Article

Do not eat the red food!: Prohibition of snacks leads to their relatively higher consumption in children

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Abstract

Overweight is becoming more prevalent in children. Parents' behaviours play an important role in children's eating behaviour and weight status. In addition to modelling and providing meals, parents also have an influence by using control techniques. One frequently used technique is restriction of intake. In this study, it was tested whether a prohibition of food in the first phase would lead to an increase in desire for the target food and overeating in the second phase. Sure enough, desire increased significantly in the prohibition group, whereas it remained constant in the no-prohibition group. Though no significant differences between groups were found in the absolute consumption of the target food, the proportion of consumed target food (target food intake/total food intake) was significantly higher in the prohibition group. Finally, children whose parents imposed either very little or a lot of restriction at home consumed more kilocalories during the whole experiment, as opposed to children who were exposed to a moderate level of restriction at home. These data indicate that restriction can have adverse effects on children's food preference and caloric intake.

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... 12 Although well-intended, restrictive feeding has potentially negative, and often counterproductive consequences. Restriction of energy-dense foods makes them more attractive and increases consumption when access is granted, [13][14][15] even while in the absence of hunger. 13,[16][17][18] Restrictive feeding practices may also negatively impact the development of children's self-regulation by fostering dysregulated eating. ...
... After playtime, each child was paired with a different researcher, where they completed the remainder of the EAH task oneon-one with this researcher. First, children completed a hunger assessment 14 to measure their level of fullness. In brief, children were read a story about Peter, Peter Pumpkin Eater, and as part of the story, they were shown 3 figures that depicted a person with an empty stomach, half empty/half full stomach, and a full stomach. ...
Article
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Background Excess intake of desserts/sweets high in added sugars, such as candy, is linked with greater obesity risk. Parents often limit their children's intake of these sweet foods using controlling feeding practices, such as restriction; yet, restrictive feeding practices are counterproductive for children's self‐regulation of energy intake. Objective This study developed a family‐based behavioral intervention that taught parents alternatives to restrictive feeding practices and encouraged children to consume candy in moderation. Methods Using the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), parent‐child dyads (N=37) were randomized into one of 8 conditions that included a combination of intervention components delivered over 4 weeks: home supply, parent shared decision making, child mindfulness, and child attention control strategies. Results Retention rate at follow‐up was high (95%). Among parents who received parent shared decision making, 86.4% reported the structured‐based candy routine they set with their child was easy to follow. Most children reported child mindfulness (95%) and attention control (89.5%) strategies were easy to play. Children recalled 4.1±1.8 of the 6 mindfulness strategies and 2.7±1.6 of the 5 attention control strategies at follow‐up. Eating in the Absence of Hunger tended to be lower for children who received parent shared decision making and child mindfulness components. Conclusion This intervention was feasible and well‐implemented in the home environment. Findings will inform future, larger interventions designed to test similar strategies on children's eating behaviors and self‐regulation.
... 4,5 Experimental studies have shown that restricting access to palatable "junk" foods increases children's preference for and consumption of restricted foods when freely available. [6][7][8] There is also evidence that long-term restriction can lead to Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH), a laboratory-based behavioral measure of eating in response to food cues in the environment (ie, eating beyond satiety when presented with palatable foods). 9 Three studies using the same longitudinal sample of girls showed positive associations between maternal restriction, EAH, and child weight status. ...
... This case series extends previous literature on the relationship between restrictive feeding and child weight. [6][7][8] Studies have shown a positive association between restriction and weight, 24 but have primarily been observational (relying on parent-reported restriction) or laboratory-based experimental studies. Randomized controlled trials that promote nonrestrictive feeding practices (ie, responsive feeding) have demonstrated success in reducing childhood obesity through 1-3 years of follow-up. ...
Article
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Treatment recommendations for childhood obesity include guidance to reduce portions and the consumption of high‐energy‐dense foods. These messages may unintentionally promote restrictive feeding among parents of children with obesity with excessive hunger. Clinical guidance may benefit from framing treatment messages to parents in the context of a nonrestrictive feeding style. Treatment recommendations for childhood obesity include guidance to reduce portions and the consumption of high‐energy‐dense foods. These messages may unintentionally promote restrictive feeding among parents of children with obesity with excessive hunger. Clinical guidance may benefit from framing treatment messages to parents in the context of a nonrestrictive feeding style.
... This could indicate that limiting the access to certain types of foods has a stronger link with self-regulation of eating than limiting merely the amount of intake of these foods. Accordingly, previous studies found that prohibiting the intake of certain types of foods leads to an increased desire for and consumption of these foods when granted access to (Jansen et al., 2007;. ...
... Using food rewards in exchange for good behaviour may teach children to eat for other reasons than their inner sensations of hunger and fullness, stimulating them, for example, to eat in the absence of hunger . Restricting certain types of food may make these foods more attractive to children and more liked, which could stimulate them to overeat when granted access to these forbidden foods Jansen et al., 2007Jansen et al., , 2008Rollins et al., 2014). This may also explain why we found a significant link between EAH and "Restriction for health" but not between EAH and "Restriction for weight control"; restriction for health refers to restricting highly liked foods (e.g., palatable foods), while restriction for weight control refers to restricting the quantity of foods. ...
Thesis
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Parents play a key role in the development of children’s eating preferences and behaviours. This doctoral project aimed to gain more insight into the feeding practices mothers and fathers use for pre-schoolers in France and Denmark. Four studies, combining quantitative and qualitative methods, were conducted to study the links between maternal and paternal feeding practices/styles and child eating behaviours, possible predictors of parental feeding and portioning practices, and gender differences in feeding practices and parental involvement in child feeding. Special attention was also paid to cultural influences and how changes in the context (due to the COVID-19 pandemic) can influence eating and feeding behaviours. The results, presented in six articles in this doctoral thesis, showed that maternal and paternal feeding practices/styles were significantly linked with child eating behaviours. Both in France and Denmark, fathers were found to use higher levels of coercive control practices than mothers. A systemic look at the results revealed that many child-related (e.g., appetite, food preferences and behaviours, developmental skills), parent-related (e.g., sociodemographic characteristics, self-efficacy/confidence), and external-related factors in their immediate and larger environment (e.g., food culture) influence parental feeding and portioning practices. These results provide valuable indications on the steps that still need to be taken to overcome certain methodological limitations, which issues need to be further explored taking into account parental and cultural diversity, and how mothers and fathers can be helped to create a positive and healthy eating environment for their child. Based on the results and insights obtained in this doctoral project, it is suggested that guidance for parents and structural changes in society (nudges, laws) could be of interest to facilitate this.
... For example, parents with greater concerns or perceptions of overweight might use more restrictive feeding practices (9)(10)(11) , even though this approach does not necessarily contribute to weight management. Restrictions can modify the child's food preferences as well as his/her natural response to signals of hunger-appetite-satiety; higher intake of restricted foods in the absence of hunger might occur (12)(13)(14) . ...
... However, in the present study, the odds of easy access to unhealthy foods were higher despite concern about the child's excess weight. Controlling the availability of foods is a vital aspect of healthy eating, but caution is needed because when children are exposed to restricted items, they could be more likely to choose these foods and consume them in excess (13) . Another practice, child control, was permitted by more than four of every ten participants, even if concern or overweight/obesity perception was present. ...
Article
Objective Mexico ranks first in childhood obesity worldwide. However, little is known about the factors influencing maternal feeding practices. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of feeding practices and explore associations between weight concern, weight perception, sociodemographic characteristics and those feeding practices. Design Cross-sectional. Setting North-eastern Mexico. Participants Mothers aged ≥18 years who were in charge of feeding a singleton child aged 2–6 years with no endocrine disease or visible genetic malformations ( n 507). Information on six maternal feeding practices, concern and perception of the child’s weight and demographics were collected by interview. The mother’s and child’s height and weight were measured. The feeding practices questionnaire was subject to content, construct and convergent validity analysis. Then, mean feeding scores were obtained and prevalence and 95 % CI were determined for scores ≥3; multivariate logistic regression was performed. Results Not modelling (63·5 %; 95 % CI 59·2, 67·8 %) and pressuring to eat (55·6 %; 95 % CI 51·2, 60·0 %) were the most frequent feeding practices, followed by easy access to unhealthy foods (45·4 %; 95 % CI 40·9, 49·8 %) and child control (43·2 %; 95 % CI 38·8, 47·6 %). They prevailed despite concern about the child’s excess weight or a perception of the child as overweight/obese. Education was associated with the highest number of practices (educated mothers used more pressuring to eat, less regulation and less easy access; or monitoring was less absent). Conclusions The frequency of certain feeding practices needs to be improved. Emphasis on the child’s weight concern, obesity perception and maternal education is essential for optimizing intervention planning.
... Certain food parenting practices have been associated with better health outcomes and behaviors among children, whereas others have been associated with more adverse health outcomes and behaviors. Restriction of food, which refers to parents controlling a child's access to certain foods, has been shown to be associated with preoccupations with foods and higher body mass index in children [3][4][5]. Pressuring to eat refers to when parents insist or demand children consume certain foods and have been shown to be predictive of child food fussiness [6]. Using food as a reward for behavior and using food to control children's emotions are food parenting practices that have been associated with higher energy-dense snacking and higher body mass index [7,8]. ...
... For example, more consistent findings were found between coparenting quality and structure food parenting practices than coercive control or autonomy support food parenting practices. Structure and autonomy support practices have been found to be associated with more healthful eating behaviors among children [9][10][11], while coercive control practices have been shown to be associated with less healthful eating behavior and higher weight outcomes among children [3][4][5]7,8,12]. Structure food parenting practices refer to practices that help to organize a child's food environment, including providing a healthy home environment, meal and snack routines, and monitoring the intake of unhealthy foods. ...
Article
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Coparenting quality and food parenting practices have been shown to have a strong influence on child outcomes. However, little is known about whether coparenting quality may influence food parenting practices. This study aimed to investigate how coparenting quality is associated with both mothers’ and fathers’ food parenting practices. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 58 mothers and 40 fathers enrolled in the Guelph Family Health Study. The Coparenting Relationship Scale and the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire were used to measure coparenting and food parenting practices, respectively. Linear regressions using generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between coparenting quality and food parenting practices in mothers and fathers. Among mothers, higher coparenting quality was associated with lower use of food for emotional regulation, restriction of food for health, and child control of food intake and with higher encouragement of a balanced and varied diet, provision of a healthy home environment, and modeling of healthy eating behaviors. Among fathers, higher coparenting quality was associated with lower pressure to eat and with higher encouragement of a balanced and varied diet and provision of a healthy home environment. Coparenting quality is associated with food parenting practices among both mothers and fathers. Interventions aiming to improve food parenting practices should include fathers and should consider targeting parents’ coparenting relationship.
... Eating behaviors are formed at or before the preschool years, but numerous factors may contribute to their development. These include genetic predispositions, food preferences, and eating practices, as well as social and environmental factors, including parental factors [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]. Cultivating healthy eating habits from childhood not only significantly contributes to the personal growth and future health of adults, but also lays an important foundation for overall social health. ...
... The parent's child-feeding style is part of the parent's eating experience, particularly for those who were grown with bad food intake behavior. This accordingly contributes to unhealthy eating behavior that developed in the parent's childhood [31]. ...
Article
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While parenting style has been linked with parent feeding behavior (FB), little is known about the role FB plays in the relationship between parents’ eating behavior (PEB) and children’s eating behavior (CEB). Based on social learning theory, we hypothesized that children learn to develop healthy CEB by obeying and imitating parents’ healthy eating and feeding behaviors, and that FB is the mediator between PEB and CEB. In total, 257 survey responses from parents of children up to 5 years old were included in the study. Results indicated that CEB did not differ by children’s age, gender, or birth order; for parents, older age and lower educational levels were associated with less healthy unhealthier FB and PEB. Healthy PEB and FB explained 46.8% and 21.7% of the variance in healthy CEB, respectively. The model confirmed that FB reduced the coefficient of healthy PEB from 0.563 to 0.468 and increased the variance explained from 35.0% to 38.5%. FB was a mediator for PEB and CEB. Discussion covers the complexity of ideal parenting styles and child feeding and their associated effects on CEB in varied environments, including different cultures. We concluded that PEB was the main predictor of CEB, and healthy feeding acted as a mediator.
