, 1-7. [CrossRef]
12. A.C. Ezike, P.A. Akah, C.O. Okoli, N.A. Ezeuchenne, S. Ezeugwu. 2009. Carica papaya (Paw-Paw) Unripe Fruit May Be Beneficial
in Ulcer. Journal of Medicinal Food 12:6, 1268-1273. [Abstract] [Full Text PDF] [Full Text PDF with Links]
13. Maria Liza M Gonzales, Leonila F Dans, Elizabeth G Martinez, Maria Liza M GonzalesAntiamoebic drugs for treating amoebic
colitis . [CrossRef]
14. J BURKE, A WELLS, P CASEY, J MILLER. 2009. Garlic and papaya lack control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats and
lambs. Veterinary Parasitology 159:2, 171-174. [CrossRef]
... The seeds of the papaya fruit have been traditionally used in folk medicine to treat various ailments, including helminthiasis. [24] Research studies have investigated the potential of Carica papaya seeds extract as an anthelmintic agent. Several studies have shown promising results, indicating that the extract has the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of various helminths. ...
... Trichuristrichiura, and hookworms. [24] One such potential herbal remedy is Carica papaya seeds extract. Carica papaya, also known as papaya, is a tropical fruit that is widely cultivated for its edible fruit and medicinal ...
... In traditional medicine, papaya has been used for its various medicinal properties, including its anthelmintic effects. [24] The seeds of the papaya fruit have been reported to possess anthelmintic properties and have been used in the treatment of helminthiasis. The anthelmintic properties of papaya seeds are due to the presence of several active compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. ...
Full-text available
Carica papaya is a tropical fruit with a long history of traditional use in folk medicine. One of its potential therapeutic applications is for the treatment of helminthiasis, a parasitic infection that affects millions of people worldwide. Carica papaya seeds have been shown to possess anthelmintic properties, making them a promising natural alternative to synthetic drugs. This review article provides a comprehensive analysis of the potential of Carica papaya seed extract as a herbal jelly for the treatment of helminthiasis. The article discusses the various bioactive compounds present in the extract and their potential mechanisms of action against helminths. It also explores the current state of research on the efficacy and safety of Carica papaya seed extract as a treatment for helminthiasis, highlighting the need for further studies to establish its clinical efficacy.
... 22 5 papaya supports this possibility (22)(23)(24). It derives its activity from proteolytic enzymes that are present in papaya latex, such as caricain, chymopapain, papain, and glycyl endopeptidase, which eliminates a large percentage of intestinal parasites without significant side effects (23,(25)(26)(27). It has also been reported that papain, which is an enzyme that accompanies chymopapain as an enzyme component, is capable of dissolving the keratin or chitin that covers the bodies of intestinal helminths (28). ...
Full-text available
Parasitic diseases are a major public health problem worldwide. Plant-derived products appear to be ideal candidates from a biotechnological perspective, being sustainable and environmentally friendly. The antiparasitic properties of Carica papaya have been attributed to some of its components, including papain and other compounds that are concentrated in the latex and seeds. This study demonstrated in vitro a high and insignificantly different cysticidal activity of soluble extract that was obtained after the disruption of nontransformed wild-type (WT) cells as well as transformed papaya calluses (PC-9, PC-12, and PC-23) and papaya cell suspensions (CS-9, CS-12, and CS-23). In vivo, cell suspensions of CS-WT and CS-23 that had been previously lyophilized were tested with respect to their cysticidal effects, compared with those of three commercial antiparasitic drugs. CS-WT and CS-23 together reduced the number of cysticerci, the number of buds, and the percentage of calcified cysticerci in a similar extent to albendazole and niclosamide, whereas ivermectin was less effective. Mice were then orally immunized with CS-23 that expressed the anti-cysticercal KETc7 antigen (10 μg/mouse), CS-WT (10 mg/mouse), or both together to evaluate their preventive properties. CS-23 and CS-WT significantly reduced the expected parasite and increased the percentage of calcified cysticerci as well as recovery, being more effective when employed together. The results reported in this study support the feasibility of the development of an anti-cysticercosis vaccine from cells of C. papaya in in vitro cultures, as they are a source of an anthelmintic, natural, and reproducible product.
... are the good sources of amino acid and protein and also used as a vermifuge (Okeniyi et al. 2007). ...
