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Effectiveness of Dried Carica papaya Seeds Against Human Intestinal Parasitosis: A Pilot Study



The tropical fruit Carica papaya and its seeds have proven antihelminthic and anti-amoebic activities. To determine the effectiveness of air-dried C. papaya seeds on human intestinal parasitosis, 60 asymptomatic Nigerian children with stool microscopic evidence of intestinal parasites received immediate doses (20 mL) of either an elixir composed with air-dried C. papaya seeds and honey (CPH) or honey alone (placebo) in two randomized treatment groups. Repeat stool microscopic examinations were conducted 7 days postintervention for intestinal parasites. Significantly more subjects given CPH elixir than those given honey had their stools cleared of parasites [23 of 30 (76.7%) vs. five of 30 (16.7%); z = 4.40, P = .0000109]. There were no harmful effects. The stool clearance rate for the various types of parasites encountered was between 71.4% and 100% following CPH elixir treatment compared with 0-15.4% with honey. Thus, air-dried C. papaya seeds are efficacious in treating human intestinal parasites and without significant side effects. Their consumption offers a cheap, natural, harmless, readily available monotherapy and preventive strategy against intestinal parasitosis, especially in tropical communities. Further and large-scale intervention studies to compare C. papaya with standard antiparasitic preparation are desirous.
J Med Food 10 (1) 2007, 194–196
© Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2005.065
Short Communication
Effectiveness of Dried Carica papaya Seeds Against Human Intestinal Parasitosis:
A Pilot Study
John A.O. Okeniyi,
Tinuade A. Ogunlesi,
Oyeku A. Oyelami,
and Lateef A. Adeyemi
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University,
Ile-Ife; and Departments of
Paediatrics and
Microbiology and Parasitology, Wesley Guild Hospital,
Ilesa, Nigeria
ABSTRACT The tropical fruit Carica papaya and its seeds have proven antihelminthic and anti-amoebic activities. To de-
termine the effectiveness of air-dried C. papaya seeds on human intestinal parasitosis, 60 asymptomatic Nigerian children
with stool microscopic evidence of intestinal parasites received immediate doses (20 mL) of either an elixir composed with
air-dried C. papaya seeds and honey (CPH) or honey alone (placebo) in two randomized treatment groups. Repeat stool mi-
croscopic examinations were conducted 7 days postintervention for intestinal parasites. Significantly more subjects given CPH
elixir than those given honey had their stools cleared of parasites [23 of 30 (76.7%) vs. five of 30 (16.7%); z 4.40, P
.0000109]. There were no harmful effects. The stool clearance rate for the various types of parasites encountered was between
71.4% and 100% following CPH elixir treatment compared with 0–15.4% with honey. Thus, air-dried C. papaya seeds are
efficacious in treating human intestinal parasites and without significant side effects. Their consumption offers a cheap, nat-
ural, harmless, readily available monotherapy and preventive strategy against intestinal parasitosis, especially in tropical com-
munities. Further and large-scale intervention studies to compare C. papaya with standard antiparasitic preparation are de-
constitutes a significant
global health problem with enormous financial impli-
Unfortunately, for reasons mainly attributable to
poor hygiene,
the burden is more in the tropics and sub-
tropics where, particularly among children,
cause noteworthy morbidity such as anemia, diarrhea and
dysentery, malnutrition, apathy, and underdevelopment as
well as severe acute abdominal and surgical conditions.
As most patients particularly from the tropics and partic-
ularly from Africa are from low socioeconomic groups who
can ill-afford imported and expensive medicines,
the need
for affordable and readily available local alternatives can-
not be overemphasized. Carica papaya, a fruit plant also
called papaya, papaw, pawpaw, mamao, or tree melon, is
found in virtually every tropical and subtropical country.
C. papaya contains proven antihelminthic
chemical agents
such as benzyl isothiocyanate and papain
and has other
antiparasitic properties.
In folk medicine, C. papaya
seeds have been used to treat helminthiasis.