... More generally, while there is a large amount of research on the effects of restrictive feeding on children's food consumption, there is little on the development of food preferences. Most of this existing research has consisted of short-term experimental studies that have restricted children's access to a specific food (e.g., chocolate Easter eggs) and shown that children's attention toward the restricted food and desire to obtain and consume the restricted food increased (Fisher & Birch, 1999a, 1999bJansen, Mulkens, & Jansen, 2007;Ogden, Cordey, Culter & Thomas, 2013;Rollins et al., 2014). These studies offer an experimental analogue to the effect of restriction on children's eating behaviour. ...
... This longitudinal finding extends the literature showing the paradoxical effect of this type of parental control to a new but important outcome, naturalistic food preferences. Our finding is consistent with the results of experimental studies that show that restriction of a particular food increases children's preference for that food in the laboratory (Fisher & Birch, 1999a;Jansen et al., 2007;Ogden, Cordey, Cutler, & Thomas, 2013). Importantly, not only did we show that child preferences for energy dense salty and sweet foods increased, but we also showed that restrictive feeding had a negative impact on children's preferences for fruit and vegetables. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate maternal feeding strategies as prospective predictors of young children's food preferences. Participants were 106 mother – child dyads with data collected when children were aged 4 (Time 1) and then again at 6 years old (Time 2). Mothers completed an initial questionnaire at Time 1 which contained measures of restrictive and covert feeding strategies. Children were interviewed concerning their food preferences and had their height and weight measured at Time 1 and again two years later (Time 2). Longitudinal regression results showed that Time 1 parental restrictive feeding predicted decreased child-reported preferences for fruit and vegetables and increased preferences for salty food and sweets at Time 2. Conversely, Time 1 parental covert control predicted greater child-reported preferences for fruit and vegetables over time. The results provide longitudinal evidence of the negative impact of restrictive feeding, and of the positive impact of covert control, on the development of young children's food preferences.
... Regarding the asthma management, the group agreed to the necessity for avoiding prohibitions (as having a pet or playing with plush toys) while focusing on the education of both patients and families to empower them to handle the allergen cause with a vigilant attitude. The group based this disruptive recommendation not only on their clinical experiences but also on many evidences that prohibitions could have a traumatic effect during childhood and in literature findings are already there regarding childhood obesity management [36,37]. ...
Article
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Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that is very common among youth worldwide. The burden of this illness is very high not only considering financial costs but also on emotional and social functioning. Guidelines and many researches recommend to develop a good communication between physicians and children/caregiver and their parents. Nevertheless, a previous Italian project showed some criticalities in paediatric severe asthma management. The consensus gathered together experts in paediatric asthma management, experts in narrative medicine and patient associations with the aim of identify simple recommendation to improve communication strategies. Methods Participants to the consensus received the results of the project and a selection of narratives two weeks before the meeting. The meeting was structured in plenary session and in three working groups discussing respectively about communication strategies with children, adolescents and parents. The task of each working group was to identify the most effective (DO) and least effective practices (DON’ T) for 5 phases of the visit: welcome, comprehension of the context, emotions management, duration and end of the visit and endurance of the relationship. Results Participants agreed that good relationships translate into positive outcomes and reached consensus on communication strategies to implement in the different phase of relationships. Conclusions The future challenges identified by the participants are the dissemination of this Consensus document and the implementation of effective communication strategies to improve the management of pediatric asthma.
... In the latter case, gaming may be a source of parent-child conflict and parental rule-setting even may result in an increase (rather than a decrease) in undesirable behavior. Previous research provided evidence for such 'boomerang' effects of parental rule-setting among young children, for instance in the context of the prohibition of certain types of food among children of 5 and 6 years old (Jansen et al. 2007). ...
Article
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Objectives As young children increasingly grow up in a digital environment, parents are confronted with the question whether and how to regulate young children’s digital gaming effectively. The goal of this study was to examine correlates of parents’ degree of restrictive mediation and their (autonomy-supportive or controlling) style of doing so. Specifically, we tested associations of parents’ degree and style of restrictive mediation with parents’ attitudes about digital gaming, parental perceptions of children’s defiance and problematic gaming, and their interest in social play. Methods A sample of 762 parents of children between 3 and 9 years filled out questionnaires on their degree and style of restrictive mediation, their attitudes about gaming, and their perceptions of children’s oppositional defiance, problematic gaming, and interest in social play. Results We found that parents who hold more negative attitudes about digital gaming were more likely to use a controlling style when mediating their child’s gaming. Further, a higher degree of restrictive mediation generally related to more adaptive child outcomes (i.e., lower levels of perceived defiance and problematic gaming, higher levels of perceived interest in social play), whereas the opposite pattern was found for parents’ controlling style of mediation. Finally, these associations were not moderated by children’s age or gender, nor by parents’ gender or educational level. Conclusions Also in the context of children’s digital gaming, it seems important for parents to set clear rules. Yet, when doing so, it is equally important to refrain from using controlling strategies, as they seem to be counterproductive.
... Furthermore, low self-regulation has been associated with restrictive (Horn, Galloway, Webb, & Gagnon, 2011) and controlling feeding practices (Tan & Holub, 2011). However, at the same time for instance restrictive feeding practices are shown to predict children's appetite persistence (Godefroy, Champel, Trinchera, & Rigal, 2018), heightened desire to eat the restricted food and increased consumption of the restricted food (Jansen, Mulkens, & Jansen, 2007), pointing out that also in the feeding context the associations are bidirectional. ...
Article
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Although evidence exists of the association between children's temperament and weight, only few studies have examined how temperament is associated with actual food consumption among preschoolers. We examined concurrent associations between children's temperament and the consumption of different foods, and investigated whether the association between children's temperament and vegetable consumption is mediated by vegetable-related parenting practices. We utilized the data from the cross-sectional DAGIS study of 864 preschool children aged between three to six and their families, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Finland. The parents reported their children's temperament, food consumption, and their vegetable-related parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression analyses found positive associations between surgency and vegetable consumption as well as between effortful control and vegetable consumption. Both associations were mediated by one examined vegetable-related parenting practice: enhanced availability and autonomy support. No associations were found between children's negative affectivity and food consumption or vegetable-related parenting practices. In conclusion, children's temperament may be an important factor behind food-related parenting practices and children's diet. However, further longitudinal research and research covering different food-related parenting practices and home environment factors is necessary to better understand the complex associations between temperament and food consumption among young children.
... Due to the cross-sectional nature of the current data, it is not possible to infer a temporal relationship between feeding practices and energy intake, but we can speculate about possible explanations for these correlations. Although it is possible that the mothers' use of restrictive feeding practices could cause the child to eat more, perhaps by making the "forbidden fruit" more attractive (Fisher & Birch, 1999;Jansen, Mulkens, & Jansen, 2007, the pattern of associations could also suggest that mothers were trying to limit intake as a reaction to the amount of food that the children were eating. This latter hypothesis would be consistent with our finding that mothers made more attempts to slow children's eating when they were consuming more energy, as this "slowing" behavior has not previously been shown to increase children's intake. ...
Article
Parents' feeding practices have been shown to be associated with children's food intake and weight status, but little is known about feeding practices in Asian countries. This study used behavioral observation to explore the feeding practices of 201 mothers of 4.5 year-old children in Singapore during an ad libitum buffet lunch. Feeding practices were coded from videos, focusing on behaviors used to prompt the child to eat more food (autonomysupportive and coercive-controlling prompts to eat, suggesting items from buffet), those to reduce intake (restriction, questioning food choice), and those related to eating rate (hurrying or slowing child eating). Child outcome measures included energy consumed, variety of food items selected, and BMI. Maternal restriction and trying to slow child eating rate were associated with higher energy consumed by the child (r=0.19 and 0.13, respectively; p < 0.05). Maternal autonomy-supportive prompts and restriction were associated with a greater variety of items selected by children (r=0.19 and 0.15, respectively; p < 0.05). The frequency of maternal feeding practice use differed across ethnic groups, with Malay mothers using the most prompts to eat (p < 0.05), Chinese mothers most likely to question a child's food choice (p < 0.01), and Indian mothers the last likely to tell the child to eat faster (p < 0.001). There were no differences between ethnic groups for other feeding practices. No associations were found between feeding practices and child BMI. It is possible that feeding practices related to restriction and slowing child eating are adopted in response to children who consume larger portions, although longitudinal or intervention studies are needed to confirm the direction of this relationship and create local recommendations.
... These measurements are especially problematic for children, who lack the ability to assess the complexity of the measurements (Matthes and Naderer, 2015). Since parents prepare children's meals and control their eating behavior (Jansen et al., 2007), they are a reliable source of children's eating habits. Moreover, some studies in this research area also gained insights about children's levels of food neophobia using parents' surveys (Cooke et al., 2003;Mustonen and Tuorila, 2010;Russell and Worsley, 2008). ...
Article
Rationale: Studies show that the presentation of healthy foods within media does not lead to healthier food choices in children. A persuasive strategy is needed. We investigated how healthy peer cues shown in an audiovisual cartoon influence children's food choice. Method: In an experiment, we showed children a cartoon presenting no food (i.e., the control condition), one child eating raspberries (i.e., the minority condition), or all children eating raspberries (i.e., the majority condition). We measured children's majority awareness-that is, their awareness of peers' preference for raspberries-as a mediator variable. We assessed children's fruit choice as a dependent variable and tested the moderating role of food neophobia. Results: Children in the majority condition did not show a higher majority awareness compared to the control condition. Compared to the control and majority conditions, however, the minority condition prompted children to conclude that most of their peers do not like raspberries, leading to a subsequent lower likelihood of choosing fruit. Children's levels of food neophobia did not moderate these results, but food neophobia moderated the direct effect of experimental conditions on food choice, independent of majority awareness. In particular, children with high levels of food neophobia refrained from choosing the healthy snack when the minority of peers ate raspberries in the cartoon. Conclusions: This study has provided some indications into how healthy food presentations within an audiovisual stimulus can influence children's food choice. Prompting children's healthy eating behaviors by presenting healthy foods in media content is not as easy as prompting unhealthy food choices by presenting unhealthy foods. Children's natural preference for fruit is attenuated by peer cues shown in media when a peer is in a minority. Overall, content producers should be aware of the risks of minority peer cues.
... While parents may see restriction as a straightforward method for limiting their child's consumption of unhealthy foods, parental restriction is positively associated with children's desire for restricted foods, tendency to overeat, and consumption of snack foods (Ogden et al., 2013;Rodgers et al., 2013). Another parental food practice that can lead to overeating is food reward and punishment such as feeding to stop the child from being sad, giving food as a reward, and rewarding children for eating healthy (e.g., if you eat this carrot then you can have dessert) (Birch et al., 2003;Jansen et al., 2007). Parents also influence their children's food consumption through meal and snack routines (i.e., atmosphere of meals, distractions, family presence, and schedule) (Vaughn et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
Throughout our lifes we are exposed to different stressors that can make us more vulnerable to suffer from mental disorders, such as depression or anxiety. However, resilient individuals are characterized by their ability to achieve a positive outcome when they are in the face of adversity. Interestingly, both clinical and pre-clinical studies have provided us information about different behavioural interventions that can make us more resilient to challenging situations. These include the aerobic exercise which, at moderate doses, has been shown to be beneficial at all stages of life by promoting a range of physiological and neuroplastic adaptations that reduce the anxiety response. Due to the benefit effects of the exercise on the cognition and brain functionality, the exercise programs have been proposed as a promoter of resilience and neuroplasticity. How to understand the relationship between exercise, neuroplasticity and resilience is one of the objective that will be developed in our chapter. Thus, we will summarize the potential effect of moderate exercise to induce a more successful response toward stressful situations, as well as to describe its neurobiological underlying basis (morphofunctional modifications in HPA axe, neurogenesis, specific neuron types, glia, neurotrophic factors, among others) in different periods of life (adolescence, adulthood and old age).
