ArticlePDF Available

Performance and Histological Responses of Internal Organs of Broiler Chickens Fed Raw, Dehulled, and Aqueous and Dry-Heated Kidney Bean Meals

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Average daily food intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and significantly (P<0.05) higher than those fed raw or dehulled meals. Feed conversion ratio was significantly (P<0.05) higher in birds fed raw or dehulled meals compared with those fed the control diet. The relative weight of the pancreas was significantly (P<0.05) increased as a result of acinar hypertrophy. The kidney had severe congestion of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with numerous thrombi in birds fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in birds fed raw and dehulled meals, and the liver was characterized by marked coagulative necrosis and degeneration of the hepatocytes. The structural alterations were attributed to intake of trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins in the processed seeds. In conclusion, aqueous heated kidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any adverse effect on the performance and the internal organs.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Performance and Histological Responses of Internal Organs
of Broiler Chickens Fed Raw, Dehulled, and Aqueous
and Dry-Heated Kidney Bean Meals
I. A. Emiola,*
1,2
A. D. Ologhobo,† and R. M. Gous‡
*Department of Animal Production and Health, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria;
†Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; and ‡Discipline of Animal and Poultry Science,
University of KwaZulu-Natal, 3200 Scottsville, Pietermartzburg, South Africa
ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to
investigate the effect of raw and differently processed
[aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)]
kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and his-
tology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding
trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old
broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There
were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per
replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were
used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the
control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed
intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The
weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were
also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for
histological examination. Average daily food intake, aver-
age daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were
influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food
intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet
Key words: kidney bean seed, processing, performance, organ weight, histology
2007 Poultry Science 86:1234–1240
INTRODUCTION
Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is considered as a po-
tential component of diets of pigs and poultry. Kidney
bean contains high amounts of protein and energy, and
amino acids content is similar to that of soybean except
for a lower level of methionine (Laurena et al., 1991). The
inclusion of a high amount of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus
vulgaris) in diets has been reported to have a detrimental
effect on the performance of chickens (Jaffe, 1980; Liener,
1989) and rats (Apata, 1990). This was attributed to the
presence in the seeds of various biologically active com-
©2007 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Received October 2, 2006.
Accepted February 20, 2007.
1
Corresponding author: emiola@cc.umanitoba.ca or walemiola@
yahoo.com
2
Present address: Department of Animal Science, University of Mani-
toba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2, Manitoba, Canada.
1234
and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and
significantly (P<0.05) higher than those fed raw or de-
hulled meals. Feed conversion ratio was significantly (P<
0.05) higher in birds fed raw or dehulled meals compared
with those fed the control diet. The relative weight of the
pancreas was significantly (P<0.05) increased as a result
of acinar hypertrophy. The kidney had severe congestion
of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with
numerous thrombi in birds fed raw and dehulled kidney
bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (P
<0.05) reduced in birds fed raw and dehulled meals,
and the liver was characterized by marked coagulative
necrosis and degeneration of the hepatocytes. The struc-
tural alterations were attributed to intake of trypsin inhib-
itors and haemagglutinins in the processed seeds. In con-
clusion, aqueous heated kidney bean meal can be used to
replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler
starter and finisher diets without any adverse effect on
the performance and the internal organs.
pounds usually referred to as antinutritional factors/toxic
substances. According to Liener (1989), kidney beans con-
tain trypsin inhibitors, amylase inhibitors, haemaggluti-
nins, tannin, phytic acid, and oxalates. These antinutri-
tional factors negatively affect the nutritive value of the
bean through direct and indirect reactions: they inhibit
protein and carbohydrate digestibility; induce pathologi-
cal changes in intestine and liver tissue, thus affecting
metabolism; inhibit a number of enzymes; and bind nutri-
ents, making them unavailable (Bressani, 1993). Inclusion
of raw kidney beans in the diet of growing animals as
the only source of plant protein almost invariably leads
to a significant impairment in growth (Ologhobo et al.,
1993) and other undesirable physiological and biochemi-
cal alterations (Aletor and Aladetimi, 1989). Ologhobo
(1981) reported alterations in the quantitative composi-
tion of the plasma, liver, and urine of rats poisoned with
seed haemagglutinins, which led to the conclusion that
the toxic action of haemagglutinins affects metabolic pro-
cesses in the liver.
BROILERS FED KIDNEY BEAN MEALS 1235
An experiment with chicks has shown that haemagglut-
inins in legumes exert their deleterious antinutritional
effects via reduced nutrient absorption following exten-
sive structural and functional disruption of the intestinal
microvilli (Grant, 1991). Liener and Kakade (1980) also
reported that the presence of protease inhibitors in the
raw legumes is in part responsible for the depression in
the nutritional value of proteins, inhibition of growth, and
stimulation of pancreatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy.
Similarly, Ortiz et al. (1994) found histological lesions in
the ileum and liver of chicks and rats fed diets high in
tannins extracted from faba bean (Vicia faba) suggesting
a loss of digestive capacity. Degeneration of the hepato-
cytes was observed in the liver. Ortiz et al. attributed this
to the high tannin content of the diet, which was estimated
at 16 g of dried tannin per kg of diet, well above practical
feeding or dietary levels.
These effects limit the use of raw kidney bean although
various processing techniques tend to reduce the antinu-
tritional factor content of the seed. Several studies indicate
that heat processing [e.g., aqueous and dry heating (toast-
ing)] increases the digestible nutrients available to young
nonruminant animals, especially young chicks, resulting
in improved growth. The hulls of legumes consist of
poorly digestible glumes that completely enclose the seed.
Removal of this hull should therefore increase the concen-
tration of digestible nutrient level for broilers comparable
with that of soybean. However, many authors reported
suboptimal performance when broilers are fed processed
mucuna bean meals (Emenalom and Udedibie, 1998; Emi-
ola et al., 2003). This was attributed to varying concentra-
tions of residual trypsin inhibitor and haemagglutinins
in the meals. Emphasis has been placed on the various
ways of inactivating the antinutritional factors in the le-
gume seed and the improvement of the nutritive value.
However, little attention has been given to the evaluation
of the effects of intake of residual antinutritional factors in
processed legume seeds on performance characteristics,
weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chick-
ens. This study was therefore designed to address this
issue.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Samples
Mature dry seeds of raw kidney bean were obtained
from Fasola Farm Center, Oyo State, Nigeria. The kidney
bean was subjected to one of the following processing
methods:
Aqueous Heating. Dry legume seeds were poured into
boiling water (100°C) in a cooking pot and heated for 1
h. Cooked beans were air dried for 4 d after which they
were oven dried at 85°C for 48 h.
Dehulling. The dry seeds were soaked in cold water
for between 18 to 24 h, and the outer seed coats were
removed by hand. The seeds were sun dried for 4 d after
which they were oven dried at 85°C for 48 h.
Dry Heating (Toasting). This involved spreading the
seeds thinly in a pan placed in an oven (120°C). It was
stirred from time to time to maintain uniform heating.
Dry heating was considered adequate when the beans
changed from whitish to light brown and became crispy
to touch. The process lasted between 25 to 30 min.
The raw and processed seeds were ground using a 2-
mm screen and stored separately in a sealed Kilner jar
until required for chemical analysis and incorporation
into diets.
Chemical Analysis
Diets and raw and processed kidney bean meals were
milled to pass through 1-mm screen prior to chemical
analyses. Samples were analyzed for DM, GE, and CP.