Thus, we eval-
uated the antiparasitic effects of dried C. papaya seeds. It is
hoped that the information obtained will provide guidance
for further research that may ultimately assist in the formu-
lation of necessary preventive and treatment strategies
against intestinal parasitosis, particularly in tropical com-
Between November 1, 2003 and January 30, 2004, in the
Children’s Welfare Clinic of the Wesley Guild Hospital,
Ilesa, Nigeria, consecutive children 2–6 years old with nor-
mal weight and height for age and no health complaints were
screened with light microscopic examination of wet prepa-
rations of freshly passed stools to confirm the presence of
intestinal parasites, their cysts, trophozoites, larvae, or ova.
Manuscript received 17 October 2005. Revision accepted 10 January 2006.
Address reprint requests to Dr. John A.O. Okeniyi at his present address: Department of
Paediatrics and Child Health, Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa. P.M.B. 5011, Ilesa, Osun
State, Nigeria, E-mail:
Following informed parental consents, a total of 60 children
with seven different species of intestinal parasites were re-
cruited into this study.
C. papaya seeds and natural honey were harvested from
an apiary of one of the investigators (O.A.O). The seeds
were air-dried and then machine-blended. An elixir of the
air-dried C. papaya seeds and honey (CPH) was prepared
by mixing 500 g of the blend with honey to make a total
preparation volume of 1,000 mL, i.e., 0.2 g of dried C. pa-
paya seeds/mL. Each subject received immediately received
an oral dose of either 20 mL (equivalent to 4 g of dried,
blended C. papaya seeds) of the CPH elixir or honey alone
in two randomized treatment groups. Thus, honey served not
only as the means of administration of the C. papaya seeds
but also as the placebo/control. All the subjects were ad-
vised to abstain from honey and C. papaya during the study
period. The children then had repeat stool microscopic ex-
amination 7 days later conducted by the same laboratory sci-
entist (L.A.A), who was blinded to each subject’s treatment.
Histories of gastrointestinal symptoms and other possible
side effects were further documented. Data were analyzed
using with the computer program for epidemiologists (PEPI)
version 3.01.
Means and standard deviations were com-
pared using Student’s t test and proportions by the z-scores
at 95% confidence interval (CI). Values of P .05 were
considered statistically significant.
Sixty children (41 boys and 19 girls) between 3 and 6
years of age (mean, 4.6 1.1 years) with stool microscopic
evidence of intestinal parasites were recruited, with 30
(50.0%) each treated with CPH elixir or honey. Table 1 de-
tails the types of intestinal parasites and the comparison of
stool clearance in both treatment groups. The most preva-
lent intestinal parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides, Enta-
moeba histolytica, Necator americanus, and Strongyloides
stercoralis, found in 26 (43.3%), 14 (23.3%), nine (15.0%),
and eight (13.3%) of the 60 children, respectively. Only two
(3.3%) children (one in each treatment group) had Taenia
saginata. Fifty-one (85.0%) of the children had single par-
asites only, while nine (15.0%) had polyparasitism; in ad-
dition to A. lumbricoides, six (10.0%) had E. histolytica, and
the remaining three (5.0%) had N. americanus. Among the
children with multiple parasites, five received CPH elixir,
and four had honey treatment.
CPH elixir demonstrated a high stool clearance efficacy
against A. lumbricoides (84.6%) and S. stercoralis (100%)
with statistically significant differences compared with
honey. Although CPH demonstrated 100% efficacy against
Trichuris trichuria, Giardia lamblia, and T. saginata, com-
pared with honey, the efficacy in each instance did not reach
the accepted level of statistical significance. Also, despite a
high stool clearance rate for E. histolytica (71.4%) and N.
americanus (80.0%), these were not statistically significant
relative to honey. Overall, the stools of 23 of 30 (76.67%)
subjects given the CPH elixir compared with five of 30
(16.67%) given honey alone were cleared of parasites (stan-
dard error 0.1029; 95% CI 0.3649; 0.8351, z 4.40;
P .0000109).
