Volkow ND, O'Brien CP. Issues for DSM-V: should obesity be included as a brain disorder? Am J Psychiatry 164: 708-710

American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.3). 06/2007; 164(5):708-10. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.164.5.708
Source: PubMed

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    • "In humans, feeding behaviors are more complex but pattern of food addiction appears to parallel substance dependence (Gearhardt et al., 2011; Dileone et al., 2012). Some argue that food addiction should be included in the DSM manual (Volkow and O'brien, 2007; Taylor et al., 2010) even though food addiction is not a categorized diagnosis within DSM-5. However, recently Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) has been used as a tool for diagnosis of food addiction in patients with eating disorders (Gearhardt et al., 2009; Clark and Saules, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Frontiers in Psychology
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    • "Even behavioral addictions that are non-drug related turn out to alter the reward circuit, consisting of dopamine projections linking the ventral tegmental area, NAcc, and part of the frontal lobe (Holden, 2001). Increases in ventral striatal activity have been associated with the rewarding properties of food consumption (Volkow and O’Brien, 2007), cocaine-induced euphoria (Breiter et al., 1997), monetary reward (Knutson et al., 2001a; O’Doherty et al., 2001) and nicotine addiction (Brody, 2006). Even when no explicit reward is present, as may be the case with listening to pleasant music, brain reward structures appear to be involved (Blood and Zatorre, 2001; Menon and Levitin, 2005; Koelsch et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Music is among all cultures an important part of the live of most people. Music has psychological benefits and may generate strong emotional and physiological responses. Recently, neuroscientists have discovered that music influences the reward circuit of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), even when no explicit reward is present. In this clinical case study, we describe a 60-year old patient who developed a sudden and distinct musical preference for Johnny Cash following deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeted at the NAcc. This case report substantiates the assumption that the NAcc is involved in musical preference, based on the observation of direct stimulation of the accumbens with DBS. It also shows that accumbens DBS can change musical preference without habituation of its rewarding properties.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    • "Although the extent to which food addiction could explain the obesity epidemic is subject to intense debate [2,12–14]. In support of a role of addiction-like processes in obesity, there is overlap between the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence and the proposed criteria for binge eating disorder [3,4,15,16] and obesity [1,2,17]. Furthermore, the comorbidity between eating disorders and substance abuse disorders may be as high as 40% [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The worldwide obesity epidemic poses an enormous and growing threat to public health. However, the neurobehavioral mechanisms of overeating and obesity are incompletely understood. It has been proposed that addiction-like processes may underlie certain forms of obesity, in particular those associated with binge eating disorder. To investigate the role of addiction-like processes in obesity, we adapted a model of cocaine addiction-like behavior in rats responding for highly palatable food. Here, we tested whether rats responding for highly palatable chocolate Ensure would come to show three criteria of addiction-like behavior, i.e., high motivation, continued seeking despite signaled non-availability and persistence of seeking despite aversive consequences. We also investigated whether exposure to a binge model (a diet consisting of alternating periods of limited food access and access to highly palatable food), promotes the appearance of food addiction-like behavior. Our data show substantial individual differences in control over palatable food seeking and taking, but no distinct subgroup of animals showing addiction-like behavior could be identified. Instead, we observed a wide range extending from low to very high control over palatable food intake. Exposure to the binge model did not affect control over palatable food seeking and taking, however. Animals that showed low control over palatable food intake (i.e., scored high on the three criteria for addiction-like behavior) were less sensitive to devaluation of the food reward and more prone to food-induced reinstatement of extinguished responding, indicating that control over palatable food intake is associated with habitual food intake and vulnerability to relapse. In conclusion, we present an animal model to assess control over food seeking and taking. Since diminished control over food intake is a major factor in the development of obesity, understanding its behavioral and neural underpinnings may facilitate improved management of the obesity epidemic.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
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