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Canadian restless legs syndrome twin study

Center for the Study of Brain Diseases, CHUM Research Center-Notre Dame Hospital, University of Montreal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 06/2007; 68(19):1631-3. DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000261016.90374.fd
Source: PubMed
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    • "This type of RLS typically receives the designation “primary RLS.” The genetic theory of RLS has been borne out by the results of studies in twin siblings which have demonstrated an approximate 80% incidence of shared symptoms in monozygotic twins, and less concordance in dizygotic twins.10,11 Up to 60% of persons with RLS claim a positive history within the family. "
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    ABSTRACT: The FDA approved gabapentin enacarbil in 2011 as the first non-dopaminergic agent for the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) symptoms. Although gabapentin enacarbil is a pro-drug of gabapentin, its pharmacokinetics differ. Absorption of gabapentin enacarbil is more predictable, and inter-patient variability in bioavailability is lower than that of gabapentin. Studies have demonstrated superiority of gabapentin enacarbil compared to placebo. Comparisons to currently available RLS treatments are lacking, but clinical trials demonstrate comparable improvement in RLS symptoms to the dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole, which are usually considered first-line therapy for daily RLS symptoms. Gabapentin enacarbil was well tolerated in clinical trials. The role of the drug in RLS treatment remains undefined, although it will likely be used as an alternative for refractory RLS when other treatments have failed. Additionally, gabapentin enacarbil may be recommended for patients with daily RLS symptoms that are less intense or are associated with pain as an alternative to dopamine agonists.
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    • "The relative risk for first degree relatives of RLS probands was 3.0–6.0 compared to the general population figures [10] [11] [12]. Many large pedigrees were described in the literature in which multiple members were affected by RLS over a span of 3–5 generations. "

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    ABSTRACT: Le Syndrome d’Impatiences Musculaires de l’Éveil (SIME) est une maladie neurologique caractérisée par un besoin urgent de bouger les jambes. C’est également l’une des causes les plus fréquentes d’insomnie. C’est une maladie très répandue, avec une prévalence de presque 15 % dans la population générale. Les maladies multifactorielles comme le SIME sont souvent le résultat de l’évolution d’une composante génétique et d’une composante environnementale. Dans le cadre du SIME, les études d’association génomique ont permis l’identification de 4 variants à effet modéré ou faible. Cependant, ces quatre variants n’expliquent qu’une faible partie de la composante génétique de la maladie, ce qui confirme que plusieurs nouveaux variants sont encore à identifier. Le rôle des déséquilibres génomiques (Copy Number Variations ou CNVs) dans le mécanisme génétique du SIME est à ce jour inconnu. Cependant, les CNVs se sont récemment positionnés comme une source d’intérêt majeur de variation génétique potentiellement responsable des phénotypes. En collaboration avec une équipe de Munich, nous avons réalisé deux études CNVs à échelle génomique (biopuces à SNP et hybridation génomique comparée (CGH)) sur des patients SIME d’ascendance germanique. À l’aide d’une étude cas-contrôle, nous avons pu identifier des régions avec une occurrence de CNVs différentes pour les patients SIME, comparés à différents groupes contrôles. L’une de ces régions est particulièrement intéressante, car elle est concordante à la fois avec des précédentes études familiales ainsi qu’avec les récentes études d’associations génomiques. Restless Legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by the urge to move one’s limbs. It is also one of the most frequent causes of insomnia. The prevalence of RLS is estimated to be around 15% in the general population. Complexes disorders like RLS are often the result of the evolution of genetic and environmental components. For RLS, recent Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) have identified four variants with mild to moderate effects. However, those four variants explain only a small part of the disease heritability and thus, we expect that many new variants are still to be found. The impact of Copy-Number Variation (CNV) in the genetic mechanism of RLS is still unknown. However, many studies have recently position the CNVs as a significant source of genetic variation potentially responsible of phenotypes. In collaboration with a team from Munich, we conducted two genome-wide CNVs studies (Genome Wide SNP chips and Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH)) on RLS patients from Germany. Using cases-controls studies, we identified regions with a different occurrence of CNVs for RLS patients, compared to different groups of controls. One of these regions is particularly interesting, as it has already been identified by both linkage and association studies.
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