... 48 It is well documented that parental ''control'' approaches such as restricting child's food intake is counterproductive and increases the child's temptation to restricted foods, resulting in promotion of long-term dysregulated eating behaviors and obesity. [49][50][51] Equipping parents with both knowledge and skill of parenting approaches helps them to distinguish between strategies that potentially exacerbate children's unhealthy feeding behaviors from practices that help children for better self-regulatory skills. 47 Poor self-regulation is recognized as a risk factor for the development of obesity in children. ...
Article
Background: Home environment, modeling of weight-related behaviors, and general parenting style are very important predictors of obesity in children. The effect of parent engagement in prevention of obesity in children is not clear. The main objective of this systematic review was to address the effects of parent engagement in obesity prevention interventions on anthropometric changes among preschool children. Methods: PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were searched. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials in last 10 years (from 2008 until February 14, 2018), which had a parent engagement in obesity prevention interventions (as an intervention) and children's anthropometric indices (as an outcome). Results: Twenty-six studies were included. Half of studies targeted both parents and children, and the rest targeted only parents. Types of interventions ranged from a simple motivational interviewing to professional skill training approaches. Studies that targeted overweight or obese children in their intervention containing training sessions followed by maintenance for parents and those that focused on individual support for overweight children and their parents, resulted in higher improvement in BMI and other outcomes. Conclusions: Anthropometric indices and BMI are not appropriate for reflecting the effectiveness of parent engagement in obesity prevention interventions. Having an individual component in the intervention and focusing more on parents vs. children in the intervention may result in improvement in anthropometric outcomes. Focusing on weight-related behaviors as the main outcome in both, children and parents, rather than anthropometric indices, is highly recommended for future reviews.
... Parents of children under 18 play a key role in the children's eating behaviour. In addition to designing and buying the different foods that make up the household diet, they also exert their influence by encouraging their children to try new foods and force them to eat certain dishes (Patrick et al., 2005;Jansen et al., 2007). Bear in mind that, in general, children's food preferences do not usually coincide with a healthy diet, so it is essential to find the right strategies to get children to eat in a healthy and balanced way. ...
Article
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p>The nutritional and dietary properties of rabbit meat make it an ideal food for children, recommended by the World Health Organisation. However, the presence of children under 18 in the home has been found to decrease the frequency of rabbit meat consumption. If we focus on households with children under 18, 52.5% of minors do not consume rabbit meat. The main reason why children (intended as people under 18 yr old) do not consume rabbit meat is the fact that they do not like it (40.9%) and because it is not bought/eaten at home (30.9%). Faced with this situation, there is a pressing need to seek appropriate strategies to adapt rabbit meat for consumption by the youngest family members. In light of the results, the following strategies are proposed. First, the development of functional foods for babies and children, such as rabbit meat enriched with ω3 and docosahexaenoic acid. Secondly, improving meat tenderness. Third, adapting rabbit meat presentations for children (burgers, nuggets, sausages, marinades …), converting them into convenience products for parents and extending their shelf life. Fourth, adapting the labelling/packaging for children to attract attention of both parents and offspring. Finally, developing communication strategies on the nutritional value of rabbit meat aimed at both children and parents. It is observed that if minors consume rabbit meat, they also eat other types of meat such as lamb and beef more often. Therefore, in this type of households a varied and complete diet is consumed in terms of meat consumption, so it would be necessary to rethink joint communication strategies among the three meat sectors. Promoting rabbit meat consumption among the under 18s has several consequences, as in the future they will be in charge of household purchases or share this responsibility.</p
... For example, parents who encourage and model healthy eating are more likely to have children who eat healthy foods (Patrick & Nicklas, 2005;Tibbs et al., 2001;Vaughn et al., 2015;Yee, Lwin, & Ho, 2017). Parental behaviors such as using foods (particularly sugary, salty, and/or fatty foods) as rewards (Birch & Fisher, 1998;Puhl & Schwartz, 2003), forcing children to eat healthy foods thereby making the encounter aversive (Galloway, Fiorito, Francis, & Birch, 2006;Haycraft & Blissett, 2008;Mitchell et al., 2013), feeding restrictions (Clark, Goyder, Bissell, Blank, & Peters, 2007;Faith, Scanlon, Birch, Francis, & Sherry, 2004;Jansen, Mulkens, & Jansen, 2007), and overfeeding (Birch & Fisher, 1998) are implicated in poor diet behaviors and obesity in children. These FPP, and other behaviors/ actions, are central tenets in the content map/model as proposed by Vaughn et al. (2015). ...
Article
Objective: To determine whether parents' and adolescents' dietary behaviors for fruits and vegetables [FV], junk foods, and sugar sweetened beverages [SSBs] align with parents' food parenting practices for these behaviors. Design: Data from the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health and Eating (FLASHE), a cross-sectional, internet-based study, were analyzed. Participants: Parent and adolescent dyads (n = 1859) representative of the general U.S. Population: Main outcome measures: Dependent variables: adolescent and parental dietary behaviors. Independent variables: parents' food parenting practices for FV, SSBs, and junk food were assessed. Analysis: General linear models with test of equal slopes were used to test study aims. Results: Parents' diets and food parenting practices were consistent with their dietary behaviors. For their adolescents, parenting practices for FV consumption was positively related to adolescents' FV consumption, but parents/caregivers' rules/limits to avoid junk food/SSBs were positively related to adolescents' junk foods and SSBs consumption. Conclusions and implications: Continued parental modeling of dietary practices is important during adolescence. Future analyses should investigate adolescents' perceptions of parents' practices and behaviors as well as their exposure from other sources and their effect on adolescent (dietary) decision-making.
... Previous research demonstrated that parents restrict HED snacks/foods in order to prevent the development of overweight and obesity in their children [31] and to prevent poor dental hygiene [14]. However, restricting access to HED foods can result in adverse eating outcomes including increased desire for and consumption of a food once the restriction is removed [36]. Energy regulation in the short term was thought to be accurate in infants and young children [37,38], but recent evidence shows that even babies under 12 months fail to compensate for energy and the ability worsens with age [39]. ...
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Caregivers are responsible for the type and amount of food young children are served. However, it remains unclear what considerations caregivers make when serving snacks to children. The aim of the study was to explore mothers’ decisions and portion control strategies during snack preparation in the home environment. Forty mothers of children aged 24–48 months participated in the study. Mothers prepared five snack foods for themselves and their child whilst verbalizing their actions and thoughts. Mothers were then asked about their portion size decisions in a semi-structured interview. Transcripts were imported into NVivo and analyzed thematically. Three key themes were identified: (1) portion size considerations, (2) portion control methods, and (3) awareness and use of portion size recommendations. Transient, food-related situational influences influenced mothers and disrupted planning and portion control. Food packaging and dishware size were used as visual cues for portion control; however, these vary widely in their size, thus emphasizing mothers’ uncertainty regarding appropriate portion sizes. Mothers called for portion size information to be accessible, child-centered, and simple. These findings reveal multiple considerations when deciding on the correct snack portion sizes for children. These decisions are complex and vary across situations and time, and according to the types of snacks offered.
... Controlling feeding styles, such as restriction and pressure to eat, have been related to several negative outcomes: increase in the preference for forbidden foods (Jansen, Mulkens, & Jansen, 2007), higher consumption of unhealthy food (Vereecken, Legiest, De Bourdeaudhuij, & Maes, 2009), decrease in children's ability to respond to their internal cues of hunger (Ventura & Birch, 2008) and satiety (Carper, Fisher, & Birch, 2000), eating in response to emotions such as boredom or sadness (Carper et al., 2000), loss of control over eating (Neumark-Sztainer, Wall, Haines, Story, & Eisenberg, 2007) and overweight (Hurley, Cross, & Hughes, 2011). A lower child consumption of fruit (Gregory, Paxton, & Brozovic, 2011) and vegetables (Fisher, Mitchell, Smiciklas-Wright, & Birch, 2002) has also been observed as associated with pressure to eat; it is suggested that this is a consequence of the children's perception of being forced to consume certain foods (e.g., soup), developing a "cognitive aversion" for those foods by associating them with the negative feeding experience and consuming them less (Galloway, Fiorito, Francis, & Birch, 2006). ...
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Portugal is among the European countries with higher rates of overweight children, and parental feeding practices may affect children weight and eating patterns. A community sample of 252 Portuguese parents was used to study the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire. (i.e., structural, convergent and discriminant validity, external and criterion validity, as well as reliability and sensitivity). Regarding construct validity, the measurement model supported a five-factor structure (Emotional, Instrumental, Encouragement, Permissiveness, and Control) with an acceptable fit; Item 24 was excluded since it showed a very low factor weight and was not significantly associated with its subscale (λ=0.274; p=0.065); also, this item’s explained variance was below the recommended (r²=0.018). Discriminant validity was verified in eight of the ten paired factors. Only the emotional eating subscale had a good value of VME (convergent validity; VME = .62). External validity was confirmed, as was internal consistency, where four of the five subscales, with the exception of the emotional eating subscale, had good Cronbach's alphas (.67
... In the domain of healthy eating, research showed that the prohibition of snacks can increase children's consumption of these snacks [30,31]. Similarly for adults, a negative description of unhealthy food or explicit health messages have been found to increase dieters' desire and consumption of unhealthy food [32][33][34]. ...
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The aim of traffic light labels on food products is to help consumers assess their healthiness. However, it is not clear whether traffic light labels do not have undesired side effects by signaling lower tastiness of healthy product alternatives and reducing purchase intentions. We therefore conducted a study with consumers from Austria (N = 173) in which we presented the amount of sugar contained in products on labels with or without traffic light colors based on the coding criteria of the UK Food Standards Agency. Expectations of products’ healthiness and tastiness, as well as purchase intentions were assessed. The products were randomly sampled from the category of desserts from a supermarket. The declared amount of sugar was experimentally varied. The traffic light labels helped participants differentiate between the healthiness of products with different sugar levels. They did not affect the expected tastiness of the healthier alternatives. Moreover, participants did not report lower purchase intentions for products high in sugar, but a higher purchase intention for products low in sugar when traffic light colors were used compared to when they were not used.
... Restrictions are employed quite frequently by parents, especially regarding unhealthy foods [30]. However, studies show that the simple restriction of foods may lead to an emotional response, namely, children's reactance against these rules [40]. This may be explained through the so-called "forbidden fruit effect". ...
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Obesity in children is an international health concern. Against this background, there is an increasing interest in understanding how healthy and unhealthy food marketing in narrative media can affect children. In particular, children’s implicit reactions, such as visual attention and emotional arousal, are far from being sufficiently understood. We conducted an eye-tracking study, presenting children one of two versions of a narrative media-stimulus, either presenting an unhealthy food (i.e., candy condition; N = 34), or a healthy food (i.e., fruit condition; N = 34). As dependent variables, we investigated dwell time (i.e., visual attention) and pupil dilation (i.e., emotional arousal). As moderators, we included children’s prohibition of candy at home and children’s level of BMI in our models. Our results indicate that mean dwell time did not differ between conditions and that the moderators did not exert any effect. Moreover, pupil dilation did not differ between conditions but was moderated by parents’ candy prohibition at home (ηp2 = 0.080). The results show that children who are not allowed to consume candy at home react with higher emotional arousal when exposed to candy placements than children allowed to eat candy at home. Thus, depending on children’s contextual factors, children react differently to unhealthy food cues.