Raw and processed kidney beans were subjected to proxi-
mate analysis using the methods of AOAC (1990). Con-
centration of haemagglutinins was determined using the
haemagglutination assay as described by Valdebouze et
al. (1980). For measurement of trypsin inhibitor activity,
kidney bean seeds were ground with a mortar and pestle,
and 100 mg of the powder produced was further homoge-
nized in 10 mL of 0.001 MHCl with an all-glass Potter
Elvelijam tissue grinder. Further extraction and trypsin
inhibitor activity analyses were carried out as described
by Van Oort et al. (1989). Tannins content were deter-
mined by the methods described by Hoff and Singleton
(1977). Phytate content in the raw and processed kidney
bean samples was determined using the methods of Haug
and Lantzsch (1983). Briefly, 10 mL of 0.2 NHCl was
added to 100 mg of raw and processed kidney bean seed,
and the mixture was shaken for 3 h at room temperature
and then filtered. Distilled water (0.5 mL) and 2 mL of
ferric solution were then added to 0.5 mL of filtrate. The
mixture was boiled for 30 min, centrifuged at 2,400 ×g,
after which 1.5 mL of bipyridine solution was added to
1 mL of the supernatant. The absorbance of the mixture
was read against distilled water at 519 nm with a Phar-
macia Ultrospec 2000 spectrophotometer (Perkin-Elmer,
Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Piscataway, NJ). Oxalate
was assayed by a gravimetric method described by Apata
and Ologhobo (1989). All analyses were done in duplicate
(Table 1).
Experimental Diets
Isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated by
incorporating raw and differently processed kidney bean
meals into broiler starter and finisher diets. A corn-soy-
bean meal diet served as control; raw and treated kidney
bean meal was used to replace 50% of the protein supplied
by soybean in the experimental diets. All diets were sup-
plemented with methionine and lysine to meet NRC
(1994) requirements. The experimental diets and their
proximate composition are presented in Tables 2 and 3.
Experimental Birds
Two hundred twenty-five unsexed 1-d-old broiler
chicks of the Anak strain weighing 40.00 ±0.05 g/bird
EMIOLA ET AL.1236
Table 1. Chemical composition and antinutritional factors in raw and differently processed kidney bean seeds
(% dry matter)
Aqueous Dry
Item Raw heating Dehulled heating
Crude protein 26.8 24.7 28.0 25.6
Crude fiber 5.3 5.0 3.2 5.3
Ether extract 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.0
Ash 5.3 4.8 5.0 5.1
N-free extract 61.5 64.6 62.8 62.9
Trypsin inhibitors (Tiu/mg of protein)
1
81.70 ND
2
77.80 10.5
Haemagglutinin activity (Hu/mg of protein)
3
39.00 ND 34.65 12.5
Tannins (g/100 g) 0.57 0.37 0.11 0.39
Phytate (g/100 g) 0.96 0.86 0.89 0.92
Oxalate (g/100 g) 0.50 0.23 0.41 0.47
1
Tiu/mg of protein = trypsin inhibitor units/mg of protein.
2
ND = not detected.
3
Hu/mg of protein = haemagglutinin units/mg of protein.
were used for this study. The chicks were randomly di-
vided into 5 groups of 45 birds, and each group was
assigned to 1 of the 5 dietary treatments (raw, aqueous
heating, dehulled, and toasted kidney bean meals) in a
completely randomized design. A corn-soybean diet
served as control. Each group was further subdivided
into 3 replicates of 15 birds and each replicate kept on
litter in pens measuring 2.4 m ×2.6 m. Starter diet was
fed from 1 to 4 wk, whereas the finisher diet was fed
from 5 to 8 wk. Feed and water were provided ad libitum,
and uniform light was provided continuously.
Measurements
Feed intake was recorded daily, and BW was recorded
weekly. Feed consumption, weight gain, and efficiency
of feed utilization were used as measures of chick perfor-
mance. The study lasted for 56 d. On d 56, 2 birds per
replicate (6 birds/treatment) were randomly selected,
fasted for about 18 h to empty their gastrointestinal tract,
weighed individually, slaughtered, and eviscerated. The
Table 2. Dietary ingredients and chemical composition (%) of broiler starter diets
Aqueous Dry
Ingredient Control Raw heating Dehulled heating
Corn 54.50 46.00 45.00 48.00 46.40
Kidney bean 24.50 25.50 22.50 24.60
Soybean meal 30.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00
Wheat 4.50 3.00 2.50 2.50 2.00
Fish meal 6.50 7.00 7.50 7.50 7.50
Fixed ingredients
1
4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50
Proximate composition (%) based on analyzed values
Dry matter 94.68 92.68 91.47 93.12 93.78
Crude protein 23.23 22.98 23.04 23.14 23.11
Crude fiber 5.83 5.94 5.88 4.92 5.11
Ether extract 8.24 5.14 4.92 4.63 5.24
Ash 9.54 10.24 10.56 8.68 9.22
N-free extract 53.16 55.70 55.60 58.63 57.32
DE (MJ/kg) 13.02 13.14 12.96 13.22 13.06
1
Fixed ingredients include bone meal, 2.50; oyster shell, 0.50; vitamin premix, 0.50; methionine, 0.30; lysine,
0.20; salt, 0.50 premix supplied, per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 12,000 IU; vitamin D
3
, 2,000 IU; vitamin E, 50
IU; vitamin B
1
, 1 mg; vitamin B
2
, 3 mg; vitamin B
6
, 1 mg; vitamin B
12
,10g; vitamin K, 2 mg; copper (cupric
sulphate), 75 mg; nicotinic acid, 12 mg; pantothenic acid, 10 mg; iron, 200 mg; cobalt, 0.5 mg; manganese, 40
mg; zinc, 90 mg, iodine, 1 mg; selenium, 0.2 mg; calcium, 31.25 g; sodium, 10 g.
weight of the liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs
was recorded. For histological analysis, tissue samples of
each organ were taken, immersed in formalin (1%), fixed
in Bouin’s solution for 24 h, and embedded in paraffin
wax. Sections from each organ were made at a thickness
of 5 m with a microtome, stained with hematoxylin-
eosin, and examined by light microscope.
Data Analysis
Data collected were analyzed as a completely random-
ized design using the GLM procedures of SAS (SAS Inst.
Inc., Cary, NC). When a significant F-value for treatment
means (P<0.05) was observed in the ANOVA, treatment
means were compared using Duncan’s multiple range
test (Duncan, 1955).
RESULTS
Aqueous heating and toasting reduced the crude pro-
tein content of kidney beans, whereas dehulling enhanced
BROILERS FED KIDNEY BEAN MEALS 1237
Table 3. Dietary ingredients and chemical composition of (%) of broiler finishing diets
Aqueous Dry
Ingredient Control Raw heating Dehulled heating
Corn 54.00 49.60 49.75 52.25 50.50
Kidney bean 20.40 21.25 18.75 20.50
Soybean meal 25.00 12.50 12.50 12.50 12.50
Wheat offal 15.00 11.50 10.50 10.50 10.50
Fish meal 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Fixed ingredients
1
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
Proximate composition (%) based on analyzed values
Dry matter 91.52 92.14 90.60 90.15 91.38
Crude protein 20.56 20.14 20.60 20.55 20.38
Crude fiber 8.25 6.45 6.25 5.82 6.12
Ether extract 6.34 4.63 4.21 4.98 5.06
Ash 7.28 8.65 8.84 8.56 9.02
N-free extract 57.57 60.13 60.10 61.00 59.42
DE (KJ/kg) 12.80 12.60 12.62 12.78 12.40
1
Fixed ingredients include bone meal, 2.50; oyster shell, 0.50; vitamin premix, 0.50; methionine, 0.30; lysine,
0.20; salt, 0.50 premix supplied, per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 12,000 IU; vitamin D
3
, 2,000 IU; vitamin E, 50
IU; vitamin B
1
, 1 mg; vitamin B
2
, 3 mg; vitamin B
6
, 1 mg; vitamin B
12
,10g; vitamin K, 2 mg; copper (cupric
sulphate), 75 mg; nicotinic acid, 12 mg; pantothenic acid, 10 mg; iron, 200 mg; cobalt, 0.5 mg; manganese, 40
mg; zinc, 90 mg, iodine, 1 mg; selenium, 0.2 mg; calcium, 31.25 g; salt, 25 g; sodium, 10 g.
it (Table 1). Raw kidney bean contained 81.70 trypsin
inhibitor units/mg of protein and 39.00 haemagglutinin
units/mg of protein (Table 1). Dehulling marginally re-
duced the contents of trypsin inhibitors and haemaggluti-
nin in kidney bean and caused substantial reduction in
tannin content. Aqueous heating inactivates trypsin in-
hibitors and haemagglutinin, whereas toasting left resid-
ual amounts of these antinutritional factors. Heat treat-
ment was less effective in the detoxification of tannin,
phytate, and oxalate.
