Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in Humans and Animals, Central Europe
Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode, Germany.Emerging infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 03/2007; 13(2):255-8. DOI: 10.3201/eid1302.060924
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of clonal lineage ST398 that exhibits related spa types and contains SCCmec elements of types IVa or V has been isolated from colonized and infected humans and companion animals (e.g., dog, pig, horse) in Germany and Austria. Of particular concern is the association of these cases with cases of nosocomial ventilator-associated pneumonia.
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- "Germany (Köck et al., 2013) Respiratory tract Pneumonia c Austria, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy (Berning et al., 2015; Cuny et al., 2015; Hartmeyer et al., 2010; Köck et al., 2013; Krziwanek et al., 2009; Mammina et al., 2010b; Rasigade et al., 2010; Schaumburg et al., 2012; van Rijen et al., 2008; Witte et al., 2007; Yu et al., 2008) Thoracic empyema Spain (Lozano et al., 2011c) Tonsillitis Denmark (Omland and Hoffmann, 2012) Not specified Spain (Camoez et al., 2013) Sensory system Conjunctivitis Austria, Netherlands (Grisold et al., 2010; van de Sande-Bruinsma et al., 2015) Otitis Netherlands, Italy (Monaco et al., 2013; van de Sande-Bruinsma et al., 2015; Wulf et al., 2012) Skeletal system Joint infection Austria, Germany (Berning et al., 2015; Krziwanek et al., 2009) Osteomyelitis Austria, France, Netherlands (Grisold et al., 2010; Senneville et al., 2014; van Rijen et al., 2008; Wulf et al., 2012) Urinary tract Not defined (detection in urine) "
ABSTRACT: In the past decade, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) strains in particular of the clonal complex (CC) 398 have emerged in many parts of the world especially in areas with a high density of pig farming. In those regions, farmworkers and other individuals with professional contact to livestock are very frequently colonized with LA-MRSA. These persons are the presumably source for LA-MRSA transmission to household members and other parts of the human population. Altogether, colonization and/or infection of these individuals lead to the introduction of LA-MRSA into hospitals and other healthcare facilities. Since LA-MRSA CC398 have been found to be specifically adapted to their animal hosts in terms of the equipment with virulence factors, their pathogenicity to human patients is a matter of debate with first reports about clinical cases. Meanwhile, case reports, case series and few studies have demonstrated the capability of LA-MRSA to cause all types of infections attributed to S. aureus in general including fatal courses. Human infections observed comprise e.g. bacteremia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and many manifestations of skin and soft tissue infections. However, inpatients affected by MRSA CC398 generally show different demographic (e.g. younger, shorter length of hospital stay) and clinical characteristics (e.g. less severe complications) which may explain or at least contribute to a lower disease burden of LA-MRSA compared to other MRSA clonal lineages.
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- "Asia), where LA-MRSA more frequently exhibit other clonal lineages such as CC9. MRSA CC398 is normally rarely found among humans (Köck et al., 2014a), but can cause cytotoxic effects on human epithelial cells similar to that of primarily " human " MRSA clones, form biofilms and cause severe human infections (Ballhausen et al., 2014; Nicholson et al., 2013; Witte et al., 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Colonization with livestock-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus (LA-MRSA) among persons occupationally exposed to pigs, cattle or poultry is very frequent. In Europe, LA-MRSA mostly belong to the clonal lineage CC398. Since colonized persons have an increased risk of developing MRSA infections, defining the burden of work-related infection caused by LA-MRSA CC398 is of interest to exposed personnel, insurance companies and infection control staff. This review summarizes data on the types of occupation-related infections caused by LA-MRSA CC398, the incidence of such infections as well as potential preventive strategies. We identified twelve case reports on infections among livestock-exposed persons. Overall, there is a lack of data describing the incidence of occupation-related infections due to MRSA CC398. Currently, no specific guidance towards the prevention of LA-MRSA CC398 colonization of persons with routine exposure exists. In vitro, MRSA CC398 strains are susceptible (>95%) to mupirocin. Single reports have described effective decolonization of persons carrying LA-MRSA CC398, but long-term success rates are low in case of continuous livestock contact. Overall, the occupational health risk due to LA-MRSA CC398 is not well understood. Currently, prevention of human LA-MRSA CC398 infection is mostly based on the recommendation to perform screening and decolonization therapies prior to elective medical interventions in order to avoid nosocomial infections, but there is no conclusive evidence to perform specific measures aiming to forestall community-acquired infections.
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- "There have been increasingly frequent reports of MRSA infections in animals in recent years, including 2 outbreaks of infection in veterinary teaching hospitals in North America (Goni et al., 2004; Weese et al, 2004; O'Mahony et al., 2005; Rich et al., 2005). Animal-associated MRSA infection may be transmitted to humans and causes various disease conditions (Weese, 2006; Witte, 2007). People with direct daily contact with animals, such as veterinarians, slaughterhouse workers and farmers are more frequently colonized with MRSA than those without frequent contact with animals (Khanna et al., 2008; Meemken, 2008; Wulf and Voss 2008; Kock, 2009; IstvánSzabóa et al., 2012). "
DESCRIPTION: Sensitivity of Methicillin-Resistance and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strains to Some Different Disinfectants