... Over time this can affect learning by shaping the extent to which internal fullness cues and amount of food remaining affect amount consumed, and ability to self-regulate. Serving children larger portions promotes increased intake [41] and other experimental research with young children has shown that pressuring children to eat in order to finish consuming food on their plate can promote greater intake [38,[42][43][44][45]. RP intervention parents were less likely to report that they used feeding as the immediate, default response to infant crying and reported less frequent use of feeding to soothe. ...
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Background: What, when, how, how much, and how often infants are fed have been associated with childhood obesity risk. The objective of this secondary analysis was to examine the effect of a responsive parenting (RP) intervention designed for obesity prevention on parents' infant feeding practices in the first year after birth. Methods: Primiparous mother-newborn dyads were randomized to the Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) Study RP intervention or child safety control. Research nurses delivered intervention content at home at infant age 3-4, 16, 28, and 40 weeks, and at a research center at 1 year. RP feeding guidance advised feeding that was contingent (i.e., feed in response to hunger and satiety signs, alternatives to using food to soothe), and developmentally appropriate (i.e., delaying introduction of solids, age-appropriate portion sizes). Infant feeding practices (i.e., bottle use, introduction of solids, food to soothe) were assessed by phone interviews and online surveys and dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Results: RP mothers were more likely to use of structure-based feeding practices including limit-setting (p < 0.05) and consistent feeding routines (p < 0.01) at age 1 year. RP group mothers were less likely to use non-responsive feeding practices such as pressuring their infant to finish the bottle/food (p < 0.001), and using food to soothe (p < 0.01), propping the bottle (p < 0.05) assessed between 4 and 8 months, and putting baby to bed with a bottle at age 1 year (p < 0.05). Few differences were seen between groups in what specific foods or food groups infants were fed. Conclusions: Anticipatory guidance on RP in feeding can prevent the use of food to soothe and promote use of more sensitive, structure-based feeding which could reduce obesity risk by affecting how and when infants are fed during the first year. Trial registration: The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) Study. www.clinicaltrials.gov . NCT01167270. Registered 21 July 2010.
... In contrast, research on restraint theory suggests that focusing on limiting or avoiding certain foods is more challenging (Herman & Mack, 1975;Polivy et al., 2005). Trying not to eat certain foods may indeed increase desires and cravings for them, making them even more difficult to avoid (Jansen et al., 2007;Pham et al., 2016). Also, avoidance eating goals only involve undesired end-states (i.e., "anti-goals"), and do not specify a direction for action. ...
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Most people try to eat healthy, but the temptation of unhealthy foods (among other factors) can make it difficult. Despite these difficulties, some people still achieve their healthy eating goals. Following self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), we propose that relative autonomous motivation (RAM) can foster people's effort in pursuing health goals. In two daily diary studies, we tested the hypothesis that RAM predicts attainment of healthy eating goals, especially when it is difficult. In Study 1, we focused on difficulties associated with trying to eat certain foods while avoiding others, whereas in Study 2, we focused on difficulties associated with the availability of unhealthy and healthy foods. Multilevel analyses provided some support our hypothesis, and highlighted the role of RAM for eating (vs. skipping) lunch and packing a lunch-two approach-based healthy eating strategies. We discuss these findings in relation to SDT and propose directions for future research on within-person changes in motivation and other sources of difficulty. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11031-022-09960-3.
... Controlling and limiting might lead children to eat sugary products in large quantities once the restriction is lifted. In 3-7-year-old children, restricting eating highly palatable foods, such as sweet foods, resulted in a higher intake of those foods following the removal of restrictions (42)(43)(44) . ...
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Convincing evidence suggests diets laden with added sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, associate with excess weight in children. The relationships between sugar consumption frequency and BMI remain less well-studied. We, therefore, evaluated children’s consumption frequency of selected sugary products (n=8461; mean age, 11.1 years; SD 0.9) selected from the Finnish Health in Teens (Fin-HIT) cohort study. Using a 16-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) including six sugary products (chocolate/sweets, biscuits/cookies, ice cream, sweet pastry, sugary juice drinks and sugary soft drinks), we calculated a Sweet Treat Index (STI) for the frequency of weekly sugary product consumption, and categorised children based on quartiles (Q) into low (Q1, cut-off <4.0), medium (Q2+Q3, range 4.0–10.5) and high STI (Q4, cut-off >10.5), and as thin, normal and overweight/obese based on measured BMI. Through multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that subjects with a high STI exhibited a higher risk of being thin (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.02–1.41) and lower risk of being overweight (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.67–0.92), while subjects with a low STI were at higher risk of being overweight (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.14–1.53). High consumption frequencies of salty snacks, pizza and hamburgers most closely associated with a high STI. Our findings suggest that consuming sugary products at a high frequency does not associate with being overweight. The relationship between a low consumption frequency and being overweight suggests that overweight children’s consumption frequency of sugary products may be controlled, restricted or underreported.
... There- fore, it is possible that children could perceive this food as more attractive due to its status as "forbidden." Some support for this possibility comes from experimental evidence showing that pro- hibition of food results in greater desire for and consumption of the target food by children (Jansen, Mulkens, & Jansen, 2007). Sim- ilarly, Fisher and Birch (1999) found that children focused signif- icantly more on a particular type of food (i.e., the food elicited more positive comments, more requests for it, and more attempts to obtain it) when restricted access was imposed compared to a similar type of palatable control food which was freely available- even though they initially had the same level of preference for both types of food ). ...
Article
Eating more or eating less in response to negative emotions, called emotional over‐ and undereating, is common in children, but research on the etiology of these behaviors is in its infancy. Drawing on a large, representative community sample of Norwegian children followed up on a biennial basis from 6 to 10 years of age (analysis sample: n = 802), child and contextual predictors (i.e., child temperament, depression symptoms, serious life events, family functioning, parental sensitivity and structuring) of change in emotional over‐ and undereating were examined. Results revealed that low (temperamental) soothability and less parental structuring at age 6 predicted increased emotional overeating at age 10 and that lower family functioning at age 6 predicted more emotional undereating during the same period.
... Furthermore, when parents restrict their child's access to unhealthy food, the chance for a food-related conflict may increase, because the restricted food may be particularly alluring for their child (H4). Several studies showed that restricting access to specific food can lead to increased preferences for and overconsumption of the restricted food in children (43)(44)(45). For instance, Fisher and Birch (43) found that children who were restricted to a jar of cookies for 5 weeks in their home environments afterwards made more requests for the cookies and ate larger portions than children who were not exposed to the restriction during this period. ...
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One of the most critical arenas for conflicts between parents and their children relates to food. Although parent-child conflicts about food are a real occurrence, this form of parent-child interaction has been rarely examined. Given the special role of parents in shaping children's diet, we especially focus on the impact of parental measures. This study investigates how parental communication strategies (i.e., active vs. restrictive) and feeding practices (i.e., overt control vs. covert control) affect the emergence of parent-child conflicts about food over time. Based on previous research, we assessed overt control through parents' use of food as a reward and restriction of their children's access to specific food types. We explored the impact of our predictors on both conflicts about unhealthy and healthy food with a two-wave panel study including parents and their children (N = 541; children aged between 5 and 11) in Austria between fall 2018 and spring 2019. Results of two multiple linear regressions indicated that predominantly parents' use of unhealthy food as a reward is connected to both healthy and unhealthy food conflicts. Furthermore, inconsistent parental educational styles increased the respective conflict potential. Active food-related mediation and covert control did not relate to food-related conflicts about unhealthy and healthy food. Parents' increased use of overtly controlling and restrictive feeding practices might not be only counterproductive for children's diet but also for food-related parent-child interactions. Instead, a “health discourse” (i.e., active food-related mediation) might prevent food-related conflicts and foster a healthy growth in the future.
... The proposed approach favored repeated exposure to healthy food without pressure to eat and ensuring an eating routine [39][40][41]. Dietary restrictions and food classifications that induce dichotomous thinking of "good" and "bad" foods were proscribed as these methods have proven to be harmful and counterproductive in children [39,42]. Dietary intake and anthropometric profile were also monitored at each visit, and the RD encouraged the participant and/or parents to set specific dietary goals based on their needs. ...
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This study aims to describe the feasibility of a nutritional intervention that promotes healthy eating habits early after cancer pediatric diagnosis in patients and their parents. Participants were recruited 4 to 12 weeks after cancer diagnosis as part of the VIE study. The one-year nutritional intervention included an initial evaluation and 6 follow-up visits every 2 months with a registered dietician. The feasibility assessment included rates of retention, participation, attendance, completion of study measures, and participants’ engagement. A preliminary evaluation of the intervention's impact on the participants’ dietary intakes was conducted. A total of 62 participants were included in the study (51.6% male, mean age = 8.5 years, mean time since diagnosis = 13.2 weeks). The retention and attendance rates were 72.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Attendance to follow-up visits declined over time, from 83.9% to 48.9%. A majority of participants had high participation (50.8%) and high engagement (56.4%). Measures of body-mass-index or weight-for-length ratio and dietary 24-h recalls were the procedures with the highest completion rates. Participants with refractory disease or relapse were less likely to complete the intervention. Post-intervention, participants (n = 21) had a lower sodium intake compared to the initial evaluation. These results suggest that a nutritional intervention that involves patients and parents early after a pediatric cancer diagnosis is feasible.
... 26 However, when children are aware that foods are restricted, they often express a greater desire for those foods and greater subsequent intake of them. 27 Indeed, these restricted foods can be used by children in situations of emotional arousal as a means of regulating their mood. 25 The biopsychosocial model 12 also accounts for the influence of child characteristics in predicting early childhood eating behaviors, and this is supported by literature that has shown that child characteristics can shape EE. ...
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Background Children’s tendency to eat while they are emotional, irrespective of satiety, is termed ‘emotional eating’ (EE). EE develops early in childhood and has been associated with maternal modelling of EE and food parenting practices. Additionally, individual differences in a child’s appetitive traits (i.e., food approach behaviours) are related to the development of EE. Objective The objective of this study was to examine whether the previously identified mediating relationship between maternal EE and child EE via maternal use of food as a reward, food for emotion regulation, or restriction of food for health reasons varies as a function of child food approach. Design A cross-sectional online questionnaire study was conducted. Participants/setting 185 mothers of children aged between 3-5-years were recruited between January 2020 to March 2020 from advertisements placed on social media in the United Kingdom. Main outcome measure Questionnaires assessed child EE, child food approach tendencies, maternal EE and food parenting practices. Statistical analyses performed Using PROCESS v3.4, model 14, moderated mediations were employed to assess whether child food approach tendencies moderated the mediating effect of controlling food parenting practices between maternal EE and child EE. Results This study found the relationship between maternal reports of maternal EE and child EE was mediated by maternal use of food as a reward, but only for children with high food approach tendencies (B = 0.05, 95% Cl 0.010, 0.101, R² = 48%). This study also found the relationship between maternal EE and child EE was mediated by maternal use of restriction for health reasons, but only when children showed medium (B = 0.02, 95% Cl 0.004, 0.072) to high (B = 0.06, 95% Cl 0.016, 0.110, R² = 51%) food approach tendencies. Conclusion The potential for the intergenerational transmission of EE via the use of food as a reward and food restriction may be exacerbated when a child has higher food approach behaviours.