The performance of the chicks was significantly af-
fected by the dietary treatments (P<0.05). Average daily
gain (ADG; see Table 4) was significantly (P<0.05) re-
duced in birds fed diets containing raw or dehulled kid-
ney bean compared with those fed aqueous and dry
heated kidney bean meal diet. The ADG in broilers fed
the control diet and aqueous and dry heat-treated kidney
bean meal were similar. Average daily feed intake (ADFI)
was influenced (P<0.05) by the processing methods (Ta-
ble 4). Heat treatment resulted in an improvement in feed
intake, whereas ADFI (P<0.05) was depressed in birds
fed diets containing raw or dehulled kidney bean meal.
Feed conversion ratio was higher (P<0.05) in groups fed
raw and processed kidney bean meals than the control
diet.
Table 4. Performance of broiler chickens fed processed kidney bean meals (g/bird per d)
1
Initial Final Total ADG
Item ADFI weight weight weight gain g/b/d FCR
Control 69.8
a
40.0 2,212.3 2,172.3 38.8
a
1.80
d
Raw 52.6
b
40.5 1,142.2 1,101.7 19.7
b
2.67
a
Aqueous heating 72.3
a
40.5 2,151.4 2,111.4 37.7
a
1.92
c
Dehulled 48.3
b
40.0 1,223.5 1,183.0 21.1
b
2.29
b
Dry heating 71.7
a
40.3 2,106.2 2,065.9 36.9
a
1.94
c
Mean 62.94 40.25 1,767.12 1,726.8 30.8 2.12
SEM 4.95 0.11 229.83 230.0 4.12 0.17
a–d
Means with different superscript, on the same column are significantly different (P<0.05).
1
ADFI = average daily feed intake; ADG = average daily gain; FCR = feed conversion ratio.
The relative weights of the liver, pancreas, kidney, lung,
and heart as percentage carcass weight are shown in Table
5. Relative weight of the liver was significantly (P<0.05)
reduced in chicks fed raw and processed kidney bean
meals. Similarly, the relative weights of the pancreas and
kidney were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the same
group of birds except those fed aqueous-heated kidney
bean meal. Weights of the lungs and heart were not influ-
enced by the dietary treatments.
Histological studies revealed some structural changes
in the pancreas, kidney, and liver sections examined from
the chicks fed raw and processed kidney bean meals.
There was hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pancreas
of broiler fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The
kidney had severe congestion of glomeruli and distention
of the capillary vessels with numerous thrombi in birds
fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals, whereas it was
less marked in those fed toasted meal. The structural
changes in the lungs manifest by congestion of alveolar
walls and edema were present but less marked in the
raw and dehulled kidney meal-fed chicks. Histology of
the liver showed an extensive coagulative necrosis, con-
gestion of sinusoid and extensive degeneration of the
hepatocytes, these were less marked in toasted-bean-fed
broilers. The microscopic lesions observed in these organs
EMIOLA ET AL.1238
Table 5. Relative weights of organ of broiler chickens fed processed legume meals (% live weight)
Item Liver Pancreas Kidney Lung Heart
Control 3.24
a
0.36
d
0.63
c
0.05 0.43
Raw 2.55
e
0.46
a
0.70
a
0.07 0.42
Aqueous heating 3.14
b
0.36
d
0.63
c
0.05 0.41
Dehulled 2.70
d
0.44
b
0.67
b
0.08 0.42
Dry heating 2.95
c
0.40
c
0.65
bc
0.06 0.40
Mean 2.92 0.40 0.66 0.06 0.42
SEM 0.125 0.020 0.013 0.006 0.005
a–d
Means with a different superscript in the same column are significantly different (P<0.05).
correspond to the increase in trypsin inhibitors and
haemagglutinins intake in a linear manner.
DISCUSSION
The result of proximate composition revealed that kid-
ney bean is a good source of protein. Aqueous and dry
heating (toasting) tended to reduce the CP content possi-
bly due to leaching and vaporization of some nitrogenous
compound during processing. The crude fiber content of
the bean is low, which makes it ideal for poultry. Dehul-
ling marginally reduced the contents of trypsin inhibitor
and haemagglutinins in kidney bean and caused substan-
tial reduction in tannin. This is in agreement with the
findings of Marquardt et al. (1978). Aqueous heating inac-
tivates trypsin inhibitor and haemagglutinins, whereas
toasting left residual amounts of these antinutritional fac-
tors. Heat treatments were less effective in the detoxifica-
tion of tannin, phytate, and oxalate. Toasting appeared
to be partially effective in inactivating the haemaggluti-
nins and trypsin inhibitors in the seeds. This result reaf-
firms the earlier observations of Babar et al. (1988).
The ADFI was significantly (P<0.05) affected by the
dietary treatments (see Table 4). The ADFI was depressed
in birds fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meal. This
finding is in agreement with the report of other authors
(Udedibie and Carlini, 2000; Ologhobo et al., 2003). These
authors reported a significant reduction in feed intake
when broilers were fed diets containing raw or improp-
erly processed legume seed meals. In contrast, Liener
(1989) reported a nonsignificant differences in ADFI when
raw kidney been meal was fed to broiler chickens. The
present study was conducted over a period of 56 d com-
pared with a 21-d feeding trial reported by the author.
The duration of the experiment could be responsible for
the observed differences.
In the present study, the replacement of soybean meal
in the control diet with raw and dehulled kidney bean
meals caused a significantly poorer growth of chicks as a
result of the structural alterations in the pancreas, kidney,
and liver. The most significant effect was the enlargement
of the pancreas caused by the hypertrophy and hyperpla-
sia of the cells. There is evidence that the ingestion of
trypsin inhibitors from legumes result in the hypertrophy
and hyperplasia of the pancreas (Liener, 1989; Ologhobo
et al., 2003), an indication of dysfunction of the pancreas.
Liener and Kakade (1980) reported that the presence of
protease inhibitors in legumes are in part responsible
for the depression in the nutritive values of proteins,
inhibition of growth, and stimulation of pancreatic hyper-
trophy and hyperplasia. Trypsin inhibitors have been im-
plicated in growth depression in broiler chicks (Liener
and Hasdai, 1986).
Significant (P<0.05) differences in ADG and efficiency
of feed utilization were observed. The depressed ADG in
birds fed raw and dehulled kidney bean diets could be
attributed to higher intake of trypsin inhibitors in these
diets. Our observations on the hypertrophy and hyperpla-
sia of the pancreas in chicks consuming diets rich in tryp-
sin inhibitors offer histological support to this finding.
