Biomechanic Analysis of Trapeziectomy, Ligament Reconstruction With Tendon Interposition, and Tie-In Trapezium Implant Arthroplasty for Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthritis: A Cadaver Study

Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195-6500, USA.
The Journal Of Hand Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.67). 05/2007; 32(5):697-706. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2007.02.025
Source: PubMed


Thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis has been commonly treated with some combination of resection of the trapezium and interposition of a spacer using either a biologic or artificial material plus tenodesis to reconstruct the volar oblique ligament. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanic stability of the classic ligament reconstruction with tendon interposition (LRTI) or without tendon interposition compared with a newly developed 1-piece silicone trapezium implant.
Twelve cadaver arm specimens had the following procedures: resection of the trapezium, tendon interposition, ligament reconstruction, LRTI, and the silicone implant. Biomechanic testing of joint stability was performed with a physiologic loading protocol before and after each procedure.
The implant significantly corrected the axial displacement after trapeziectomy and resulted in less radial displacement than LRTI. It significantly reduced angulation of the thumb metacarpal base but resulted in more rotation of the thumb during simulated pinch. There was no significant difference in stability measures between trapeziectomy and LRTI or ligament reconstruction without tendon interposition.
We found several biomechanic advantages to the implant compared with LRTI. Advantages include reduction in axial and radial displacement and maintenance of the trapezial space. We attribute these advantages to the effect of the implant as a spacer. The significant rotation with the implant, however, raises questions concerning implant design and fixation. We found no biomechanic advantage to LRTI or ligament reconstruction without tendon interposition over trapeziectomy alone.

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    Preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
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    ABSTRACT: There are numerous techniques for the surgical management of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint arthritis. The four senior authors of this study employ three such techniques: trapeziectomy with hematoma distraction arthroplasty, hemitrapeziectomy with osteochondral allograft, and ligament reconstruction tendon interposition (LRTI). This study examines the three commonly utilized procedures at a single institution. This study examines the 10-year experience from 1995-2005 with a minimum 3-month follow-up. Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores, pre-and postoperative pinch strength, and operative time were examined. After approval from the institutional review board of our institution was obtained, all patients treated surgically by three of the senior authors were contacted via mail and phone. Each patient was asked to complete and return a DASH questionnaire. Of the 115 patients treated during that period, 60 participated in this study. Each patient's final postoperative pinch measurement was obtained from occupational therapy and clinic records. This pinch strength was compared to the preoperative pinch and contralateral pinch strength. Lastly, the total operative time for each procedure was obtained from the operative record. The only significant finding in this study was a shorter mean operative time with the trapeziectomy group (76.90 min) and osteochondral allograft group (90.45 min) when compared to the LRTI group (139.00 min; p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). We found no significant difference between groups in terms of DASH score and pinch strength. There was no difference between the techniques in terms of postoperative pinch strength and patient satisfaction measured by DASH scores. The operative times for trapeziectomy and hematoma interposition as well as the osteochondral allograft were significantly shorter than that of the LRTI. This presents further evidence that potentially, "less is more" in the treatment of thumb CMC arthritis. We used a retrospective study design to evaluate potential differences between the three surgical techniques described above, therapeutic, levels III-IV.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2008 · Hand
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    ABSTRACT: The carpometacarpal joint of the thumb is the second most common site of arthritis in the hand. Patients in whom conservative treatment fails benefit from surgical intervention, although no consensus exists as to the best method to provide maximum pain relief and functional outcomes. The pathophysiology of carpometacarpal arthritis is loss of the integrity of the palmar oblique ligament, which allows for dorsal subluxation of the metacarpal on the trapezium. Most treatments revolve around resection or replacement of the arthritic carpometacarpal joint and restoration of the palmar oblique ligament. A critical appraisal of the current evidence-based research offers no guidance in treatment in the early stages of carpometacarpal arthritis; however, several evidence-based studies exist for more advanced stages. Although these studies exhibit limitations in regard to validated outcomes, power analysis, and blinded assessment, their conclusions question the clinical benefits of ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition. Further research is needed to delineate the best treatment of early stages of arthritis as well as the clinical significance of metacarpal subluxation and subsidence. Further, a standardized set of outcome tools is needed for the interpretation and comparison of data in regard to clinical outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
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