There were no significant adverse effects, though two of
30 (6.7%) children given the CPH elixir had transient com-
plaints on the day the treatments were given. One had nau-
sea, while the other had an episode of loose stools. None of
the children who received honey alone had complaints. The
difference in the proportion of children with complaints in
either treatment group was not statistically significant (stan-
dard error 0.0456; 95% CI 0.0559, 0.1893; z 0.72;
P .472).
Our high stool parasite clearance rates of between 71.4%
and 100% are an affirmation of the effectiveness of C. pa-
paya seeds against intestinal parasites.
A. lumbricoides,
the most prevalent intestinal helminth (a nematode), was ef-
fectively cleared. Probably because of the limited sample
population, our findings lacked statistical significance de-
spite demonstrable and absolute parasite clearance of cer-
tain other helminths, including a cestode, T. saginata. Our
1. T
Clearance Statistical values
Parasite (number of children CPH elixir Honey-alone z
with parasite) group group score 95% CI P
A. lumbricoides (n 26)
11/13 (84.6%)
2/13 (15.4%) 3.14 0.3376, 1.0464 .002
E. histolytica (n 14 5/7 (71.4%) 1/7 (14.3%) 1.62 0.0047, 1.1373 .106
N. americanus (n 9)
4/5 (80.0%) 1/4 (25.0%) 0.98 0.2255, 1.3255 .330
S. stercoralis (n 8) 4/4 (100%) 0/4 (0%) 2.12 0.0075, 1.2500 .034
T. trichuria (n 6) 3/3 (100%) 0/3 (0%) 1.63 0.6667, 1.3333 .102
G. lamblia (n 4) 2/2 (100%) 1/2 (50.0%) 0.00 0.6930, 1.6930 1.000
T. saginata (n 2) 1/1 (100%) 0/1 (0%) 0.00 0.0000, 2.0000 1.000
Number (%) of children with stools cleared on parasite/total number of children with the same parasite.
Some children had multiple parasites.
observation of over 70% effectiveness against E. histolytica
was also watered-down by the lack of statistical significance
compared with the honey placebo. Papaya had previously
been documented as having anti-amoebic properties.
had earlier reported a case of hypersensitiv-
ity reaction to papaya. However, it was gratifying to note
the absence of untoward effects in both treatment groups.
This was indeed our expectation ab initio considering the
facts that C. papaya and its seeds are edible
and widely
consumed by both humans and animals in the tropics,
though the seeds are less favored because of less palata-
bility. This was why we opted to use honey, a natural
sweetener, as vehicle for our elixir. The transient nausea
and loose stools observed among two of our subjects may
be unrelated to our elixir in view of the fact that all our
subjects had intestinal parasitosis, which may present with
these features.
The mechanisms of action of C. papaya are not fully elu-
though it clearly has antihelminthic activity
other immunomodulatory activities.
Though intestinal par-
asite clearance by honey, our placebo in this study, was un-
expected, it is still noteworthy. Could there be a possible
antihelminthic property to honey? Our observations are at
best inconclusive in view of the low clearance rate. This
finding may be a spurious occurrence or possibly a demon-
stration of minimal antihelminthic properties to honey. Also,
could the honey have had synergistic or inhibitory effects
on the therapeutic properties of the C. papaya seeds? Fur-
ther large-scale human studies are required to provide a con-
clusive clarification.
It is conceivable that C. papaya, which thrives effort-
can be much more readily available and affordable
still if commercial and subsistence farming of the papaya
plant was encouraged in tropical communities. Also, future
studies may revolutionize preventive or therapeutic care
against intestinal parasites by determining the minimal
amounts of C. papaya seeds or its active ingredients required
to be consumed. There is that old English adage that “an ap-
ple a day keeps the doctor away.” Could a papaya a day also
do the same? Especially judging from its luxuriant growth
in the tropics and its richness in -carotene, the main pre-
cursor of vitamin A,
a vitamin reputed to be a magic bul-
let in childhood survival.
We conclude that C. papaya
seeds could be beneficial in the treatment and plausibly pre-
vention of intestinal parasites, more so being readily avail-
able, harmless, and cheap. We therefore recommend their
consumption for not only for their nutritive but their medi-
cinal value.