Full-text available
Plant extracts due to its antimicrobial property can effectively inhibit the growth of the pathogen and eco-friendly in nature, whereas microbial antagonists have shown greater potential in substituting the synthetic fungicides for the control of postharvest decay of fruits. Among the seven plant extracts and five cultural filtrate of bioagents tested for the post-harvest management of papaya black spot disease caused by Asperisporium caricae in vivo, Allium sativum was highly effective in maintaining lesser infection percentage (9.87%) at 40 per cent concentration for ten minutes dipping of fruits in the extract, which was significantly superior over Prosopis juliflora (11.21%), Vitex negunda (12.06%), Lawsonia inermis (13.65%), Ocimum sanctum (15.62%) and Lantana camara (17.63%) Azadirachta indica (20.15%). Among all the cultural filtrate of bioagents tested, Trichoderma viride was effective in maintaining lesser infection percentage (0.32%) at 100 per cent concentration followed by Bacillus subtilis (0.93%), T. harzianum (2.76%), B. megaterium (5.13%) and Pseudomonas fluorescence (5.96%). This study provides the evidence for the potential plant extracts and bioagents in post-harvest management of papaya black spot disease.
... Pawpaw (C. papaya L.) is also said to improve the immune system and prevents illnesses such as recurrent ear infections, colds and flu (Okeniyi et al., 2007). This plant has been recommended as an anti-ulcerogenic, anti-amoebic, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-tumour, hypolipidaemic and employ in wound-healing activity, free radical scavenging activity, diuretic activity, uterotonic activity and antifertility activity (Krishna et al., 2008). ...
... had recently been linked to curing sickle cell diseases (Imaga et al., 2009), poisoning renal disorder (Olagunju et al., 2009) and as an anti-helminthes(Okeniyi et al., 2007). There is scarce information on this relatively underutilizes see despite its importance. ...
Full-text available
The fermentation of pawpaw seeds (Carica papaya Linn.) on weight of albino rats was investigated. Fresh pawpaw seeds were fermented for six days and the microbial populations for the fermentation were determined using standard microbiological techniques. Proximate analysis as well as temperature, pH and titratable acidity were carried out on the fermented seeds. Five rats were fed with dried and grinded pawpaw seeds after two weeks of acclimatization. The microbial population of bacteria and fungi was between 3.9 x 10 8 cfu/ml to 4.6 x10 8 cfu/ml and 2.0 x 10 3 sfu/ml to 3.2 x 10 3 sfu/ml respectively during fermentation. Four different bacteria and five fungi were identified, Micrococcus roseus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Neurospora crassa, Brachysporium nigrum, Articulospora inflaxa. Moisture content of the fresh seeds was 67.37% while fermented was 11.34%. Ash, fat, fibre and crude protein contents for fermented pawpaw seeds were higher than the fresh seeds. The pH of fermented seeds of pawpaw during fermentation was 4.80 on the first day and 4.15 on the fourth day. On feeding the rats with dried grinded pawpaw seeds they all gained weight. Fermented dried pawpaw seeds can be used as food supplements for animal feeds.
... In the present study, reduction of parasite loads with aqueous extracts of C. papaya was attributed to papain, which was capable to digest bacteria and parasitic cells (Fajimi and Taiwo, 2005). However, Okeniyi et al. (2007) reported that more large-scale intervention studies comparing C. papaya with standard anti-parasitic drugs was a must. Also, Cock et al. (2018) reported that many plant species used to treat amebic diarrhea must be tested against the E. histolytica itself. ...