According to Lyman and Lepkovsky (1957), the growth
depression caused by trypsin inhibitors might be the con-
sequence of an endogenous loss of essential amino acids
being secreted by a hyperactive pancreas. This could be
a result of a combination of endogenous losses of essential
amino acids, especially threonine, which are important
components of trypsin and decreased proteolysis of di-
etary proteins. The pancreatic hypertrophy and hyperpla-
sia according to Lyman and Lepkovsky (1957) divert the
amino acids from the synthesis of body protein to the
synthesis of these enzymes. This loss in sulphur-con-
taining amino acids exacerbates an already critical situa-
tion with respect to legume seeds, which are inherently
deficient in these amino acids. Similarly, haemagglutinins
are known to exert deleterious effects via structural and
functional disruptions of the intestinal microvilli re-
sulting in reduced nutrient absorption. The improvement
in growth recorded in the groups fed aqueous-heated
and toasted kidney bean meals could be attributed to
the inactivation or reduction in trypsin inhibitors and
haemagglutinins in the meals. Previously Ortiz et al.
(1994) found histological lesions in the ileum and liver
suggesting a loss of digestive capacity when chicks and
rats were fed dried tannin extract from faba bean (Vicia
faba). In the liver, degeneration of the hepatocytes was
observed. They attributed this to the high tannin content
of the diet, which was estimated at 16 g of dried tannin
per kg of diet.
Efficiency of feed utilization was significantly influ-
enced (P<0.05) by the dietary treatments. This is consis-
tent with the observation of Zarkadas and Wiseman
(2005) who reported a reduction in the efficiency of feed
utilization when diets containing trypsin inhibitor was
fed to monogastric animals. The improvement in effi-
BROILERS FED KIDNEY BEAN MEALS 1239
Table 6. Histological response of organs of broiler chickens fed raw and processed kidney bean meals
Aqueous Dry
Organs Control Raw heating Dehulled heating
Liver
Congestion of sinusoids ** ** *
Coagulative necrosis ** ** *
Degeneration of hepatocytes ** ** D
Kidney
Congestion of glomeruli ** ** *
Distention of capillary vessels with numerous thrombi D ** * *
Hyperemia — —
Pancreas
Acinar hypertrophy ** ** *
Lungs
Congestion of alveolar walls * *
Edema — * *
Thickening of alveolar septa D
Heart
Congestion — —
*Present but less marked than usual; **present and distinct; D = doubtful/minimal;—=nolesion.
ciency of feed utilization by broilers fed aqueous heated
and toasted kidney bean meal diets is consistent with
the finding of Bressani and Sosa (1990). The presence
of residual trypsin inhibitor and haemagglutinins in the
toasted meal could account for the observed differences
in the efficiency of feed utilization of birds fed toasted
and aqueous heated meals.
The toxic effects of antinutritional factors in raw and
processed kidney bean caused significant (P<0.05) reduc-
tions in the relative weights of the liver in birds fed raw
and dehulled kidney bean meals. Alteration in the quanti-
tative compositions of liver of rats acutely poisoned with
seed haemagglutinins were reported by King et al. (1980).
Aletor and Fetuga (1988) also reported focal necrosis and
fatty acid changes in livers of rats fed raw lima bean.
Weights of the pancreas and kidney were affected by the
dietary treatments (P<0.05; Table 5). These observations
corroborate previous findings of Roebuck (1986). The raw
and dehulled kidney bean meals caused an increased
pancreatic weight; this implicates trypsin inhibitors as the
key factors responsible for these physiological changes.
Liddle et al. (1984) and Liener (1989) reported that inacti-
vation of trypsin elicits continuous release of cholecysto-
kinin, which stimulates pancreatic production of diges-
tive enzymes including trypsin and chymotrypsin, which
leads to an enlarged pancreas as a result of hypertrophy
and hyperplasia.
The changes in the internal structure of organs and the
associated intracellular components due to feeding raw
and processed kidney bean indicates alterations in the
metabolic and secretory functions of those organs (Table
6). The multifocal aggregations of lymphoid cells of liver,
lymphatic infiltrations of the renal interstinum of kidney,
and pancreatic necrosis are consistent with the pathologi-
cal manifestations reported by Aletor and Fetuga (1988)
and Ologhobo et al. (1993). The changes in the pancreatic
acinar of birds fed raw and dehulled bean meals are in
keeping with previous reports by Meyer et al. (1992), who
observed decreased pancreatic enzyme activities in pigs
fed diets containing kidney beans. The authors suggested
that such effects are the consequences of poor protein
digestibility and interference with systemic protein utili-
zation, resulting in insufficient amino acids for protein
synthesis. Similar alterations in the duodenum and pan-
creas have been reported in other studies with broilers
fed different levels of faba bean and peas (Rubio et al.,
1990; Yuste, 1993). The degeneration of the hepatocytes
and coagulative necrosis in the liver and congestion of
the glomerulus in the kidney were observed in birds fed
raw and dehulled kidney bean meals and were less
marked in birds fed toasted meal, whereas no changes
were noticed in birds fed the aqueous heated meal. The
absence of histological lesions in these birds could be
attributed to the low concentrations of residual antinutri-
tional factors in the toasted and aqueous heated kidney
bean meal.
Conclusion
The results showed that although there are some lesions
associated with trypsin inhibitor and haemagglutinins in
the diets, they are not conclusive in determining the ef-
fects of these antinutritional factors on the organs and
loss of performance parameters. Chicks fed heat-treated
kidney bean perform similarly to the control diet. This
indicates that heat-treated kidney beans can be used to
replace 50% of the protein supplied by the soybean in
the control diet. Feed conversion ratio was superior in
birds fed the control diet compared with those fed pro-
cessed kidney bean meal diets. Although performance of
chicks fed toasted meal and aqueous-heated kidney bean
meals were similar, caution must be taken when a long
term feeding trial is envisaged with toasted kidney bean
meal. All organs investigated in this study show distor-
tions in the histological structures that are related to the
residual antinutritional factors in the meal.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This project was funded by Nigerian Raw Material De-
velopment Council and Hope Agricultural Enterprises
Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria.
EMIOLA ET AL.1240
REFERENCES
Aletor, V. A., and O. O. Aladetimi. 1989. Compositional evalua-
tion of some cowpea varieties and some under-utilized edible
legumes in Nigeria. Die Narhung 33:999–1007.
Aletor, V. A., and B. L. Fetuga. 1988. Dietary interactions of
limabean (Phaseolus lunatus) trypsin inhibitors, haemaggluti-
nins and cyanide: Effect on growth, performance, nitrogen
utilization and physiopathology of growing albino rats. J.
Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berl.) 60:108–112.
AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Assoc. Off.
Anal. Chem., Arlington, VA.
Apata, D. F. 1990. Biochemical, nutritional and toxicological
assessment of some tropical legume seeds. PhD Thesis Univ.
Ibadan, Nigeria.
Apata, D. F., and A. D. Ologhobo. 1989. Influence of phytic acid
on the availability of minerals from selected tropical legume
seeds. Nig. J. Sci. 23:65–72.
Babar, V. S., J. K. Chava, and S. S. Kadam. 1988. Effects of heat
treatments and germination on trypsin inhibitor activity and
polyphenols in Jackbean (C. ensiformis). Plant Foods Hum.
Nutr. 38:319–324.
Bressani, R. 1993. Grain quality of common beans. Food Rev.
Int. 9:217–297.
Bressani, R., and J. L. Sosa. 1990. Effect of processing on the
nutritive value of jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis, L.). Plant
Foods Hum. Nutr. 40:207–214.
Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F-tests. Biomet-
rics 11:1–42.