We wish to thank our numerous subjects and their par-
ents for their cooperation.
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Carica papaya is a fruit known for its great economic values in tropical Africa due to its diverse industrial, medicinal and nutritional benefits. In this study, oil was extracted from dried powdered C. papaya seeds using n-hexane as extraction solvent. The physiochemical characterization of C. papaya seed oil extract was investigated using AOAC standard procedures. Acute toxicity test was carried out to determine the toxicity of the oil. Rats were randomly divided into four groups with five rats per group. Groups B, C and D were given 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the seed oil thrice in a week for 28 days while group A rats were not administered with the oil. The results obtained from the physical properties of the Carica papaya seed oil include: oil yield (30.31±2.38%), colour (golden yellow), specific gravity (0.9162±0.012), refractive index (1.468±0.22), viscosity (22.45±2.00 mms-1), melting point (42.30±3.0°C), smoke point (212.13±9.0°C) and flash point (274.74±12°C). The chemical properties indicate the presence of acid value (2.848±0.28%), free fatty acids (1.29±0.16%), saponification value (mg KOH/g) (192.06±1.62), iodine value (70.78±1.69 gI2/100 g) and peroxide value (5.079±0.079 meq/kg). The fatty acid profile of the seed oil shows that it contains: oleic acid (73.36±1.07%), palmitic acid (14.36±0.96%), stearic acid (5.09±0.5%) and linoleic acid (4.56±0.20%). The total composition of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the seed oil was 79.52 and 20.48%, respectively. The oil exhibited viable potentials for biodiesel feedstock based on the results of the physicochemical parameters. The biochemical parameters show that the oil is hematotoxic and it causes significant (P<0.05) increase in total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol values. The high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and catalase did not show any significant (P>0.05) difference among all groups. The oil has slight effect on the kidney and the heart architecture.
... [28]. The antimicrobial, antifungal and antihelmintic activities of the seed and latex of the plant have been extensively reported [29,30]. With regard to the effect of extracts against cercariae, the exposure of S. mansoni cercariae to the methanol extract of Carica papaya showed an increase in the mortality rate of cercariae when compared to other extracts. ...
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Schistosomias is a prevalent parasitic disease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, which comes in the second place in terms of socioeconomic and public health burden. Around 600 million people in 74 countries are infected yearly, predominantly in the developing world. The aim of this work was to assess the efficiency of three extracts from Carica papaya (methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts) for their molluscicidal and anti-schistosomal activities. The LC50 of methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts of Carica papaya against B. alexandrinea were 180, 499.3 and 509.1 mg/L while the respective LC90 values were 220.3, 700.6, 769.6 mg/L respectively. The effect of these extracts on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and larval stages of Schistosma mansoni, for miracidia the LC50 of methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts of Carica papaya against miracidia were 3.4, 15.4 and 8.1 mg/L, respectively, while the respective LC90 values were 8.4, 38.2, 11.2 mg/L, and for cercariae the LC50 of methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts of Carica papaya were 2, 20 and 4 mg/L, while the respective LC90 values were 13.5, 80.5, 18.5 mg/L respectively was evaluated, in addition to flowcytometric analysis of CD4, CD25, FOXP3 and TGF-β levels during S. mansoni infection in mice. The in-vivo results showed that the three extracts have variable potential against snails and miracidia and cercariae of S. mansoni. The mortality rate in B. alexandrina snails for methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts of Carcia papay were 86%, 45% and 64%, respectively. While it was 83%, 35% and 66%, respectively in miracidia and 92%, 40% and 70%, respectively in cercariae. The results indicated that methanol extract from Carica papaya recorded higher activity against snails, miracidia and cercariae. The levels of CD4, CD25, FOXP3 regulatory T (Treg) cells were decreased significantly (p<0.001) in infected mice compared to healthy controls. However, there was a significant (p<0.001) increase in levels of TGF-β. A significant increase in the levels of CD4, CD25, and FOXP3 Treg in Carica papaya treated group compared to infected control group, with a significant (p<0.001) decrease in TGF-β level than infected group. In conclusion, methanol extract was more effective at concentration of LC50 180 and LC90 220.3 than ethanol and butanol extracts of Carica papaya therefore controlling B. alexandrina snails by methanol extract is a promising way as it is an eco-friendly strategy in rural areas of developing countries, where schistosomiasis is endemic. Moreover, the increased immune defense mechanism in treated group with the same extracts is a promising target for new immune modulatory strategies against schistosomiasis.