... Additionally, these findings demonstrate another area where mothers need support. For example, the current study suggests that some mothers who are overwhelmed with providing all meals for their child may engage in more restrictive feeding practices, which has been associated with less healthy child dietary intake (Birch, Fisher, & Davison, 2003a, 2003bJansen et al., 2007). Other mothers felt they did not have capacity to monitor child eating in addition to other responsibilities and had limited or no rules (e.g., structure) around child eating. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic brought about many changes that potentially altered the home food environment, which has been associated with child health outcomes, such as dietary intake and weight status. There is also some evidence that changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with health behaviors in children, such as an increased intake of high-calorie snack food. The current study aimed to more deeply understand how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the home food environment of meal and snack time routines and patterns within families of young children. Data for this study are taken from the Kids EAT! Study, a racially/ethnically diverse cohort of families with 2–5 year old children. Qualitative interviews were conducted by phone and video conference with mothers (n = 25) during August/September 2020 and were coded using a hybrid deductive/inductive analysis approach. This allowed coders to identify themes using the interview questions as an organizational template (deductive) while also allowing unique themes to emerge from the qualitative data (inductive). Four overarching themes emerged with multiple sub-themes: 1) Mothers were more directive in the types of food and amounts of food eaten by children; 2) Mothers had less rules around mealtimes; 3) Mothers had increased meal responsibilities; 4) Changes to child snacking. When faced with a change in a structured schedule and increased stress—such as occurred with the COVID-19 pandemic, parents may benefit from advice on how to manage parent feeding practices, including tips on appropriate limit setting, establishing a schedule and routines, and improving accessibility of healthful snacks. Lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic may have relevance to other time periods when families face disruptions to routine and during other times of transition.
... This could indicate that limiting the access to certain types of foods has a stronger link with self-regulation of eating than limiting merely the amount of intake of these foods. Accordingly, previous studies found that prohibiting the intake of certain types of foods leads to an increased desire for and consumption of these foods when granted access to Jansen et al. (2007Jansen et al. ( , 2008. ...
Article
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This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the associations between young children’s eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), inhibitory control, body mass index (BMI) and several maternal controlling feeding practices (food as reward, restriction for health, restriction for weight control). In addition, to more properly assess the relationship between children’s and maternal variables, the link between EAH and restriction was explored separately in two directionalities: “child to parent” or “parent to child.” To do this, mothers of 621 children aged 2.00–6.97years (51% boys, M=4.11years, SD=1.34) filled in a questionnaire with items from validated questionnaires. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the data. The results showed, whatever the directionality considered, a positive association between children’s eating in the absence of hunger and their BMI z-scores. Restriction for health and restriction for weight control were differently linked to EAH and to children’s BMI z-scores. Namely, low child inhibitory control, food as reward and restriction for health were identified as risk factors for EAH. Restriction for weight control was not linked to EAH, but was predicted by child BMI z-scores. Interventions aiming to improve children’s abilities to self-regulate food intake could consider training children’s general self-regulation, their self-regulation of intake, and/or promoting adaptive parental feeding practices.
... Most parents stated that if their children wanted to taste animal foods, they would not prevent their children from doing that. This positive approach is essential, considering recent concerns raised by some authors who have hypothesized an association between the parents' obsession with controlling what their children eat and the risk of eating disorders [45]. ...
Article
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A growing number of Italian families are adopting a vegan diet (VD) for their offspring from infancy for various reasons, with health benefits and ethics being the most common reasons. Barriers to effective communication with primary care pediatricians (PCPs) are perceived by many parents and, depending on the actors involved and the environment, a VD may affect social interactions in everyday life. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and September 2020. Parents of children following a VD completed an online questionnaire. Data from 176 Italian parents were collected. About 72% (71.8%) of the children included in this study had been on a VD since weaning. Parents did not inform their primary care pediatricians (PCP) about the VD in 36.2% of the cases. In 70.8% of the cases, PCPs were perceived as skeptical or against a VD. About 70% (71.2%) of the parents relied on medical dietitians, and 28.2% on nutritionists/dietitians for dietary counseling. Parents administered an individual B12 supplement in 87.2% of the cases. To the best of our knowledge, this survey is the first which explores the relationship between vegan parents and their PCPs, the parental management of their children’s diet and problems regarding the implementation of a VD in everyday life.
... Demonisation of high fat/sugar foods in the media [51,52] and ECEC nutrition policies that misalign with Ministry of Health guidelines [53] may be contributing to these knowledge deficits. Since banning foods can encourage children to fixate on these items and consume them in excess [54,55], it is important that teachers have the knowledge and skills to follow guidelines for food choices. Meanwhile, although 80% of teachers knew the recommended number of snacks per day, 10.7% of teachers answered more than is recommended. ...
Article
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Caregivers’ nutrition and physical activity knowledge is recognised as being important for children’s health and body size. Identifying knowledge gaps amongst caregivers may inform professional development and obesity-prevention strategies in childcare settings. This cross-sectional validated online questionnaire aimed to measure current early childhood education and care (ECEC) teachers’ nutrition knowledge for pre-schoolers (2–5-year-olds) and related perspectives. Teachers’ (n = 386) knowledge of nutrition was lacking: The overall score was 22.56 ± 2.83 (mean ± SD), or 61% correct. Increased years of experience significantly predicted an increase in knowing that national nutrition and physical activity guidelines exist (B = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.00–0.03], r2 = 0.13, p = 0.033). Teachers’ increased agreement in feeling they were confident talking about nutrition to parents significantly predicted an increase in overall nutrition knowledge scores (B = 0.34 [95% CI, 0.06–0.63], r2 = 0.15, p = 0.019). The belief that ECEC teachers play a vital role in promoting pre-schoolers’ healthy eating and physical activity was widespread. Common knowledge barriers included a lack of staff training, confidence, and resources. ECEC teachers may lack nutrition knowledge for pre-schoolers, particularly in regard to basic nutrition recommendations (servings, food/beverage choices, and portion sizes).
... Other studies suggest that parental feeding practices may differ according to child's sex and that, for the same parental feeding practice, child's response may depend on their sex [18,19]. Moreover, several cross-sectional studies have found that coercive parental feeding practices, such as restriction or pressure to eat, are related to child's weight status (e.g., parental restrictive feeding practices are associated to higher child's BMI, whereas parental pressure to eat is associated to lower child's BMI) [20][21][22], child's intake (e.g., parental restrictive practices are associated with increased child's energy intake) [23][24][25] or eating behavior (e.g., parental pressure to eat may enhance food dislikes) [26,27]. Some longitudinal studies found that coercive feeding practices led to lower childhood BMI [28,29]. ...
Article
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Previous findings suggest that parental feeding practices may adapt to children’s eating behavior and sex, but few studies assessed these associations in toddlerhood. We aimed to study the associations between infant’s appetite or children’s genetic susceptibility to obesity and parental feeding practices. We assessed infant’s appetite (three-category indicator: low, normal or high appetite, labelled 4-to-24-month appetite) and calculated a combined obesity risk-allele score (genetic risk score of body mass index (BMI-GRS)) in a longitudinal study of respectively 1358 and 932 children from the EDEN cohort. Parental feeding practices were assessed at 2-year-follow-up by the CFPQ. Three of the five tested scores were used as continuous variables; others were considered as binary variables, according to the median. Associations between infant’s appetite or child’s BMI-GRS and parental feeding practices were assessed by linear and logistic regression models, stratified on child’s sex if interactions were significant. 4-to-24-month appetite was positively associated with restrictive feeding practices among boys and girls. Among boys, high compared to normal 4-to-24-month appetite was associated with higher use of food to regulate child’s emotions (OR [95% CI] = 2.24 [1.36; 3.68]). Child’s BMI-GRS was not related to parental feeding practices. Parental feeding practices may adapt to parental perception of infant’s appetite and child’s sex.
... The literature has investigated two strategies that parents use to influence their children's behavior: restriction and pressure. Restriction has been found to have negative consequences on eating behavior; prohibition leads to increased desire and consumption when the forbidden food becomes available (Fisher and Birch, 1999;Jansen et al., 2007;Jansen et al., 2008). Ogden et al. (2013) also found that the restricted group was more Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3764576 ...
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We present a field experiment to study the effects of non-monetary incentives on healthy food choices of 282 children in elementary schools. Previous interventions have typically paid participants for healthy eating, but this often may not be feasible. We introduce a system where food items are graded based on their nutritional value, involving parents or classmates as change agents by providing them with information regarding the food choices of their children or friends. We find parents' involvement in the decision process to be particularly beneficial in boosting healthy food choices, with very strong results that persist months after the intervention. JEL-Codes: C93, I12
... However, findings vary according to populations studied, and similarly to pressure to eat, associations of parental restrictive feeding and dietary intakes in children have mostly been studied cross-sectionally. One possible explanation for the associations observed with parental restrictive feeding could be an increased desire by children to consume foods previously prohibited or restricted once it is made available [47]. The discrepancy between our findings and previous studies could be related to the study design, the length of follow-up, or it could be related to the parental report of dietary intakes, i.e., parents who restricted their child's intakes in early life might be less likely to report such intakes in their children later. ...
Article
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Parental feeding practices have been associated with children's dietary intakes, yet the directionality of these associations remains unclear. Among 1172 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, we aimed to examine associations of parental concerns and feeding behaviors at 2 years (behaviors dichotomized as yes vs. no), with diet quality (Youth Healthy Eating Index; YHEI) in early (mean 3.2, SD 0.3 years; n = 1076) and mid-childhood (mean 7.8, SD 0.7 years; n = 993). We used multivariable linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, parental body mass index (BMI), maternal diet quality in pregnancy, and child's BMI z-score and diet quality at 2 years. Early parental concerns about their child becoming overweight (15%) was associated with lower YHEI (β −1.54 points; 95%CI −2.75, −0.33; fully adjusted model) in early childhood. Early parental concerns about their child becoming underweight (7%) was associated with lower YHEI (−2.19 points; −4.31, −0.07) in early childhood, but the association was attenuated after adjustment for child's BMI z-score and diet quality at 2 years. We did not find associations of parental restrictive feeding (8%) and parental pressure to eat (47%) with child's YHEI through mid-childhood. In conclusion, we found no evidence that early parental concerns and feeding behaviors independently contribute to child's diet quality through childhood.
... devenait ensuite librement accessible. Les résultats d'une autre étude ont montré que la consommer l'aliment dont l'accès était limité. Les auteurs de cette étude suggèrent que la diminution de la consommation de l'aliment restreint pourrait ne pas perdurer sur du long terme en raison de l'attrait que la restriction a fait émerger chez les enfants.Jansen et al. (2007) ont vérifié si la restriction de bonbons chocolatés suscitait chez des enfants âgés de 5 à 6 ans un désir accru à leur égard, les conduisant à en surconsommer ultérieurement. Dans un premier temps, on interdisait aux enfants d'un premier groupe de consommer des M&M's ® de couleur rouge mais pas jaune, tandis que dans un second temps ces ...
Thesis
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En France, le goûter est une habitude fréquente chez les enfants qui se caractérise généralement par la consommation d’aliments gras, sucrés et riches en énergie. Si les comportements alimentaires restent flexibles et peuvent évoluer tout au long de la vie, ils sont déjà fortement établis dès l’enfance. Dans ce contexte, améliorer les habitudes alimentaires en matière de goûter semble primordiale. L’objectif de cette thèse est donc d’évaluer l’efficacité de leviers visant à favoriser des choix de goûters favorables à la santé au sein du binôme mère-enfant. Une première expérimentation a été conduite de façon à évaluer l’impact du système d’étiquetage nutritionnel Nutri-Score sur la qualité nutritionnelle et sur l’appréciation des goûters choisis au sein du binôme mère-enfant. Les résultats soulignent une amélioration de la qualité nutritionnelle des goûters choisis par les participants pour eux-mêmes et pour l’autre membre du binôme à la suite de l’étiquetage des aliments avec le logo Nutri-Score. Cette amélioration s’accompagne toutefois d’une diminution de l’appréciation à l’égard des goûters choisis par les enfants et par les mères. Une deuxième expérimentation a été menée de façon à évaluer l’efficacité d’une intervention hédonique conduite au domicile mobilisant trois dimensions du plaisir alimentaire (sensorielle, interpersonnelle et psychosociale) pour stimuler la consommation d’aliments sains sur la qualité nutritionnelle des goûters choisis au laboratoire au sein du binôme mère-enfant. Cette intervention a également été testée sur différents indicateurs caractérisant la composition nutritionnelle des goûters consommés au domicile par les enfants. Si l’intervention n’a pas permis d’améliorer la qualité nutritionnelle des goûters choisis au laboratoire par les enfants et leur mère, elle a réduit la charge énergétique des goûters consommés au domicile par les enfants. Cette réduction serait due à une diminution des quantités consommées. Les résultats obtenus dans le cadre de ce travail pourraient fournir des pistes de réflexion à destination des autorités publiques chargées de la communication et des recommandations en matière d’alimentation chez les enfants.