Emenalom, O. O., and A. B. I. Udedibie. 1998. Effect of dietary
raw, cooked and toasted Mucuna pruriens seeds (velvet bean)
on the performance of finisher broilers. Nig. J. Anim. Prod.
25:115–118.
Emiola, I. A., A. D. Ologhobo, J. A. Akinlade, O. S. Adedeji,
and O. M. Bamigbade. 2003. Effect of inclusion of differently
processed mucuna seed meal on performance characteristics
of broilers. Trop. Anim. Prod. Invest. 6:13–21.
Grant, G. 1991. Lectins. Pages 49–67 in Toxic substances in crop
plants. J. P. F. D’Mello, C. M. Dufus, and J. H. Dufus, ed.
Royal Soc. Chem., Cambridge, UK.
Haug, W., and H. J. Lantzsch. 1983. Sensitive method for rapid
determination of phytate in cereal and cereal products. J. Sci.
Food Agric. 34:1423–1427.
Hoff, J. E., and K. I. Singleton. 1977. A method for the determina-
tion of tannin. Food Sci. 42:1566–1574.
Jaffe, W. G. 1980. Haemagglutinins. Pages 69–101 in Toxic con-
stituents of plant foodstuffs. I. E. Liener, ed. Academic Press,
New York, NY.
King, T. P., A. Pusztai, and E. M. Clarke. 1980. Kidney bean
(Phaseolus vulgaris) lectins induced lesions in the rat small
intestine. 1. Light microscopic studies. J. Comp. Pathol.
90:585–595.
Laurena, A., F. M. Rodriguez, N. G. Sabino, A. F. Zamora, and
E. M. T. Mendoza. 1991. Amino acid composition, relative
nutritive value and invitro protein digestibility of several
Phillipine indigenous legumes. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr.
41:59–68.
Liddle, R. H., I. D. Goldfine, and J. A. Williams. 1984. Bioassay
of plasma cholecystokinin in rat: Effects of food trypsin inhib-
itors and polyphenols. Gastroenterology 87:542–549.
Liener, I. E. 1989. Anti-nutritional factors in legume seeds: State
of the art. Pages 6–13 in Recent Advances of Research in
Anti-nutritional Factors in Legume Seeds. J. Huisman, T. F.
B. van der Poel, and I. E. Liener, ed. PUDOC, Wageningen,
the Netherlands.
Liener, I. E., and A. Hasdai. 1986. The effect of the long term
feeding of raw soy-flour on the pancreas of the mouse and
hamster. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 199:189–198.
Liener, I. E., and M. L. Kakade. 1980. Protease inhibitors. Pages
7–71 in Toxic constituents of plant foodstuffs. I. E. Liener,
ed. Acad. Press, New York, NY.
Lyman, R. L., and S. Lepkovsky. 1957. The effect of raw soybean
meal and trypsin inhibitor diets on pancreatic enzyme secre-
tion in the rat. J. Nutr. 62:269–284.
Marquardt, R. R., J. A. Mckirdy, and A. T. Ward. 1978. Compara-
tive cell wall constituent levels of tannin-free and tannin-
containing cultivars of Faba beans (Vicia faba, L.). Can. J.
Anim. Sci. 58:775–781.
Meyer, R. O., J. A. Froseth, and C. N. Coon. 1992. Protein utiliza-
tion and toxic effects of raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for
young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 55:1087–1098.
Ologhobo, A. D. 1981. Biochemical and nutritional studies of
cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and limabean (Phaseolus lunatus)
with particular reference to some inherent anti-nutritional
components. PhD Thesis. Univ. Ibadan, Nigeria.
Ologhobo, A. D., D. F. Apata, and O. Akinpelu. 1993. Toxicity
of raw lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) and lima bean fraction
for growing chicks. Br. Poult. Sci. 34:505–522.
Ologhobo, A. D., R. Mosenthin, and O. O. Alaka. 2003. Histologi-
cal alterations in the internal organs of growing chicks from
feeding raw jackbean or limabean seeds. Vet. Hum. Toxicol.
45:10–13.
Ortiz, L. T., C. Alzueta, J. Trevino, and M. Castano. 1994. Effects
of faba bean tannins on the growth and histological structure
of the intestinal tract and liver of chicks and rats. Br. J. Nutr.
35:743–754.
Roebuck, B. D. 1986. Enhancement of pancreatic carcinogenesis
of raw soy protein isolate: Quantitative rat model and nutri-
tional consideration. Pages 91–105 in Nutritional and Toxico-
logical Significance of Enzyme Inhibitors in Food. M. Fried-
man, ed. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
Rubio, L. A., A. Brenes, and M. Castano. 1990. Histological
alterations to the pancreas and intestinal tract produced by
raw faba beans diets in growing chicks. Br. Poult. Sci.
30:15–28.
Udedibie, A. B. I., and C. R. Carlini. 2000. Relative effect of
dry and moist heat treatments on haemagglutinin and anti-
tryptic activities of selected legume grains. Nig. J. Poult. Sci.
1:81–87.
Valdebouze, P., E. Bergezon, and T. Gaborit. 1980. Content and
distribution of trypsin inhibitors and haemaglutinins in some
legume seeds. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:695–701.
Van Oort, M. G., R. J. Hamer, and E. A. Slager. 1989. The trypsin
inhibitors assay: Improvement of an existing method. Pages
80–86 in Proc. Workshop on Anti-nutritional Factors in Le-
gume Seeds. PUDOC, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
Yuste, E. L. 1993. Histological alterations to the pancreas and
intestinal tract produced by raw peas (Pisium sativum) diet
in growing chicks. Pages 211–215 in A. F. B. Van der Poel,
J. Huisman, and H. S. Saini, ed. Proc. Second Int. Workshop
on Anti-nutritional Factors in Legumes Seeds. Wageningen
Press, the Netherlands.
Zarkadas, L. N., and J. Wiseman. 2005. Influence of processing
of full fat soya beans included in diets for piglets. I. Perfor-
mance. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 118:109–119.
... This study further recommended that toasted bambara offal with enzyme supplementation can be included in broiler chick diets at a maximum proportion of 10% without significant negative effects on hematological and growth performance of the chicks [15]. Emiola IA, et al. (2007) [16] investigated the effect of dry-heated, aqueous heated and dehulled bambara groundnuts on performance characteristics and organ morphology of broiler chicks. Whereas daily feed intake was not affected by the addition of bambara groundnuts to broiler diet, other performance indicators such as daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency were significantly reduced when broiler chicks were fed on diets containing dehulled and dry-heated bambara groundnuts [16]. ...
... Emiola IA, et al. (2007) [16] investigated the effect of dry-heated, aqueous heated and dehulled bambara groundnuts on performance characteristics and organ morphology of broiler chicks. Whereas daily feed intake was not affected by the addition of bambara groundnuts to broiler diet, other performance indicators such as daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency were significantly reduced when broiler chicks were fed on diets containing dehulled and dry-heated bambara groundnuts [16]. These reductions in broiler performance were also accompanied by increases in the weight of the pancreas and kidneys of the chicks. ...
