Pneumocystis Pneumonia in HIV-positive Adults, Malawi

University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi.
Emerging infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 03/2007; 13(2):325-8. DOI: 10.3201/eid1302.060462
Source: PubMed


In a prospective study of 660 HIV-positive Malawian adults, we diagnosed Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) using clinical features, induced sputum for immunofluorescent staining, real-time PCR, and posttreatment follow-up. PcP incidence was highest in patients with the lowest CD4 counts, but PcP is uncommon compared with incidences of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia.

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    • "In similar studies from Ethiopia and Uganda, PCP was the definitive diagnosis in one third of HIV-positive, PTB smear-negative patients, who underwent BAL [4,6]. In a community based Malawian study PCP was diagnosed in only 1 per 100 person years of follow-up, but strongly correlated to HIV status and increasing with declining CD4 count [18]. The differences in prevalence reported from different studies may to some extent be explained by the patients included and selection bias introduced by e.g. "
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