Article

Mumps vaccine failure investigation in Novosibirsk, Russia, 2002–2004

State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector, Koltsovo, Russia.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 5.77). 08/2007; 13(7):670-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01727.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to estimate the importance of vaccine failure (VF) in cases of mumps during 2002-2004 in the city of Novosibirsk, Western Siberia, Russia, and to genotype the responsible virus strain. Mumps virus-specific RT-PCR testing of saliva was performed for 18 cases of mumps. Sera were tested for IgM and IgG, IgG avidity, and the ability to neutralise a panel of mumps viruses, including the Leningrad-3 mumps vaccine virus. Of the 12 patients for whom vaccination status was positively determined, 11 showed serological evidence of primary VF. Sequence analysis of virus RNA amplified from saliva revealed a genotype C2 virus in 2002, a genotype H2 virus in 2003, and both genotypes in 2004. Although several vaccinated patients were positive for mumps virus IgG at the time of first sampling, only nominal levels of neutralising antibody were detected, and these were effective in neutralising the vaccine strain, but not genotype C and H mumps virus strains. These results suggest that the majority of cases of mumps in vaccinees are caused by primary VF, defined as either a lack of seroconversion or a lack of IgG maturity, as based on avidity testing. The results also support the hypothesis that sera of low neutralising antibody titre have a limited ability to neutralise heterologous mumps virus strains, suggesting that antigenic differences between circulating and mumps vaccine virus strains may play a role in cases of breakthrough infection. Consistent with previous reports, mumps virus genotypes C and H continue to circulate in Novosibirsk.

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Available from: Mikhail Kulak, Feb 01, 2016
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    • "It has been accepted that MuV is a monotypic virus [8]. However, this assumption has been challenged due to the recent resurgence of mumps epidemics in many countries with ongoing vaccination programs [9-13], the presence of several mumps reinfection cases [14], along with the evidence of distinct lineages of MuV co-circulating globally [6,11,13,15-20]. Currently, thirteen MuV genotypes (A to M) have been defined on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the MuV SH gene [6,10,21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein is the major antigenic determinant of the Mumps virus (MuV) and plays an important role in the viral infectious cycle through its hemagglutination/hemadsorption (HA/HD) and neuraminidase (NA) activities. Objective: analyze the biological and immunological properties of a polypeptide derived from a highly conserved region of the HN ectodomain. Methods: a highly conserved region of the HN gene among several MuV genotypes was chosen to be cloned in a eukaryotic expression vector. The pcDNAHN176-construct was transfected into Vero cells and RNA expression was detected by RT-PCR, while the corresponding polypeptide was detected by immunofluorescence and immunochemistry techniques. The HD and NA activities were also measured. The immunogenic properties of the construct were evaluated using two systems: rabbit immunization to obtain sera for detection of the HN protein and neutralization of MuV infection, and hamster immunization to evaluate protection against MuV infection. A 567 nucleotide region from the HN gene was amplified and cloned into the plasmid pcDNA3.1. Vero cells transfected with the construct expressed a polypeptide that was recognized by a MuV-hyperimmune serum. The construct-transfected cells showed HD and NA activities. Sera from immunized rabbits in vitro neutralized two different MuV genotypes and also detected both the HN protein and the HN176 polypeptide by western blot. Hamsters immunized with the pcDNAHN176-construct and challenged with MuV showed a mild viral infection in comparison to non-immunized animals, and Th1 and Th2 cytokines were detected in them. The pcDNAHN176-construct was capable of expressing a polypeptide in Vero cells that was identified by a hyperimmune serum anti Mumps virus, and these cells showed the HD and NA activities of the complete MuV HN protein. The construct also elicited a specific immune response against MuV infection in hamsters.
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    • "Perhaps aggravating the effect of decreasing levels of antibody over time on mumps susceptibility is antigenic variation among mumps viruses. This was most clearly demonstrated in antibody cross-neutralization studies, in which antibody titers to heterologous mumps viruses were often considerably lower than corresponding titers to the homologous virus [75, 76, 78, 79, 81, 82, 97]. Of note, viruses isolated from recent mumps outbreaks differed phylogenically and, possibly, antigenically from the vaccine viruses used. "
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    ABSTRACT: Increased reports of mumps in vaccinated populations prompted a review of the performance of mumps vaccines. The effectiveness of prior vaccination with 1 dose of vaccine ranged from 72.8% to 91% for the Jeryl Lynn strain, from 54.4% to 93% for the Urabe strain, and from 0% to 33% for the Rubini strain. Vaccine effectiveness after 2 doses of mumps vaccine was reported in 3 outbreaks and ranged from 91% to 94.6%. There was evidence of waning immunity, which is a likely factor in mumps outbreaks, aggravated by possible antigenic differences between the vaccine strain and outbreak strains. Inadequate vaccine coverage or use of the Rubini vaccine strain accounted for the majority of outbreaks reviewed; however, some outbreaks could not be prevented, despite high vaccination coverage with 2 doses of the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strain. Our findings indicate the need for more-effective mumps vaccines and/or for review of current vaccination policies to prevent future outbreaks.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    Preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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