... These reductions in broiler performance were also accompanied by increases in the weight of the pancreas and kidneys of the chicks. Aqueous heated bambara groundnut had the best effect on broiler chick performance among all the treatments administered [16]. The intake of antinutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors has been implicated in kidney and liver morphological aberrations in chickens [17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterranea) are a legume indigenous to tropical Africa with considerable adaptation to environments that would be considered marginal for many other crops. This review was carried out in order to study the potential of this legume in animal feed formulations. Information was obtained from more than thirty (30) peer reviewed publications that focused on evaluating the potential of Bambara groundnuts as an ingredient in chicken, fish, rabbit and pig feed formulations. This review established that the inclusion of bambara groundnuts in chicken diets only has positive effects on growth and productivity parameters at much lower inclusion levels compared to fish, rabbit and pig diets as these animals showed much higher tolerance to increased levels of bambara groundnuts in the diets. Overall, the highest potential for bambara groundnut feeding is with pigs which can be fed 100% bambara groundnuts as a source of protein and carbohydrates without adverse effects on growth. Keywords: Bambara Groundnuts; Feed; Livestock
... Thus different processing method should be applied either alone or in combination with heat treatment. This is needful because some researchers have reported that the effectiveness of heat treatment in detoxifying tannin, phytate and oxalate in kidney beans is low (Emiola et al., 2007). ...
... This could be as result of toxic substance. The result is in line with the report of Emiola et al. (2007) who equally observed that the liver was characterized by marked coagulative necrosis and degeneration of the hepatocytes of bird when fed raw and dehulled seed meal. Ortiz et al. (1994) also observed a degeneration of the hepatocytes in the liver which he said was due to the high tannin content of the diet. ...
Article
Full-text available
Effect of processing method of kidney beans (phaseolus vulgaris) on carcass quality, organ weight and organoleptic properties of broiler was studied using one hundred and twenty day-old chicks (Arbo acre strain). Raw, dehulled and boiled KB were used for treatment 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Prior to grinding of KB, 50kg was boiled at 100 0 C for 1 hour, 10kg was dehulled by immersing in cool water for 20 hours, and seed coat removed. The work was carried out using completely randomized design, with four treatments and three replicates of 10 birds per replicate. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 22. The relative weight of liver, spleen and heart had no significant effect (p>0.05) within the dietary treatment. The weight of the liver was smaller in birds fed raw kidney beans meal and the liver was characterized by marked coagulative necrosis. The weight of the gizzard was significantly (p<0.05) higher in birds fed control diet. Furthermore there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in birds fed boiled, dehulled and control diets on the breast weight but significantly smaller in those fed raw diet meal. There were also no significant differences on the drumstick, thigh, neck and head size. Tenderness was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Juiciness, taste, and flavour intensity showed significant differences within the dietary treatment while overall acceptability showed a significant increase with the boiled kidney bean meal. Consequently, birds fed with BKD performed better in the organoleptic properties, while those on dehulled kidney beans meal gave better result for organ weight and carcass yield. In conclusion, sensory characteristics, organ weight, and carcass yield is an indication that kidney beans especially the boiled and dehulled one can serve as a feed ingredient in broiler ration would have no adverse effect.
... Ojediran et al. (2016b) observed that broiler chicken fed Jatropha curcas kernel meal damaged liver due to residual antinutrients. The report of Emiola et al. (2007) on broilers fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals indicated extensive coagulative necrosis, congestion of sinusoids and extensive degeneration of hepatocyte, whereas it was less marked in the liver of birds placed on a toasted-kidney bean-based diet. The findings of Safameher (2008) also showed changes in the liver and kidney of cockerel chicks fed raw full-fat neem seed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Three hundred (300) 21d old (Arbor-acre) broiler chicks apportioned to five (5) dietary groups of sixty (60) birds each, further replicated six (6) times were fed graded levels of toasted pigeon pea seed meal (TPSM) to assess the performance, flock uniformity, organ weights, carcass yield and hepatic histology at the finisher phase. A maize-full-fat soybean meal diet served as the control diet (I). The TPSM was incorporated to replace full-fat soybean meal at 12.5%, 25.0%, 37.5% and 50.0% in diets II, III, IV and V, respectively. Toasting improved the protein content, ether extract, fibre content, metabolizable energy and reduced the anti-nutrients except for oxalate. The final weight, total weight change, average weight gain, feed conversion ratio, eviscerated weight, breast yield and thigh yield were significantly influenced (P0.05). The kidney and abdominal fat were also influenced (P
... DM was significantly (P < 0.05) highest in diets A and D compared with diets B and C. This result can probably be explained by imbalance levels of nutrient and energy utilization caused by inhibitory effects of residual toxic substances of unpeeled raw breadfruit meal in the diet A and the losses of nutrient as a result of boiling effect of breadfruit meal in diet D. This is in conformity with the earlier reports of Emiola et al. (2007) who stated that though unpeeled raw breadfruit meal has a moderate level of anti-nutritional factors, their presence could influence higher faecal energy output in livestock. Urinary energy (UE) loss ranged from 0.50 to 0.72 MJ/g/day and was not significantly (P >0.05) influenced by diets, though the nonsignificant higher numerical value of urinary energy of diet A also buttress the effect of poor nutrient and energy utilization in the diet. ...
Article
The study was carried out to estimate the energy utilization for body weight gain in West African dwarf ram-lambs fed differently processed breadfruit meal in total mixed rations. Twenty non-castrated ram-lambs, about 7months of age with an average-initial body weight of 6.00 ± 0.55kg, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments with five ram-lambs per treatment group in a completely randomized design. Ficus foliage with differently processed breadfruit meals and concentrate diet were used as treatment diets. Diet A (50% unpeeled raw breadfruit meal +20% Ficus foliage + 30% concentrate diet) B (50% peeled raw breadfruit +20% Ficus foliage + 30% concentrate diet), C (50% unpeeled soaked breadfruit meal +20% Ficus foliage + 30% concentrate diet) and D (50% unpeeled boiled breadfruit meal + 20% Ficus foliage + 30% concentrate diet). Results showed that faecal energy output (999.41MJ/g/day DM) was significantly (P< 0.05) highest in treatment diet Acompared with other treatment diets. Ram-lambs on treatment diets B and C had the significantly highest (P < 0.05) on digestible energy intake (1310.84 and 1295.62 MJ/g/day DM), metabolizable energy intake (1074.89 and 1062.41MJ/g/day DM), average total weight gain (4.18 and 4.13kg) and average daily weight gain (87.08 and 86.04g) compared with treatment diets A and D. Gross energy intake (4503.00MJ/g/day), average total feed intake (13.68kg), average daily feed intake (285.00g) and feed conversion ratio (4.44) were significantly (P < 0.05) better in ram-lambs on treatment diet D. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in urinary energy loss, metabolizability and initial body weight of ram-lambs. It was therefore concluded that diets B and C enhanced efficiency of energy utilization for body weight gain of ram-lambs.
... However, utilization of castor bean cake in livestock feed is limited due to the presence of antinutritional factors such as: ricin, ricinine and thermostable allergen (Darby et al., 2001;Olsnes, 2004) which are present in the seed and in lower concentrations throughout the plant. Various processing methods like genetic manipulation, chemical (lye, ammonia salt, blanching, sodium h y d r o x i d e t r e a t m e n t ) , p h y s i c a l (germination, sprouting, fermentation), heat (boiling, steaming, autoclaving, microwave cooking) and mechanical methods (crushing, decortications, dehulling) (El-Adawy, 2002;Anandan et al., 2005;Emiola et al., 2007;Soetan, 2008;Ani and Okorie, 2009;Akande et al., 2011;2014) have been employed to detoxify the anti-nutritive factors in castor oil bean but with distinct inherent limitations. According to Akande et al. (2012), lye-treated castor bean cake had low calcium content. ...
