The effect of harp music on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature in the African green monkey

Article (PDF Available)inJournal of Medical Primatology 36(2):95-100 · May 2007with50 Reads
DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0684.2006.00157.x · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The effectiveness of recorded harp music as a tool for relaxation for non-human primates is explored in this study. Konigsberg Instruments Model T27F-1B cardiovascular telemetry devices were implanted into nine African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). After post-surgical recovery, animals were exposed to recorded harp music. Telemetry data were collected on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature for a 30-minute baseline period before music exposure; a 90-minute period of music exposure; and a 90-minute post-exposure period, where no music was played. No statistical differences were noted in heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature between pre-exposure, exposure, and post-exposure periods. The lack of response in these African green monkeys may be attributable to their generally calm demeanor in captivity; experiments with a more excitable species such as the rhesus macaque might demonstrate a significant relaxation response to music.
    • "Radio music made available to singly housed baboons (Papio hamadryas and Papio hamadryas-anubis hybrid) significantly lowered heart rate, but had no observable effect on behaviour or blood pressure (Brent and Weaver 1996). However, in another experiment, harp music did not significantly affect nine African green monkeys' (Chlorocebus sabaeus), heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, or body temperature (Hinds et al. 2007). Some studies indicate that when given the opportunity, captive NHPs will spontaneously initiate musical sounds (Line et al. 1990; Lutz and Novak 2005; Markowitz and Line 1989; Novak and Drewson 1989; Videan et al. 2007), and that broadcast music appears to decrease aggression and increase affiliative behaviours in chimpanzees (Howell et al. 2003) and rhesus monkeys (Lutz and Novak 2005; Novak and Drewson 1989). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Music is commonly employed as auditory enrichment in non-human primate (NHP) facilities under the assumption that music is as enriching for NHPs as it is for humans (Hinds et al. 2007; Lutz and Novak 2005). The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of music as NHP enrichment by exploring musical preference and discriminative ability in three Sumatran orangutans. In Experiment 1, orangutan preference for music vs silence was tested. Following exposure to a sample of music belonging to one of seven musical genres, orangutans were given the choice via touchscreen to continue to listen to the music sample previously played or to listen to silence instead. Results indicated that all three orangutans either preferred silence to music or were indifferent. No preference for any one of the musical genres tested over others was found. In Experiment 2, orangutans’ ability to discriminate music from scrambled music was assessed using a touchscreen delivered standard delayed matchingto- sample (DMTS) task. Results indicated that none of the three orangutans could reliably discriminate “music” from “scrambled music”. Taken together, results strongly suggest that these orangutans did not experience the musical stimuli as reinforcing and that use of music as enrichment in captive NHP facilities may be more aversive than enriching for some species.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2016 · European Journal of Internal Medicine
    • "Comparative cognition methods can be used effectively to evaluate these interventions, and to suggest new stimuli that may be effective, based on the cognitive abilities of target species. For example, music is consistently used as environmental enrichment in primate facilities around the world, under the assumption that music is as engaging for animals as it is for humans (Hinds, Raimond, & Purcell, 2007; Lutz & Novak, 2005). For the most part, music selection is based on the preferences of human facilitators despite the fact that there is little to no indication that human and nonhuman music preferences correspond (Lutz & Novak, 2005). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With its roots firmly planted in behaviorist and animal learning traditions, lab-based research is an enduring and pervasive characteristic of comparative cognition. In this review, we discuss progress in comparative cognition research in other experimental settings such as zoos, captive animal parks, and wild settings. Zoos provide access to a large array of species housed in seminatural environments that allow a reasonable degree of experimental control. Thanks to the advent of computer technology, a wide range of complex cognitive processes is increasingly being successfully studied in zoo environments. Further, cognitive research provides enrichment for captive animal participants, reducing anxiety and promoting psychological well-being. The results of cognitive research also benefit the welfare of captive animals through preference assessment, species-specific exhibit design, and behavioral management. Field settings also offer unique advantages and have allowed researchers to systematically study such diverse topics as spatial cognition, cultural transmission, problem solving, and preference. Not only does field research expand our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological drivers of animal cognition, but it also can directly inform conservation efforts. Although venturing out of the lab presents tangible challenges, including the restriction of testable hypotheses and conclusions that can be inferred from results, the benefits to be gained outweigh the costs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
    • "This is a truly difficult question to be answered, with many potentially different answers. Some studies showed at least a rudimental music perception in definite species, most notably apes, monkeys and birds [47,48], while others failed to reach a similar conclusion [49]. There is a large literature on song learning in some birds. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the potential influence of music in eliciting organic reactions has been appreciated since the ancient Assyrian and Greek cultures, its relationship with body responses has been believed for long to belong to the field of magic. Growing experimental evidence now attests that some kind of music might indeed modulate several cardiac and neurological functions, as well as trigger biochemical measurable stress-reducing effects in certain individuals, mostly depending on their subjective musical education. On this basis, music has been increasingly used as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of different diseases in healthy and ill subjects over recent years (e.g., the so called "Mozart effect"), although the underlying scientific background is still poorly understood. The aim of this article is to review the current scientific evidences about the complex and multifaceted interactions between music and human biology.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011
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