Article
Despite compelling evidence that fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption can reduce the risk of obesity and chronic disease, most children fail to meet the daily recommendations for dietary consumption. Theoretical models and empirical findings suggest that parents play a key role in guiding children's overall dietary behaviors. To extend previous findings, the current study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) on smartphones to assess the within-subject and between-subject effects of maternal support (i.e., encouragement, preparation) of F/V on their child's F/V consumption. Mother-child dyads (n = 191) completed six semi-annual 7-day waves of EMA surveys. EMA assessed mothers' past 2-h support for F/V and children's F/V consumption. At the within-subject level, greater maternal encouragement for F/Vs (OR = 2.41) and maternal preparation of F/Vs (OR = 1.43) than usual were associated with increased odds of their child eating F/V during the same 2-h window. At the between-subject level, greater maternal preparation of F/V (OR = 5.99), compared to other mothers, was associated with increased odds of their child eating F/V. Children with lower BMI (vs. higher BMI) were more likely to consume F/Vs when their mothers encouraged them to eat F/V (OR = 0.74). These findings suggest that maternal support may have a strong and immediate effect on children's F/V consumption. Theoretical models on behavior change should consider how explanatory factors, such as parental support, may vary at the momentary level. Boosting maternal support at the momentary level may be a critical component of future mobile-based interventions to address childhood obesity.
Article
Food parenting practices have been identified as a potentially significant correlate of weight status and weight-related behaviors in children. The extent to which food parenting practices fluctuate across time and context is not well known. In particular, situational factors are thought to shape the types of food parenting practices used in the moment, but the nature of those factors remain unclear. In this paper data from interviews with parents (n = 40) of preschoolers was used to: 1) describe parents' day-to-day lived experiences of food parenting within the broad theoretical domains of coercive control, structure and autonomy support; 2) identify salient momentary factors that influence use of these food parenting practices; and 3) understand how these momentary factors impact the use of different types of food parenting practices. The feeding practices described by parents align well with the three overarching themes described within the literature: coercive control, autonomy support, and structure. Parents described using a combination of practices from within each of these domains; they also indicated that their feeding practices were easily influenced by momentary factors that impacted their food parenting within and across eating occasions. For the most part, parents described momentary factors (e.g. schedule changes, parental stress, child behavior) that shifted them away from structure and autonomy support feeding practices, towards indulgent and coercive feeding practices. Researchers should be aware of the likely interplay between different types of feeding practices as well as the potential that momentary factors may shift parents from one type of practice towards another. The use of novel data collection methods, such as ecological momentary assessment, that allow for exploration of food parenting practices as dynamic, rather than static, behaviors should be explored.
Article
Energy compensation indices are commonly used to examine self-regulation of food intake in children. However, previous studies failed to consider children's ability to self-regulate under complete autonomy. This study examined self-regulation of food intake among young children and the effect of calorie manipulation on food/nutrient intake using an unlimited lunch buffet paradigm. Participants were 66 children (Mage = 6.14, SD = 1.15 years; 68.2% male; 89.4% Latinx; 59.1% overweight/obese [OV/OB]). Children participated in a crossover research trial, one week apart. Participants consumed 2 different types of preloads followed by an ad-libitum lunch during each trial. A compensation index (COMPX) was calculated to identify the level of self-regulation in food intake. Food/nutrient intake was compared between both sessions. Results indicated OV/OB children showed poorer self-regulation compared to healthy weight children (t=2.19, p = .032; Hedges’ g = 0.55). There were significant differences in food intake/selection between OV/OB and healthy weight groups. OV/OB children consumed a higher amount of calorie, fat, and cholesterol after the high energy preload compared to healthy weight children (d's range: 0.31-0.48). Our findings support differences between the amount of self-regulation between normal and OV/OB children as well as the items they select in order to compensate.
Article
Résumé Face au constat que la communication, habituellement utilisée pour promouvoir une alimentation équilibrée, tend à accentuer les inégalités sociales de santé, de nouvelles approches éducatives ont été développées au cours des dernières années pour tenter de freiner l’épidémie d’obésité dans les populations défavorisées sur le plan socio-culturel. Parmi ces différentes approches, celles ciblant notamment la sensorialité alimentaire et l’éducation alimentaire ont montré leur intérêt mais restent largement minoritaires face aux discours normatifs, voire injonctifs, qui sont encore le principal vecteur d’éducation à l’alimentation. Cet article est une synthèse des différentes composantes/approches éducatives à l’alimentation à privilégier dans la prévention des pathologies nutritionnelles. Il propose in fine une approche éducative tridimensionnelle intégrant, au-delà de la dimension « nutritionnelle » habituelle, deux autres dimensions de l’alimentation : « psycho-sensorielle et comportementale » et « socio-environnementale ». Cette proposition est destinée à élargir l’éducation à l’alimentation dans un mouvement intégratif des différents courants de pensée sur le sujet, et à favoriser une plus grande acceptabilité des messages éducatifs concernant l’alimentation par les populations les plus déficitaires en termes de compétences psycho-sociales.
Research
Preschool children consume a large proportion of their daily food intake in their childcare settings. These settings, therefore, provide important opportunities for children to experience food socialisation, and related positive nutrition. Yet, the extent to which these opportunities are taken, particularly in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas where risk of poor nutrition is high, is not well documented. This study focused on 10 childcare centres in socially disadvantaged locations and examined daily feeding practices via direct in-situ observation (n = 189 children observed). Centres were randomly selected based on type of food provision: centre-provided (n = 5 centres) or family-provided (n = 5 centres). Analyses showed that where food was family-provided, educators were significantly more likely to use controlling feeding practices, including pressuring children to eat, restricting food choices and rushing children into finishing meals. These practices were particularly evident during mid-morning meals, where pressuring children to eat healthy foods first, was more often observed. Further research and interventions that target feeding practices in childcare are indicated and should consider how source of food provision impacts upon these practices.
Article
Bias and stereotypes can be reinforced or challenged through television entertainment, and individual viewers will negotiate their interpretation of such public pedagogies through the lenses of their own knowledge and experience. The popular show This is Us presents multiple and sometimes contradicting messages about fatness and weight stigma. A close textual analysis of the first three seasons of the series revealed some of the complex and implied lessons on weight. While there are some scenes that model fat acceptance, the overall implications of the show are blaming and depict fatness as a problem to be solved.
Article
Background Dietary potassium restrictions may be challenging to follow, due in part to the restrictive nature of recommendations on foods people enjoy. Little is known how people incorporate low‐potassium diets into their lifestyles. Objective To examine the self‐directed behavioural strategies people employ to follow low‐potassium advice. Design Qualitative methodology. Participants Thirty‐four adults with chronic kidney disease. Approach Semistructured interviews were undertaken in an outpatient department. Thematic analysis was undertaken on transcribed interviews. Findings Analysis identified three themes: 'Differing opinions of food'; 'Food generates positive emotions'; and 'Doing what works'. Participants described foods providing different levels of enjoyment. Favourite foods in their habitual diet held either a physiological or a psychological value to them. Five subthemes underpinned the 'Doing what works' theme that described the self‐management behaviours used by participants to follow low‐potassium dietary advice. These were positive reframing; reflection; self‐talk; social support; decisional balance; paradoxical instruction; and knowledge shaping. These techniques helped overcome the conflict between favourite food preferences and dietary restrictions. Dietary restrictions proved more challenging where an emotional connection to a favourite food existed. Restrictions on less preferred foods did not present participants with the same self‐management challenges. Conclusions Promoting behavioural change techniques such as decisional balance, and social support may be a useful strategy to empower people following dietary restrictions. Practitioners should understand whether suggested dietary restrictions include an individual's favourite food; the value attached to it, and explore specific ways to include favourite foods in some way when discussing a low‐potassium diet.
Article
Food cue-reactivity tasks are used to induce and evaluate food cravings. Extant research has implicated the role of tasting foods in heightening cue-elicited food craving. The present study was the first to evaluate a taste manipulation during a food cue-reactivity task to optimize cue-elicited craving and predict food intake. Participants with overweight/obesity (N = 35; M age = 33.46 years [SD = 13.27]; M BMI = 32.91 kg/m ² [SD = 5.34]) engaged in one laboratory session and were randomized to a ‘No Taste’ or ‘Taste’ condition. All participants reported baseline food craving and observed two types of high-calorie food cues during a cue-reactivity task: photographic and real foods. The Taste group tasted real food cues and the No Taste group did not. Cue-elicited craving was assessed after the presentation of each food cue. Calorie intake of palatable foods was subsequently measured during a bogus taste test. Results indicated that cue-elicited craving to high-calorie foods was greater for the No Taste relative to the Taste group and that calorie intake was greater for the Taste relative to the No Taste group; both effects were nonsignificant, but of medium-size. Cue-elicited craving was significantly greater following exposure to high-calorie real food cues compared to photographic food cues. Results provide initial evidence that presenting high-calorie real (vs. photographic) food cues and forgoing taste manipulation during a food cue-reactivity task may optimize cue-elicited craving, and that taste manipulation could increase subsequent food intake. Future research should be conducted to replicate findings in larger samples with greater power to detect significant effects.
Article
Objective Explore the nature and dimensions of restrictive feeding with mothers of 6-year-olds. Design Semistructured interviews with mothers. Conversations were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Setting Brisbane and Adelaide, Australia. Participants Twenty-nine mothers of 6-year-olds. Phenomenon of Interest Mothers’ restrictive feeding practices. Analysis Qualitative thematic analysis. Results This study revealed 6 key themes relating to the restrictive feeding phenomenon: restriction of specific foods and drinks; restrictive feeding practices; mothers’ motivation; mothers’ preferences for restricted foods; patterns over time; and relationships with other controlling feeding practices. Parents’ restrictive feeding practices are likely to be inherently inconsistent, with mothers reportedly varying their practices across different restricted foods, contexts, day to day, and as children age. Mothers intended to either “totally restrict” or restrict a food/drink “in moderation,” and these intentions presented qualitatively distinct characteristics across themes. Mothers commonly referred to foods/drinks restricted “in moderation” as “treats,” and their liking for these restricted foods/drinks was related to higher child access. Conclusions and Implications This study provides insights into the nature and dimensions of restrictive feeding. Further research is proposed to clarify these findings and examine the effects of child access, types of restrictive feeding practices, and parent communication on child preferences for restricted foods and drinks across a range of cultural groups.
Article
Objectives: Eating is a complicated behaviour which has both biological and social components. Children may have problems of eating; taking the food, during eating or swallowing. These problems may cause it her/his physical and developmental delay and affect child’s growth. If there a problem in eating behaviour has not organic origin, it is essential that the situation should consider in terms of social approach and also, child and their environment should examine together. When the related literature is investigated, it can be seen that the topic has not discussed sufficiently and organic origins have been studied on. It was planned to utilize the meta-analysis method which is an important source of information for blood-based applications in order to examine the effects of the attitudes of the parents of children with pediatric eating or swallowing disorders on the nutritional behavior of children and to investigate whether the effect of parental attitude on the eating problem is meaningful intended. Materials and Methods: Total 229 national and international research articles related with the topic are examined and finally total 3 articles investigated by using meta-analysis method. Results: According to results obtained, it is noticed that the number of articles related with the subject in our country is limited. Discussion and Conclusion: The topic of eating and deglutition disorders and nutrition habits is also significant problem for children. Investigating the problem in terms of different disciplines is an important sign. Moreover, the necessity of doing more research is another important sign of the meta-analysis research.