Article
Since the cost of feed is increasing due to the keen competition between humans and animals, there is a need to critically seek for a matching alternative. Castor seed cake, a residue after the extraction of oil from nutrients-rich castor seed constitutes a waste which can be converted into livestock feed. Thus, the study was carried out to investigate the effect of graded levels of castor seed cake diets on haematological and serum biochemical indices of weanling albino rats in an experiment that lasted 21 days. Thirty weanling Wistar albino rats were weighed individually and randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments with 3 replicates of two rats in a completely randomized design. Diet 1 was a nitrogen-free diet (NFD), while diets 2, 3, 4, and 5 had 0% (without castor seed cake inclusion), 2, 4 and 6% castor seed cake replacing soyabean meal respectively. At day 21, blood samples were obtained from two rats per replicate for haematological and serum analysis. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) observed in all the parameters (packed cell volume, haemaglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell, lymphocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil and platelet) measured. Similarly, diet had no effect on the serum biochemical indices (creatinine, urea, total protein and globulin) measured. Significant difference (P<0.05) was however observed in albumin (2.62 – 3.18g/dL) of rats on the different experimental diets. The albumin concentrations of weanling albino rats on dietary treatments were similar to those on the control diet but significantly (P<0.05) higher (3.09 – 3.18g/dL) than those on the nitrogen free diet. It can be concluded that castor seed cake can replace soyabean meal up to 6% inclusion level without eliciting detrimental effect on blood profile of weanling wistar albino rats.
... Some anti-nutritional factors have been observed to inhibit absorption of nutrients and their subsequent utilization and assimilation by animals [12]. Besides, they cause some level of damages to some organs such as liver, kidney and spleen [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cocoa bean shell (CBS) is a waste from cocoa bean processing, and recently used as supplements in ruminants feed. However, a CBS contains theobromines that well known for its anti-nutrient effect in the animal digestive system. This study examined the effect of CBS supplementation on some digestive organs in Bali cattle bulls. The total of 12 Bali bulls (average initial body weight, 159.25 ± 15.68 kg) aged 16 months age were fed with four levels of CBS concentrate in the diet for 16 weeks (0, 3, 6, and 9%, repestively). At the end of the experiment, digestive tract and some visceral organs weight (e.g., rumen, digest tracts, lymph, liver, lungs, heart, and kidney) were measured and calculated as the percentage of body weight (BW). The results showed that the percentage of spleen, liver and kidney weights were increased (p<0.05) according to the level of CBS supplementation. The effect of CBS feeding on the percentage of spleen weight was occurred at level 9%, and significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to the level of 3%, 6% and without cocoa shell. The liver and kidney percentages were higher (p<0.05) at levels 6% and 9% compared to 0% and 3%. There was no effect of supplementation on the digestive tract, lungs and heart. The study concluded that CBS supplementation at 6% and 9% levels had an effect on physiological visceral organs of Bali cattle bulls.
... Hyperaemia and degeneration of hepatic cells after the addition of approximately of 16g·g -1 of tannins into rations for broiler chickens was presented by Emiola et al. (2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper was to assess the suitability of various protein feeds in broiler chicken feeding. The study covered 160 birds split into 5 equipotent groups (SBM, EFFS, RFFS, EL, DDGS). Four protein feeds were an experimental factor: extruded full-fat soybean (EFFS group), raw full-fat soybean (RFFS group), extruded lupine (EL group) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS group) that were added to starter rations in an amount replacing 30%, and in grower and finisher rations 50% of extracted soybean meal protein. Results showed that after replacing an identical amount of extracted soybean meal protein with protein from extruded soybean or DDGS in chicken rations, the final body weight and feed conversion ratio were similar to those of birds from the control group. Deterioration (p≤0.01) in the above-mentioned parameters was observed for chickens fed with rations containing raw soybean or extruded lupine. Birds that were given rations containing raw soybean (RFFS group) were characterized by the lowest dressing percentage, and - compared to the control group - the difference was significant (p≤0.01). The type of protein feed contained in the rations did not affect the musculature of chickens however it did impact their fat deposition. Fat deposition was the lowest in birds from RFFS and DDGS groups that reached the lowest final body weight. Microscopic images of all examined livers showed a normal histological structure. The results of the studies carried out provide a basis for recommending the use of extruded full-fat soybean or DDGS in broiler chicken rations as partial substitutes for extracted soybean meal protein.
Chapter
Bambara groundnut has great potentials as an industrial raw material as documented by several authors. The emergence of climate change has threatened the cultivation and yield of currently commercialized legume crops indicating the need for alternative crop. This challenge has attracted the attention of researchers in search of alternative crops and cropping systems that are more resilient to climate change. The agro-ecological adaptability of Bambara groundnut is one of the excellent factors that are capable of projecting this crop to be cultivated on a large scale as a possible novel alternative or supplement to some commercial legumes such as soybean, cowpeas, groundnut, peas and certain beans in different food formulations. Due to its agro-ecological adaptability, wide distribution, nutritional, functional potentials, different food applications and medicinal properties as documented by a large body of researchers across the globe, Bambara groundnut, as a potential industrial raw material in several agro-processing industries, worths good exploration. This chapter summarised the several industrial areas of application of Bambara groundnut ranging from snacks, dairy products analogues, other foods to non-food uses.
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to assess the digestibility of feed components and the growth performances of broilers fed on raw Cowpea based diet supplemented with fibrolytic enzyme (Naturzyme®). A control ration without Cowpea and enzyme was compared to six others rations in which raw cowpea was incorporated at 15 and 25% and supplemented with 350 and 500g enzyme/ton of feed. The experimental rations were randomly assigned to 252 twenty-one-day old Cobb500 broiler chickens in a 2x2 factorial design (two level of enzyme and two level of cowpea). At 49 days old, faeces were collected over a period of 3 days to assess the digestibility of feed components. The main results showed that the increasing rate of raw cowpea in the rations induced a linear decrease (p<0.05) in feed intake. The inclusion of 25% of cowpea in the ration irrespective of the rate of incorporation of the enzyme tends to increase the digestibility of feed component as compared to the control. Growth parameters of broilers inversely decrease with the incorporation rate of raw cowpea in the ration. The highest carcass yield (p<0.05) was recorded with 15% raw cowpea supplemented with 500g of enzyme per ton of feed. The relative weight of the gizzard increased significantly (p<0.05) with the increasing incorporation rate of raw cowpea in the diet with or without enzyme supplements. In conclusion, raw cowpea supplemented with enzyme did not substantially improve the growth performance of broilers. Other processing methods like boiled or fermented should be considered for better utilization of cowpea in broilers diet.
Article
Full-text available
Keywords: Fermentation, ogi, cereals, microorganisms, weaning food. This study was designed to evaluate the microbiological assessment and nutritional quality of ogi made from maize, sorghum and their mixture. Gruels produced from these grains and their mixture were fermented for 72 hours.The pH, total titratable acidity, temperature of the fermenting samples, proximate analysis and the organoleptic properties were also monitored on daily basis.Microbial counts increased in all the samples in which the mixed sample and sorghum sample had the highest and the lowest microbial counts throughout the fermentation period respectively. The microorganisms isolated were Lactobacillus acidophilus, The pH of the fermenting samples decreased with TTA increase in which sorghum and mixed samples had the highest and the lowest pH of 4.3 and 3.1 when fermented while the least and the highest TTA were obtained from the same samples respectively. Moisture and protein contents increased after fermenting the samples with the highest from the mixture and maize samples.The fat, ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents decreased in all the ogi samples.The odourand the taste were rated strongly acceptable and sour respectively in all the samples while the colour was variably rated. The improvements observed in the nutritional contents of ogi from unmixed maize and sorghum grains suggest their potential in the formulation of complementary weaning foods for infants.