... In addition to their alkaloid effect, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) could explain the parasiticidal properties of the seeds of C. papaya [ 104 , 105 ]. In another study, Okeniyi [106] stated a notable clearance of intestinal worms ( p = 0.0 0 0 01) in the fecal sample of Nigerian children when C. papaya seeds were mixed with honey when administered to the children compared to the control (honey alone). Although C. papaya seeds were successful in expelling the worms, it resulted in side effects such as nausea and loose stools without such experience when the control was used. ...
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Papaya (Carica papaya L.), one of the extensively studied plants, belongs to the family Caricaceae. Papaya is commonly known for its nutritional and medicinal value worldwide. Many parts of papaya plant such as roots, leaves, peels, fruits, and seeds have nutritional and therapeutic significance. The aim of this review is to consolidate the evidence-based information on papaya's functional activities, accumulated from online databases (Scopus, Dimensions, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science) up to December 2020. A considerable literature is available detailing biomedical uses of different papaya plant parts which made papaya a treasured nutraceutical plant. Papaya plant possesses the valuable phytochemicals such as phytosterols, tocopherols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and carotenoids. These compounds with interesting nutraceutical properties play key roles in ameliorating and treating some medical conditions such as inflammation, hyperglycemia, fertility-related complications, hypertension and possess anticarcinogenic activities. However, further studies are warranted to validate the dosage, mode of action, and safety profile of papaya seeds, peels, and leaves when used as medicine.
... Pandy et al. (2007) observed that spilanthes plant had larvicidal activity against Anopheles and thus its use is effective in control of malaria disease. Okeniyi et al. (2007) investigated that carica papaya seeds were effective against parasites of intestine. The folk medicine practionners narrated that papaya latex may be used to cure dyspepsia and also applied to scalds and cure of external burns. ...
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The study was conducted with the objective to determine the effect of extract of leaves of carica papaya on platelet count of patients of dengue fever. Two patients were selected at random, who volunteered to take the extract of carica papaya. A 20ml aqueous extract of leaves of carica papaya was administered to each patient in the morning and evening for one week. The observation prior to intake of extract indicate that platelet count, white blood cell, red blood cell and neutrophils decreased on attack of dengue fever and minimum were on third day of attack. After intake of extract of leaves of carica papaya for one week, the platelet count, white blood cells, red blood cells and neutrophils in both patients increased substantially, more so in young patient compared to old patient. The study led to the conclusion that extract of carica papaya was effective in dengue fever and effect was function of age of patient.
The present work focus to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the seeds of family Caricaceae. The plants resources which are used in pharmaceutical formulation standardization was carried out on the basis of organoleptic properties, physical characteristics, and physico-chemical properties. Different Physicochemical parameters ash values, extractive values, loss on drying, foreign matter, fluorescence analysis, and pH were evaluated. Macroscopical characteristics and Physicochemical parameters like total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash were found to be 83.7%, 71.7% and 61.5% w/w respectively. Hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water soluble extractive values (hot)were 7.6%, 11.6%, 27.4%, 37.5%w/w respectively. The pH of 1% and 10% aqueous solution was found to be 3.57 and 3.78 respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of Tannins, Proteins and amino acids, Glycosides, Phenolic compounds, Carbohydrates, Saponins, Alkaloids and Flavonoids. Thin layer chromatographic studies also had been done on ethanolic and hexane extracts. HPTLC fingerprinting is a valuable method for the quantitative determination of phytochemicals present in plant extract. These studies aim to investigating referential information for correct identification and standardization of this plant secondary metabolites.