Article
Body composition and fat distribution are predictors of health and are largely affected by eating behavior. The current study aimed to explore the adoption of dietary restraint since early adolescence, its relationship with objective physical traits, and the association with energy intake, and targeted food groups or items. Eight-four healthy volunteers (males n = 46; females n = 38), 14-24 years old, were interviewed to assess segmental body composition, using bioelectrical impendence analysis, and dietary patterns, using rigid dietary restraint questionnaire (RC-16) and the elements of persistent desire or repeated unsuccessful attempts to quit from consuming certain foods, and provided a 3-day food record. Results showed that both sexes were equally engaged in rigid dietary restraint. Higher RC-16 scores were associated with higher odds of being overweight, overfat or having increased abdominal fat, and lower energy reporting. Significant differences were also found between those trying to eliminate food items from their diet and those who did not, in Body Mass Index for-age z-score, and % body fat, but not energy intake. Seventy-two participants mentioned having problems with cutting down foods, while fitness instructors, social environment, or online sources were noted to further promote food avoidance. Repeated unsuccessful elimination attempts, and the total number of foods to avoid were associated with RC-16 score as well. These findings indicate that dietary restraint is practiced since early adolescence by both sexes, and may affect body composition and adiposity. Further studies are needed to understand how attitudes towards food and failure of elimination may shape dietary behavior.
Article
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Poor dietary habits established during childhood might persist into adulthood, increasing the risk of developing obesity and obesity-related complications such as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. It has been found that early modifications in eating habits, especially during childhood, might promote health and decrease the risk of developing diseases during later life. Various studies found a great influence of parental dietary habits on dietary behaviors of their children regardless of demographic characteristics such as gender, age, socioeconomic status and country; however, the exact mechanism is still not clear. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to investigate both parents’ and children’s dietary behaviors, and to provide evidence for the potential influence of parents’ dietary behaviors and practices on certain children’s eating habits. Family meals were found to contribute the most in modeling children’s dietary habits as they represent an important moment of control and interaction between parents and their children. The parental practices that influenced their children most were role modeling and moderate restriction, suggesting that the increase of parental encouragement and decrease of excessive pressure could have a positive impact in their children’s dietary behaviors. This narrative review highlights that parental child-feeding behaviors should receive more attention in research studies as modifiable risk factors, which could help to design future dietary interventions and policies to prevent dietary-related diseases.
Article
Healthy eating strategies can be based on approach (foods one should eat) or avoidance (foods one should not eat). The current research examines whether weight status moderates the effectiveness of approach and avoidance strategies in goal pursuit. Across three studies, using an ideal weight goal context, I show that approach strategies motivate goal-consistent behaviors among people with poor weight status by increasing the perceived attainability of the goal. Avoidance strategies are more motivating among people with good weight status because they decrease the perceived progress toward the goal, which increases the perceived need for additional effort in the form of goal-consistent behaviors to ensure timely attainment.
Article
Objective To examine longitudinal patterns of child introduction to foods and drinks targeted for restriction by parents and associations between child intake frequency, mother’s own liking, child early exposure and child liking for restricted foods and drinks at 5 years old. Design The study involved secondary analyses of longitudinal data from mothers and children participating in the NOURISH randomised controlled trial. Patterns of descriptive data were examined, and a binary logistic regression model tested for prediction of child liking of a selection of restricted foods and drinks. Setting Brisbane and Adelaide, Australia. Participants Two hundred and eleven mothers and their first born 5-year-old children. Results The proportion of children who had tried the selected restricted foods and drinks progressively increased from 14 months to 5 years old. Mothers’ own high liking for both sweet and savoury restricted foods and drinks predicted child high liking for the same items at 5 years old. Child high intake frequency at 5 years old also predicted child high liking for sweet foods and drinks, but child early exposure did not predict child liking for the restricted items examined. Conclusions These results challenge the belief that limiting children’s intake of foods high in sugar, fat and/or salt will increase their liking for them. Findings instead suggest that restricting children’s access to such foods may be beneficial. While further research is required, mothers should be made aware that their own food preferences may inadvertently influence their child’s liking for the very foods they are trying to restrict.
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Uit de cijfers blijkt een toename van overgewicht, maar met name van obesitas. Daarmee is duidelijk dat de obesitas epidemie zich ook in Nederland voortzet. Interventies ter voorkoming van overgewicht en obesitas zijn daarom noodzakelijk. Deze interventies dienen op (kosten)effectiviteit te worden geëvalueerd. De JGZ is de aangewezen instantie voor signalering en preventieve interventies. Vroegsignalering lijkt met name bij meisjes noodzakelijk, omdat de prevalentie van overgewicht bij meisjes op vijfjarige leeftijd al hoog is. Hiertoe is het waarschijnlijk ook nodig om seksespecifieke interventieprogramma’s aan te raden, omdat meisjes op jongere leeftijd dan jongens te zwaar worden. De al ontwikkelde standaarden van de Lokale en Nationale Monitor Jeugdgezondheid moeten in de Nederlandse JGZ worden toegepast. Het hebben van elektronische registratie in de JGZ zal het verkrijgen van gegevens vergemakkelijken. Op korte termijn zullen veel organisaties echter nog afhankelijk zijn van schriftelijke registraties. Onderzocht moet worden of in de JGZ volgens het (signalerings)protocol wordt gemeten en geregistreerd, om de vergelijkbaarheid van de gegevens van verschillende JGZ organisaties te kunnen bepalen.
Article
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The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) is a self-report measure to assess parental beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding child feeding, with a focus on obesity proneness in children. Confirmatory factor analysis tested a 7-factor model, which included four factors measuring parental beliefs related to child's obesity proneness, and three factors measuring parental control practices and attitudes regarding child feeding. Using a sample of 394 mothers and fathers, three models were tested, and the third model confirmed an acceptable fit, including correlated factors. Internal consistencies for the seven factors were above 0.70. With minor changes, this same 7-factor model was also confirmed in a second sample of 148 mothers and fathers, and a third sample of 126 Hispanic mothers and fathers. As predicted, four of the seven factors were related to an independent measure of children's weight status, providing initial support for the validity of the instrument. The CFQ can be used to assess aspects of child-feeding perceptions, attitudes, and practices and their relationships to children's developing food acceptance patterns, the controls of food intake, and obesity. The CFQ is designed for use with parents of children ranging in age from about 2 to 11 years of age.
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To describe long-term and recent time trends in the prevalence of obesity by age and educational level. :Repeated cross-sectional population based monitoring studies. Consultation Bureau Heart Project 1976-1980, Monitoring Project on Cardiovascular Diseases 1987-1991 and Monitoring project on risk factors for chronic diseases (MORGEN-) project 1993-1997. A total of 29 141 men and women aged 37-43 y (1976-1997); and 21 926 men and women aged 20-59 y (1993-1997). Body mass index, ie weight divided by height squared. Between 1976 and 1997 the prevalence of obesity increased from 4.9 to 8.5% among men and from 6.2 to 9.3% among women aged 37-43 y. Between 1993 and 1997, the prevalence of obesity among men aged 20-59 y was 8.5% and increased by 0.54 percentage points per year (P<0.01). The prevalence of obesity among women was 9.6% and increased by 0.35 percentage points per year (P=0.07). The increase in the prevalence of obesity in the period 1993-1997 was strongest in men with a relatively low educational level and in women with a high educational level. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of obesity in the last quarter of the 20th century. Also, a recent increase in the prevalence of obesity has been seen. To stop the increase in the prevalence of obesity, effective strategies for the management and prevention of obesity need to be developed.
Article
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Experimental findings causally link restrictive child-feeding practices to overeating in children. However, longitudinal data are needed to determine the extent to which restrictive feeding practices promote overeating. Our objectives were to determine whether restrictive feeding practices foster girls' eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and whether girls' weight status moderates the effects of restrictive feeding practices. Longitudinal data were used to create a study design featuring 2 maternal restriction factors (low and high), 2 weight-status factors (nonoverweight and overweight), and 3 time factors (ages 5, 7, and 9 y). Mean EAH increased significantly (P < 0.0001) from 5 to 9 y of age. Higher levels of restriction at 5 y of age predicted higher EAH at 7 y of age (P < 0.001) and at 9 y of age (P < 0.01). Girls who were already overweight at 5 y of age and who received higher levels of restriction had the highest EAH scores at 9 y of age (P < 0.05) and the greatest increases in EAH from 5 to 9 y of age (P < 0.01). The developmental increase in EAH from 5 to 9 y of age may be especially problematic in obesigenic environments. These longitudinal data provide evidence that maternal restriction can promote overeating. Girls who are already overweight at 5 y of age may be genetically predisposed to be especially responsive to environmental cues. These findings are not expected to be generalized to boys or to other racial and ethnic groups.
Article
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Parental feeding styles may promote overeating or overweight in children. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to summarize the associations between parental feeding styles and child eating and weight status. Twenty-two studies were identified. We systematically coded study attributes and outcomes and tested for patterns of association. Nineteen studies (86%) reported at least one significant association between parental feeding style and child outcome, although study methodology and results varied considerably. Studies measuring parental feeding restriction, as opposed to general feeding control or another feeding domain, were more likely to report positive associations with child eating and weight status. Certain associations differed by gender and by outcome measurement (e.g., rate of eating as opposed to total energy intake). Parental feeding restriction, but no other feeding domain, was associated with increased child eating and weight status. Longitudinal studies are needed to test underlying causal pathways, including bidirectional causal models, and to substantiate findings in the presence of other obesity risk factors.
Article
Parents of children of varying relative weight were administered a structured interview on the children's eating behaviors, dispositions, and other factors hypothesized to be related to overweight. A wide range of factors was found to be strongly correlated with the children's weight status; these factors were markedly differentiated according to the sex of the chilren. Overweight in boys was associated with less exercise, less emotionality, less social involvement, greater compliance, and pronounced food preferences. Overweight in girls was associated with greater influence of positive and negative moods on eating, more parental restraint of eating behavior, more emotionality, and greater peer rejection. The results highlight the importance of understanding parental views of children's weight problems in explaining the development of sex differences in obesity.
Article
In an attempt to explain the fact that we were unable to repeat the results of previous experiments on lateral hypothalamic electrical stimulation induced ethanol consumption, we discovered that the apparent change in preference-aversion might be due to brief periods of withdrawal of one of the solutions or the presentation of the ethanol solutions to the animals only on every other day. Results of five experiments are presented. Prolonged exposure to ethanol resulted in unpredictable periodic increases and a more gradual increase in the ethanol consumption of most of the animals studied. Many of the increases occurred with relatively high concentrations of ethanol which the animals had avoided previously. Increased consumption of ethanol occurred in some animals very rapidly following the periodic presentation and withholding of ethanol solutions for two days every other two days. The effect was not specific to ethyl alcohol and occurred with dilute solutions of quinine monohydrochloride and 0.05% o-benzoic sulfimide (saccharin). As a similar effect was observed during four 24 hr food deprivation periods every other day in two out of six animals and in three animals with 24 hr water deprivation every other day, a possible explanation in terms of the lateral hypothalamus and general arousal was discussed. In addition, the specificity of the alcohol deprivation effect was not confirmed as it was shown to occur in this study with a 0.05% saccharin solution. Also, the results reported here indicate that whether or not lateral hypothalamic electrical stimulation alone is a sufficient condition to enhance the consumption of ethanol has not been determined adequately.