Article
Full-text available
An experiment was conducted to investigate the inclusion of cooked, decorticated and toasted Mucuna utilis seed meal on the performance characteristics of broilers. One hundred and forty four day old broiler chicks Hubbard strain were raised on four experimental diets. Mucuna seed meals were incorporated at the rate of 200 g/kg of f ;ed. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Each diet was fed t o a group 36 birds for a period of 56 days. There were significant (P<0.05) differences among treatment groups in feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio. The group fed decorticated mucuna seed meal showed significantly (P<0.05) depressed feed intake, body weight and poor feed conversion ratio when compared with other treatment groups. Apparent digestibility of crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre and ash differed significantly (P<0.05) among the treatments. From this study, it was concluded that cooked mucuna seed could be included in broiler diets at 200 g/kg while decortication was an ineffective processing method.
Article
A series of experiments has been carried out with tannin-free and tannin-containing cultivars of fababeans. The in vitro dry matter digestibility of the cotyledon portion of the two groups of fababeans was the same (88.2%) whereas the in vitro digestibility of the testa portion of the tannin-free cultivars was much higher (27.6%) than that of the tannin-containing cultivars (9.2%). The concentrations of certain cell wall constituents in the testae of tannin-free and tannin-containing cultivars were also different (P < 0.01); the respective average values for the two groups were: condensed tannins, 0.2 and 4.9%; lignin, 4.2 and 6.2%; acid detergent fiber, 72 and 66%; and cellulose, 67 and 60%. There was a negative correlation between the in vitro dry matter digestibility and the amount per unit weight of whole beans of either condensed tannin (r = −0.86, P < 0.01) or lignin (r = −0.89, P < 0.01). When expressed on a similar basis there was no correlation between levels of cellulose or acid detergent fiber ...
Article
A 5-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary raw, cooked and toasted Mucuna puriens seeds contained 30.3% crude protein. At 10% dietary level, raw and toasted Mucuna puriens seed meals significantly (P<0.05) depressed growth rate of broilers. At 20% dietary level, cooked Mucuna puriensseedmeal also significantly (P<0.05) depressed growth rate of the birds. Feed intake was also significantly (P<0.05) reduced at 20% and 10% dietary levels of cooked and toasted meals, respectively. The feed intake of the group on 10% raw Mucuna diet remained unexpectedly high
Article
Cultivars of various legumes including fababean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), lupin (Lupinus sp. L.), Vigna sinensis Endl. ex Haask vs. Vigna catjang Walp and soybean (Glycine max Meer) were tested for trypsin-inhibiting activity levels (TIA) and hemagglutinating (on trypsinised rabbit red blood cells) activity levels in hulls and cotyledons. TIA in these seeds as a percent of that in defatted soybean are: 35 for V. sinensis, 13 for pea, 7 for fababean, and 0 for lupin. Winter cultivars of pea are about twice as active as summer cultivars; smooth peas contain more TIA than wrinkled ones, and pea hulls about 13 times less than cotyledons. Interfering substances in hulls do not allow a precise study of TIA distribution in fababean. Hemagglutinating activity against rabbit erythrocytes is about 10% of that of soybean in pea, 2% in fababean and practically nil in V. sinensis and lupin seeds. All the hemagglutinating activity is in the cotyledons.
Article
Diätbetische Wirkung von Trypsininhibitor, Haemagglutinin und Blausäure aus Limabohnen (Phaseolus lunatus). 1. Der Einfluß auf Wachstumsleistungen, N-Verwertung und histopathologische Befunde Es wurden individuelle und additive Wirkungen von Trypsininhibitor (TI), Haemagglutinin (Hgg) und Blausäure (CN) aus Limabohnen an 108 wachsenden Albinoratten untersucht. Die drei antinutrititiven Faktoren wurden einzeln oder in den verschiedenen Kombinationen in eine Ration mit 16% Rohprotein im Austausch mit Maisstärke gebracht. Neben einer Kontrollgruppe mit normaler Diät, erhielt eine Gruppe rohe Limabohnen (RLB). Die Gehalte an TI, Hgg und CN waren denen in der Ration mit RLB angeglichen. Gewichtszuwachs, Futterverzehr, Futterverwertung, N-Retention und scheinbare N-Verdaulichkeit waren im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe in allen Behandlungen signifikant (P < 0,05) herabgesetzt. Dabei verursacht die schlechte Futteraufnahme auch die geringe Körpergewichtszunahme. Die Kombination CN + TI + Hgg ergab bei den eingesetzten Kombinationen den größten Wachstumsverlust gefolgt von den Kombinationen CN + TI und Hgg + TI. Die negativen Einflüsse von CN waren in Kombination mit TI immer ausgeprägter als in Kombination mit Hgg. Den stärksten negativen Einfluß zeigte die direkte Fütterung von RLB. RLB-Fütterung verursachte im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe eine Vergrößerung des Pankreas um 71%, TI um 33%. Das Nierengewicht wurde durch RLB- und CN-Fütterung signifikant (P < 0,05) erhöht, RLB führte ferner zu einem signifikant niedrigeren (P < 0,05) Leber- und Milzgewicht und CN zu einer Eröhung des Lebergewichtes. Ein Teil der Behandlungen führten zu einem signifikanten (P < 0,05) Aktivitätsanstieg der Leber-Alanin-Aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.2) und Aspartat-Aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1). Histopathologische Abnormalitäten in Leber, Milz und Dünndarm wurden nur bei RLB-Fütterung beobachtet.
Article
Stoffwechsel und Speicherung von Radio-Caesium im Gewebe von Mastkälbern während der Mast Es wurden der Stoffwechsel von Radio-Caesium bei Mastkälbern untersucht. Drei Versuchsgruppen wurde mit Milchaustauschern mit unterschiedlichen Gehalten an Radio-Caesium gefüttert. Die verabreichte Dosis in den jeweiligen Gruppen betrug in Gruppe I (Kontrolle) 0,24 Bq/kg. Tag, in Gruppe II 3,5 Bq/kg. Tag und in Gruppe III 8,3 Bq. Tag. Das Caesium wurde hauptsächlich mit dem Harn ausgeschieden (65% der täglich verabreichten Dosis). Mit dem Kot wurden zusätzlich 5 % ausgeschieden. Nach einer Versuchsdauer von 154 Tagen lag die Gesamtausscheidung der Nuklide noch immer unter 100% der täglich verabreichten Dosis. Diese Beobachtung läßt vermuten, daß zu diesem Zeitpunkt noch eine Speicherung von Caesium stattfand. Die Höhe der Konzentration an Caesium im Muskelgewebe war linear mit der verabreichten Dosis korreliert und betrug nach 150 Tagen 6, 130 und 277 Bq/kg in den Gruppen I, II und III. Die Messung von Radio-Caesium im Muskelgewebe nach 66, 94, 119 und 150 Tagen, zeigten, daß nach 66 Tagen nur noch eine geringe Zunahme der Caesium-Konzentration auftrat.
Article
The programme reported examined the effect of different processing conditions for full fat soya beans (FFSB) during micronization (two steam inlets, being full or low steam—(FS or LS)×two temperatures, being high cook and low cook (HC and LC); Trial 1) and extrusion (four exit temperatures of 70, 90, 110 and 170°C; Trial 2) on performance in post-weaned piglets over the live weight range 10–27kg fed diets containing 300g processed FFSB/kg.Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA, mg pure trypsin inhibited/g of sample) ranged from 16.0, 5.2, 4.1 and 2.0 for LSLC, LSHC, FSLC and FSHC, respectively (Trial 1) and from 24.1, 16.8, 6.4 and 2.9 with increasing extrusion temperature (Trial 2).In Trial 1, piglets offered the FS FFSB diets had significantly higher daily live weight gain (DLWG, 652 versus 487g/day, P