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The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.
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Objective: To determine the antimalarial activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Carica papaya (C. papaya), blood stages of CQ-sensitive and CQ resistant strains against Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) as target species. Methods: C. papaya leaf was collected in and around Kalveerampalyam village, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves). The powder 500g of the leaf was extracted with 1.5 L of organic solvents of ethanol for 8 h using a Soxhlet apparatus. The crude plant extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. One gram of the plant residue was dissolved in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) and considered as 1% stock solution. From this stock solution, different concentrations were prepared ranging from 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%, respectively. Results: The highest larval mortality in the ethanol leaf extract of C. papaya against the 1st to 4th instars larvae and pupae values of LC50= 3.65%, 4.28%, 5.41%, 6.70%, and 7.50%, respectively. The LC90 values of 9.61%, 11.75%, 13.53%, 16.36%, and 16.92%, respectively. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. These four concentrations (25, 50,100 and 150 µg/mL) of ethanol leaf extracts exhibited promising inhibitory activity against the CQ sensitive strain with (IC50) values 40.75%, 36.54%, 25.30%, and 18.0% and in CQ resistant 50.23%, 32.50%, 21.45%, and 23.12% against P. falciparum. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results indicate the effective plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approaches for the control of vector mosquitoes.
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We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC(50) of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC(50) of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds.
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Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless.This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire.The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects.
Recent research has indicated that consumption of fruits and vegetables protects us not only from constipation but also from a host of age-related diseases. Because of their unique flavor characteristics, tropical fruits and their products are gaining popularity all over the world. Topics related to three of the tropical fruits (guava, lychee, and papaya), such as their physiology and ripening characteristics, chemical composition, nutritive value, postharvest handling, storage and marketing, processing into value-added products, fresh-cut fruits, by-products of processing industry, are discussed in this chapter.
Air-dried and powdered seeds of unripe Carica papaya was administered orally at 60 mg/kg/day for 30 days on four pariah dogs naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. The treatment resulted in 80% reduction in microfilarial density on day 30 following the onset of treatment. Microfilarial density rose gradually and the level of reduction in the sampling on day 180 was 52%. In vitro, the drug did not produce any lethal effect on the microfilariae of D. immitis. The prolonged maintenance of the reduced level of microfilarial density may be due to the sizeable reduction of adult worm loads.
The papaya is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) used in India. Fruit and latex are both rich in an enzyme called papain. It is used as a folk remedy for contraception and abortion. The present study explored the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the ether- and water-soluble fractions of C. papaya ethanol extract in olive oil-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The study also involved chromatographic studies of extract and fractions. Flash chromatography was done for the most active fraction. The extract and fractions were administered orally at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight in rats. Olive oil (5 mL/kg oral dose) was administered 30 min after treatment. Blood was collected and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15-20 min and subjected to biochemical analysis. The study dose-dependently inhibited the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) level, and significantly increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of fats in the ether fraction, whereas the water fraction revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycosides. UV λ(max) was found to be 217 nm with a melting point of 41°C for the isolated component. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect was evaluated in olive oil-loaded rats. Acute treatment caused stimulatory effect on HDL level and inhibition in TC and TG elevation induced by olive oil. The extract and water fraction showed protective action by increasing the HDL cholesterol level.
The anti-ulcer potentials of aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts of whole unripe Carica papaya fruit were evaluated using ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in rats. The effect of the extracts on small intestinal propulsion was also investigated. The extracts significantly reduced the ulcer index in both experimental models (P < .05) compared to the control group. ME showed a better protection against indomethacin-induced ulcers, whereas AE was more effective against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The extracts also significantly (P < .05) inhibited intestinal motility, with ME showing greater activity. Oral administration of AE and ME up to 5,000 mg/kg did not produce lethality or signs of acute toxicity in mice after 24 hours. The extracts of unripe C. papaya contain terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, and steroids. The cytoprotective and antimotility properties of the extracts may account for the anti-ulcer property of the unripe fruit.