Article
The authors propose that individual differences among children in the controls of food intake can be viewed in terms of differences in balance of power in feeding. They also argue that the individual differences in styles of intake control that emerge by adolescence and adulthood, including chronic dieting, eating disorders, and out-of-control eating, begin in the early balance of control in the feeding context. Limited evidence suggests that the course of development of shared control differs for intermeal interval, food selection, and meal size.
Article
Between 1971 and 1981 the Muscatine Coronary Risk Factor Project measured, in six biennial school surveys, 2631 schoolchildren 9 to 18 years of age. Beginning in 1981, these individuals were measured near their 23rd, 28th, and 33rd birthday. This article examines the tracking from childhood into young adult years of the heights, weights, body mass indices (BMI), and triceps skinfold thicknesses (TSF) of these individuals. Depending on age and gender, tracking correlations for height ranged from 0.41 to 0.97; for weight they ranged from 0.51 to 0.88; for BMI they ranged from 0.58 to 0.91; and for TSF they ranged from 0.26 to 0.58. From 49 to 70% of children in the upper quintile of weight were found in the upper quintile of weight as adults, from 48 to 75% of children in the upper quintile of BMI were again in the upper quintile as adults, and from 25 to 56% of children in the upper quintile of TSF were again in the upper quintile as adults. These measures track from childhood into young adult life, and the majority of obese children become obese adults. However, about 31% of children from the upper quintile of BMI became adults with substantially lower levels, while a similar number of lean children become obese adults. Why some obese children become obese adults and others do not remains an unanswered question. The data presented herein indicate that obesity is often acquired during childhood and adolescence when preventive measures could be applied.
Article
Obese children may be at increased risk of becoming obese adults. To examine the relationship between obesity in childhood and obesity in adulthood, we reviewed the epidemiologic literature published between 1970 and July 1992. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of obesity, and analytic methods used. Although the correlations between anthropometric measures of obesity in childhood and those in adulthood varied considerably among studies, the associations were consistently positive. About a third (26 to 41%) of obese preschool children were obese as adults, and about half (42 to 63%) of obese school-age children were obese as adults. For all studies and across all ages, the risk of adult obesity was at least twice as high for obese children as for nonobese children. The risk of adult obesity was greater for children who were at higher levels of obesity and for children who were obese at older ages. The wide range of estimates in this literature are, in part, due to differences in study designs, definitions of obesity, ages at which participants were measured, intervals between measurements, and population and cultural differences.
Article
It is shown that olfactory sensory-specific satiety, measured by ratings of the pleasantness of the odour of a food eaten relative to the change in pleasantness of other foods, can be produced by eating a food to satiety. It is also shown that olfactory and taste sensory-specific satiety can be produced by chewing samples of a food for approximately as long as the food would normally be eaten in a meal. It is further shown that partial olfactory sensory-specific satiety can be produced by smelling the food for approximately as long as it would be in the mouth during a meal. These sensory-specific changes in the pleasantness of a food do not appear to reflect changes in the intensity of the foods, which were small and not highly correlated with the changes in pleasantness. The results show that at least partial olfactory, as well as taste, sensory-specific satiety does not require food to enter the gastrointestinal system, and does not depend on the ingestion of calories. The implications for the control of food intake, and the way in which the brain computes sensory-specific satiety, are considered.
Article
Restricting access to high-fat foods is a common strategy utilized to promote health. This strategy may contribute to episodes of overconsumption, however, when the restricted foods subsequently become available. The present study utilized a rat feeding procedure to determine if restricting access to an optional source of dietary fat would increase later consumption of that food under nonenergy-deprived conditions. Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used, all of which had continuous access to a standard rodent diet and water. The control group had no access to shortening. The low-restriction group had 2-h access to shortening every day. The high-restriction group had 2-h access to shortening on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Two additional groups were switched between the high and low conditions. Two-hour and 24-h food intakes were measured every day for 6 weeks. At the end of the study rats were sacrificed and carcass composition determined. As access to the shortening decreased, consumption during the 2-h access period increased. Rats compensated for the increased shortening consumption by decreasing intake of the standard diet. Thus, cumulative energy consumption did not differ among the groups. When switched between the high and low conditions, rats rapidly adjusted to the change in shortening availability. There were no effects of access schedule on carcass composition. These results indicate that restricting access to an optional high-fat food, even under nonenergy-deprived conditions, can promote significant increases in the consumption of that food when it subsequently becomes available.
Article
Restricting children's access to palatable foods may appeal to parents as a straightforward means of promoting moderate intakes of foods high in fat and sugar; however, restricting access to palatable foods may have unintended effects on children's eating. The efficacy of restricting children's access to palatable foods as a means of promoting patterns of moderate intake of those foods is unknown. Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that restricting access to a palatable food enhances children's subsequent behavioral responses to, selection of, and intake of that restricted food. Both experiments used a within-subjects design to examine the effects of restricting access to a palatable food on children's subsequent behavior, food selection, and food intake. The first experiment examined the effects of restriction within and outside the restricted context and the second experiment focused on the effects within the restricted context. In both experiments, restricting access to a palatable food increased children's behavioral response to that food. Experiment 2 showed that restricting access increased children's subsequent selection and intake of that food within the restricted context. Restricting access focuses children's attention on restricted foods, while increasing their desire to obtain and consume those foods. Restricting children's access to palatable foods is not an effective means of promoting moderate intake of palatable foods and may encourage the intake of foods that should be limited in the diet.
Article
Childhood overweight has increased dramatically, particularly among young girls. Genetic and environmental factors produce the overweight phenotype. Nonshared environments appear to account for a substantial proportion of the population variance in overweight but remain largely unspecified and unmeasured. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of maternal control in feeding, an aspect of nonshared family environment, on daughters' eating and relative weight. Structural equation modeling was used to test models that describe maternal influences on daughters' eating and relative weight. The participants were 197 white, non-Hispanic families with 5-y-old daughters. The mothers' own dietary restraint and their perceptions of their daughters' risk of overweight were used to predict maternal control in feeding, which was used to predict the daughters' eating and weight outcomes. Maternal body mass index was a modest predictor of daughters' relative weight. The addition of the family-environment pathway provided a good fit and showed additional, independent prediction of daughters' relative weight. Mothers' dietary restraint and perceptions of their daughters' risk of overweight predicted maternal child-feeding practices, which in turn predicted daughters' eating and relative weight. Child-specific aspects of the family environment, including mothers' child-feeding practices and perceptions of their daughters' risk of overweight, may represent important, nonshared, environmental influences on daughters' eating and relative weight. The environmental effects noted were modest but comparable in magnitude to the direct association between maternal and child weight, which indicates that measuring family environmental factors can enhance our understanding of the etiology of childhood overweight.
Article
The phenomenon of overeating the very foods that one is trying to resist is potentially consistent with both an ironic process account of overeating and a reactance account of the desire for "forbidden fruit." These two models are tested. Participants in two studies were prohibited or not prohibited from eating a food, or they were encouraged to "choose" to avoid it. Food consumption, thoughts, and desire were assessed before and after the food was forbidden. Consistent with an ironic process account, participants' thoughts about the food increased, regardless of whether they were required to or chose to avoid it. Consistent with a reactance account, participants' desire for the food increased if they were required to avoid it, but not if they chose to avoid it. Participants did not, however, ultimately overeat the forbidden food. Neither increased thoughts nor enhanced desire for a food necessarily leads to overindulgence.
Article
Identifying parental behaviors that influence childhood obesity is critical for the development of effective prevention and treatment programs. Findings from a prior laboratory study suggest that parents who impose control over their children's eating may interfere with their children's ability to regulate intake, potentially resulting in overweight. These findings have been widely endorsed; however, the direct relationship between parental control of children's intake and their children's degree of overweight has not been shown in a generalized sample. This study surveyed 792 third-grade children with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds from 13 public elementary schools. Parental control over children's intake was assessed through telephone interviews using a state-of-the-art instrument, and children were measured for height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness. Counter to the hypothesis, parental control over children's intake was inversely associated with overweight in girls, as measured by body mass index, r = -0.12, p < 0.05, and triceps skinfolds, r = -0.11, p < 0.05. This weak relationship became only marginally significant when controlling for parents' perceptions of their own weight, level of household education, and children's age. No relationship between parental control of children's intake and their children's degree of overweight was found in boys. Previous observations of the influence of parental control over children's intake in middle-class white families did not generalize to 8- to 9-year-olds in families with diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. The present findings reveal a more complex relationship between parental behaviors and children's weight status.
Article
To determine whether mothers' fruit and vegetable intake and mothers' use of pressure in the feeding domain when their daughters were 7 years old predicted picky eating and dietary intake when their daughters were 9 years old, and to examine diet and weight status in picky and nonpicky eaters. Participants were 173 9-year-old non-Hispanic white girls and their mothers. A longitudinal analysis was used to assess maternal influences on picky eating and diet. A cross-sectional analysis was used to examine diet and weight status between picky and nonpicky eaters. Measures included maternal feeding practices, daughters' pickiness, mothers' fruit and vegetable intake, daughters' food intake, and weight status. t tests examined differences between picky and nonpicky eaters. Structural equation modeling examined relationships among mothers' fruit and vegetable intake; child feeding practices; daughters' pickiness; and fruit, vegetable, micronutrient, and fiber intakes. Mothers consuming more fruits and vegetables were less likely to pressure their daughters to eat and had daughters who were less picky and consumed more fruits and vegetables. Picky eaters consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, but also fewer fats and sweets. All girls consumed low amounts of vitamin E, calcium, and magnesium, but more picky girls were at risk for not meeting recommendations for vitamins E and C and also consumed significantly less fiber. In addition, picky eaters were less likely to be overweight. Mothers influenced daughters' fruit and vegetable intake via their own patterns of fruit and vegetable intake and by influencing their daughters' tendencies to be picky eaters. Both picky and nonpicky eaters had aspects of their diets that did not meet recommendations. Taken together, these findings suggest that parents should focus less on "picky eating" behavior and more on modeling fruit and vegetable consumption for their children.
Article
The authors examined whether pressuring preschoolers to eat would affect food intake and preferences, using a repeated-measures experimental design. In the experimental condition, children were pressured to eat by a request to finish their food. We collected intake data, heights and weights, child-feeding practices data, and children's comments about the food. Children consumed significantly more food when they were not pressured to eat and they made overwhelmingly fewer negative comments. Children who were pressured to eat at home had lower body mass index percentile scores and were less affected by the pressure in the lab setting than children who were not pressured at home. These data provide experimental evidence supporting previous correlational research indicating that pressure can have negative effects on children's affective responses to and intake of healthy foods.
Gerapporteerde gezondheid en leefstijl. Medische consumptie, gezondheid en aandoeningen, functie-beperkingen en leefstijl naar kenmerken van de gebruikers
  • Centraal Voor
  • Statistiek
Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. (2006). Gerapporteerde gezondheid en leefstijl. Medische consumptie, gezondheid en aandoeningen, functie-beperkingen en leefstijl naar kenmerken van de gebruikers 2000–2005.
Children's BMI-percentile-for-age calculator
  • Usda Ars Children
USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center. (2007). Children's BMI-percentile-for-age calculator. Retrieved March 22, 2007, from /http://www.kidsnutrition.org/bodycomp/bmiz2.htmlS. van den Hurk, K., van Dommelen, P., de Wilde, J. A., Verkerk, P. H., van Buuren, S., & HiraSing, R. A., (2006). Prevalentie van overgewicht en obesitas bij jeugdigen 4–15 jaar in de periode 2002–2004.
Is parental control over children's eating associated with childhood obesity? Results from a population-based sample of third graders
  • Robinson
Long term and recent time trends in the prevalence of obesity among Dutch men and women
  • Visscher