Background & objective: The kidney plays a dominant role in homeostasis by excreting the metabolic waste products and excess of necessary substances. It is a major excretory organ regulating water and electrolyte balance and conserving necessary products according to body needs. Nephrotoxicity is one of the most common kidney problems. A number of therapeutic agents can adversely affect the kidney resulting in acute renal failure, chronic interstitial nephritis and nephritic syndrome. Nephroprotective agents are the substances which possess protective activity against Nephrotoxicity. Early literatures have prescribed several herbal and medicinal plants, that are used as nephroprotective agents. Several herbal and medicinal plants are used as nephroprotective agents in experimental animals. Carica papaya was reported to have antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The present study was performed to determine the nephroprotective role of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced nephrotoxic rats. Methods: For the purpose of the study 28 healthy, male, wistar albino rats were taken and randomly divided into four groups (Group-A, Group-B, Group-C, and Group-D), each group formed of 7 rats. Group A received laboratory diet for 7 days. Group B received laboratory diet for 7 days. Group C and group D received aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds (CPE) 250 mg/kg/day and 500 mg/kg/day respectively for 7 days. On 8th day a single intraperitoneal injection of 1.5 ml/kg of 20% CCl4 dissolved in olive oil was given to the rats of group B, group C and group D for induction of nephrotoxicity. All the animals were sacrificed on 11th day and their blood and kidney samples were collected. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid were estimated and histopathology of kidney was done. Result: Result showed that the highest level of serum creatinine and urea were exhibited by the rats of Group-B and lowest level by the rats of Group-A. The levels of the same biochemical variables in Group-C and Group-D were in between the levels found in Group-A & Group-B (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001 respectively). The serum creatinine and urea levels remain normal and histopathological architecture was almost maintained in rats, treated with aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds 500 mg/kg/day before nephrotoxicity induced in them by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injection, although these biochemical values were elevated and histopathological structure was altered in rats, treated with Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injection and no CPE was given before (Group-B). The study also revealed that Carica papaya seeds 500 mg/kg/day was more protective than 250 mg/kg/day as was evidenced by lower serum urea level in the Group-D (31.73 ± 4.29 mg/dl) than that in Group-C (52.47 ± 5.38 mg/dl) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The study concluded that Carica papaya seeds have nephroprotective activity against nephrotoxic effect of CCl4. Renal histological architecture was almost maintained by Carica papaya. Higher dose of Carica papaya provides better protection. Ibrahim Card Med J 2022; 12 (1): 9-17
Full-text available
In the present study local information, morphology, medicinally uses, collection, stomata studies and phytochemical screening analysis of cirsium arvense has been done. C.arvense is an herbaceous wild plants belong to family asteraceae. The local information about this plant were collected from the local people of that area (Mardan). In the March to April it emerges with flower and stem from the soil. The ideal conditions for growth are high moisture content, high humidity and a temperature of around about 25 C0. This plants are used as antifungal, antiamoebic, antifeedant, antiviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, allergies, sores, anemia, fever, skin diseases and as tonic blood purifier,vermifuge,aborative and insecticide etc. The phytochemical screening analysis of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, phenols has been analyzed which show the presence or absence of these chemical compounds. The carbohydrate in leaf extract, the methanolic extract have carbohydrate present while in the distilled water extract and ethanolic extract was in not present. The carbohydrate in root extract, the methanolic extract shows presence and ethanolic extract shows more presence while the distilled water extract shows absence. The alkaloid in leaf extract, in the ethanolic extract is not present while methanolic extract is present and in distilled water in more amount present. The Alkaloid in root extract, the methanolic extract shows most presence and ethanolic extract shows presence while the distilled water extract shows more presence. The saponins in leaf extract, in the methanolic and ethanolic extract shows presence while in the distilled water have most presence.
Food and agricultural by-products are leftovers or wastes from parts of foods, fruits, vegetables and animal sources which are obtained after processing. Agricultural by-products includes peels and rinds from citrus fruits, pineapple, mango, and banana. Other notable ones are pomace from apple, olive, red beet, and those from wine making. Also, whey from milk, straws, hulls, and brans from grains are among top agricultural by-products. These by-products often impact the environment and the social-economic sectors when they are disposed. But with the recent advances in biotechnology and scientific research, scientists have found usefulness in some of these byproducts as sources of valuable nutraceuticals, a term used to refer to chemical entities present in foods that has the propensity to impact health for disease prevention and treatment. This book entitled ‘Food and agricultural by-products as important source of valuable nutraceuticals’ presents detailed information about major agricultural byproducts that are rich in nutraceuticals. The nature and the type of nutraceuticals that they contains and their health promoting benefits were presented. The editors and chapter contributors are renowned experts from key institutions around the globe. This book will be useful to students, teachers, food chemists, nutritionists, nutritional biochemists, food biotechnologists among others.
Full-text available
This research work covers the morphological characterization of banana peel powder as an adsorbent for effluent treatment. The aim of this research is to analyze the morphological characteristics of the banana peel sample using BET, SEM, TGA, FTIR, XRD, proximate and ultimate characterization techniques. The banana peel sample was washed, sun-dried for three days, blended, and sieved to obtain fine powder before undergoing characterization. SEM images showed the rough microstructure of the sample. The TGA plot showed that the sample degraded at 270-350 0 C and decomposed at 450-500 0 C. FTIR spectra showed peaks of 3441.00 cm-1 , 2969.96cm-1, 2929.20cm-1, 2870.92 cm-1 , 1799.38 cm-1 , 872.86 cm-1 , 707.79 cm-1 and 366.38 cm-1. The XRD diffractogram showed two major peaks at 2θ values of 12 and 28 degrees at intensities of 960 and 780 respectively. Ultimate analysis showed the values of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and the calorific value as 65.50+0.3, 5.96+0.3, 10.80+0.2, 1.14+0.1, 0.80+0.3, and 20.62 respectively. Proximate analysis showed 7.60+0.4, 18.45+0.2, 30.70+0.4, and 43.45+0.7 for moisture, ash, fixed carbon, and volatile content. BET analysis showed that the sample had a surface area of 1065.435 m²/g, pore volume of 0.150060 cm³/g and pore size of 38.4041 A. In conclusion, banana peel powder can be used as a natural source of adsorbent that will benefit the society as a whole rather than being discarded as waste. This will not only conserve the environment, but it could also be a low-cost natural adsorbent.
Full-text available
The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.
Full-text available
Objective: To determine the antimalarial activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Carica papaya (C. papaya), blood stages of CQ-sensitive and CQ resistant strains against Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) as target species. Methods: C. papaya leaf was collected in and around Kalveerampalyam village, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves). The powder 500g of the leaf was extracted with 1.5 L of organic solvents of ethanol for 8 h using a Soxhlet apparatus. The crude plant extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. One gram of the plant residue was dissolved in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) and considered as 1% stock solution. From this stock solution, different concentrations were prepared ranging from 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%, respectively. Results: The highest larval mortality in the ethanol leaf extract of C. papaya against the 1st to 4th instars larvae and pupae values of LC50= 3.65%, 4.28%, 5.41%, 6.70%, and 7.50%, respectively. The LC90 values of 9.61%, 11.75%, 13.53%, 16.36%, and 16.92%, respectively. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. These four concentrations (25, 50,100 and 150 µg/mL) of ethanol leaf extracts exhibited promising inhibitory activity against the CQ sensitive strain with (IC50) values 40.75%, 36.54%, 25.30%, and 18.0% and in CQ resistant 50.23%, 32.50%, 21.45%, and 23.12% against P. falciparum. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results indicate the effective plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approaches for the control of vector mosquitoes.
Full-text available
We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC(50) of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC(50) of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds.
Full-text available
Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless.This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire.The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects.
Recent research has indicated that consumption of fruits and vegetables protects us not only from constipation but also from a host of age-related diseases. Because of their unique flavor characteristics, tropical fruits and their products are gaining popularity all over the world. Topics related to three of the tropical fruits (guava, lychee, and papaya), such as their physiology and ripening characteristics, chemical composition, nutritive value, postharvest handling, storage and marketing, processing into value-added products, fresh-cut fruits, by-products of processing industry, are discussed in this chapter.
Air-dried and powdered seeds of unripe Carica papaya was administered orally at 60 mg/kg/day for 30 days on four pariah dogs naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. The treatment resulted in 80% reduction in microfilarial density on day 30 following the onset of treatment. Microfilarial density rose gradually and the level of reduction in the sampling on day 180 was 52%. In vitro, the drug did not produce any lethal effect on the microfilariae of D. immitis. The prolonged maintenance of the reduced level of microfilarial density may be due to the sizeable reduction of adult worm loads.
The papaya is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) used in India. Fruit and latex are both rich in an enzyme called papain. It is used as a folk remedy for contraception and abortion. The present study explored the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the ether- and water-soluble fractions of C. papaya ethanol extract in olive oil-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The study also involved chromatographic studies of extract and fractions. Flash chromatography was done for the most active fraction. The extract and fractions were administered orally at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight in rats. Olive oil (5 mL/kg oral dose) was administered 30 min after treatment. Blood was collected and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15-20 min and subjected to biochemical analysis. The study dose-dependently inhibited the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) level, and significantly increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of fats in the ether fraction, whereas the water fraction revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycosides. UV λ(max) was found to be 217 nm with a melting point of 41°C for the isolated component. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect was evaluated in olive oil-loaded rats. Acute treatment caused stimulatory effect on HDL level and inhibition in TC and TG elevation induced by olive oil. The extract and water fraction showed protective action by increasing the HDL cholesterol level.
The anti-ulcer potentials of aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts of whole unripe Carica papaya fruit were evaluated using ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in rats. The effect of the extracts on small intestinal propulsion was also investigated. The extracts significantly reduced the ulcer index in both experimental models (P < .05) compared to the control group. ME showed a better protection against indomethacin-induced ulcers, whereas AE was more effective against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The extracts also significantly (P < .05) inhibited intestinal motility, with ME showing greater activity. Oral administration of AE and ME up to 5,000 mg/kg did not produce lethality or signs of acute toxicity in mice after 24 hours. The extracts of unripe C. papaya contain terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, and steroids. The cytoprotective and antimotility properties of the extracts may account for the anti-ulcer property of the unripe fruit.